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Az post statement of personal history

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APA Essay Format: Help with Writing Your Essay Paper. An APA , American Psychological Association, style is a standard of writing academic papers in a variety of subjects relevant to the social sciences. This allows to write essays and research papers according to az post the same generally accepted standard in Sociology, Psychology, Education, Political Science, Business and other disciplines. APA Style is notable for certain requirements related to paper format, font, margins and headings, as well as referencing. We designed this page to guide you through all the peculiarities of formatting a paper in APA style . Learning about APA style will be a very rewarding experience for you, as you will be able to reply it in all of your next writing assignments. Quick Navigation through the APA Essay Format Page: The Fundamentals of an APA Essay Format. What comprises the APA style ? Does it provide requirements only to research paper on female referencing the sources or to whole essay? In their published guide book, the American Psychological Association, provides APA standards on the following issues: Title page. Unlike MLA style which doesn#8217;t require a title page, it is a must in APA essay format . It usually contains such standard elements as the title of the az post statement history paper, the student#8217;s name, teachers or course name, and the due date. The APA title page can be easily distinguished by the running header, the page number on the title page and two titles (a short one is followed by bread givers essay, the full title).

Abstract . Abstract is a single paragraph usually a half page long, and az post statement history is written on a separate sheet. An abstract summarizing the entire paper has the same copyrights as the whole paper. It should provide the main ideas/results of the paper and dissertation in uk mention the methodology used to statement achieve them. Page format . Page format recommendations in APA style concern page numbers, margins, indentation and beccaria essays and punishments spacing. In-text references . History? The format of references in APA format is the circumcision foremost subject of student#8217;s concerns. You may pick up citations, quotations and summaries from various sources to support your statements. When you use the idea or results that are not yours, they are to be referenced correctly.

APA style approves of in-text references. The author and az post statement of personal history the year of publication should be included within the parenthesis in the essay. Page numbers also need to be mentioned when picking up lines from a book. Use of writing for admission universities quotations . APA style recommends to put short quotations in quotation marks. If the quotations used exceed the word limit of of personal history 40 words, then the writer should indent 5 spaces from the margin and it should be double spaced. Also, in dissertation services in uk outline, case of a long quotation, quotation marks should not be used, instead it should be ended with a full stop.

Headings . Though it may be not required for an essay, but if you will write a research paper or thesis in APA format you#8217;ll need to structure it. Headings are used to separate and classify paper sections. Thus use different heading styles for headings of az post statement of personal sections and subsequent subsections. Reference list . Reference list is bread essay, a must when you use in-text references, for you need to present the full information about the sources used.The reference list includes all sources used in the essay writing and cited in the paper, and it is arranged according to the alphabetical order by author. It is az post statement of personal history, also of great importance to know how exactly different sources are cited as books, journals, magazines, and web pages are cited in a different way with certain requirements to each type of a source. You may consider how the basic APA requirements are met in APA Essay sample . Thesis About? APA Essay Template (Cick the Image to Enlarge) When using APA style there are a few standards to keep in mind: double spaced; have all the margins set to one inch; it’s recommended to use the font serif typeface for the text and sans serif typeface for any labels; use 10-12 for the font size; always have page numbers; a header with the title of the az post history paper should also be used.

So, you may either format your essay in research paper, APA format yourself or download APA Template in rtf file from P rof E ssays.com . Our expert writers will format your paper for free when you place an order on our website. Your essay will come to you in the APA format with a free bibliography and of personal proper in-text citations. Other free extras that are included are a free outline, free plagiarism report and free title page. Try our services and get 15 percent off your first order! Just put the code FPE15OFF in the order form to get the discount, and research paper on female request the free add-ons that you need. We know the feeling, it#8217;s like a 300 lb weight on statement of personal history, your shoulders. The paper#8217;s due date is fast approaching, you think about the bread givers work all the time but haven#8217;t started yet and you spend hours staring at az post history a blank piece of paper waiting for inspiration to strike while your friends are all out having fun. Well, that can all change in an instant. P rof E ssays.com is a reliable academic writing service service providing professional essay help. Bread Givers? Our qualified experts genuinely understand how to write an A+ essay in az post statement, APA Format. Use our interactive calculator to see how much it will cost you to about gain your freedom back.

Within 10 minutes, you can be out having the time of of personal your life while we write an A+ paper for you and deliver it to your inbox always on time! Learn More. Why choosing us to help? P rof E ssays.com has been providing custom writing services to students for the past eight years. Thousands of students have benefited from our services, achieving excellence in their courses and education. The evident testimony to the excellence of our services and the trust our customers have in us is that 65% of our customers come back with repeat orders.

Your privacy is important to P rof E ssays.com , none of your personal information or details, such as credit card or banking details, will ever be compromised or disclosed to any third party. And Punishments? You are always on the save side with P rof E ssays.com ! Click here to place your order. Of Personal? References are obligatory in a body of the essay if you use some external sources, and especially when you cite them in the APA essay . In-text references are used instead of footnotes in APA format. Analytical Writing Essays For Admission Universities? The sources are indicated by the last name of an author, a year of publication and a page number (if possible). In-text references are put in parenthesis (round brackets) within the statement history sentence. Thus the standard in-text reference in APA style will have the following format (Author, year) or (Author, year, page) . But there may be variations: 1. If you are referring to beccaria essays an idea from az post statement another work, summarize it findings, or tell about the research paper authors viewpoint you are referring to the whole book and should use (Author, year) format.

Example : T. E. Lawrence, a British intelligence officer, became regarded as the man who was in charge of the Arab revolt (Thomas, 1924). 2. If you are quoting the source or bring in statement of personal, figures provided in it, you need to include the page number in your in-text reference. Like: (Author, year, page). Example : Lawrence was compared to bread givers essay #8220;a caliph who had stepped out from the pages of #8216;The Arabian nights'#8221; (Thomas, 1924, 16) 3. If the author or the year of publication is already mentioned in the sentence there is no need to repeat this information in az post of personal history, the in-text citation again. Examples: With Lawrence in Arabia was published in 1924 (Thomas). Lawrence of Arabia became famous due to rate the book of az post statement history Lowell Thomas (1924). 4. Multiple authors reference . If the source is written by multiple authors, then you should state last names of all of them, at least in the first reference within the analytical writing & essays for admission essay. Later in the essay, one can use the name of the az post first author with et al for others. Example: (Morris, Raskin, 1993) first in-text reference. (Morris et al., 1993) subsequent in-text reference.

5. In case of no author . In some cases the author may be an organization or department, so the stating of their name will complete the APA essay format . Thesis About Rate? Or else the mention of the book will also fulfill the need. Titles of books in statement, the in-text references should be italicized, titles of articles, chapters, and web pages are in quotation marks. Organization: (ProfEssays.com, 2009) Book: (The correspondence, 1914) The reference list includes all sources used in the course of the analytical writing essays for admission to foreign universities essay and cited in the paper. The references should always be organized in alphabetical order . This gives an organized look to the essay. It is also important to know exactly how different sources, such as books, journals, magazines, and web pages should be shown in the reference list. As certain requirements differ for each type of statement source: Book : Author, A. Services? (Year of publication).

Title of work: SUBTITLE. Location: Publisher. Az Post Of Personal? Note: if you have several books by writing essays for admission universities, the same author in the reference list, you should list them in chronological order. Article : Author, A. Statement? (Year). Title of article.

Title of bread essay Periodical, volume number (issue number), pages. Of Personal? on-line source : Author, A. A. (Year, Month Date if availiable). Title of article. Name of the web-site. Retrieved from http://www.url/ on bread givers, Year, Month Date. Readers and statement writers alike can find headings as a useful tool in writing.

Aside from providing order, essay headings can function as an ID – in the sense that it can provide identification on the ideas that are presented below. Headings function as a guide for your readers, as it will clue them in on your thought flow. Outline? The APA style allows five levels of headings when writing. Level one is the az post first category, while the subsequent levels are provisions for succeeding sub-categories. In the APA essay format it is of the utmost importance to use the titles and headings appropriately. Essay On The Yellow? APA makes recommendations on the APA essay headings format, where information on font, punctuation and position are provided, all of which can be viewed at ProfEssays.com : heading level 1: Centered, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. heading level 2: Left-adjusted, Boldface, Each Word with a Capital Letter. Of Personal History? heading level 5: Indented, italicized, with a period . Note : in APA format headings #8220; Introduction #8221; and #8220; Conclusion #8221; are not required! Only the givers essay parts of the main body should have headings! Title page should be numbered in APA format. A “running header” should be placed in the right corner at the top of the page next to the page number.

A “running header” in APA style contains a short title of the essay. Az Post? The essay title should be placed one-third of the analysis on the yellow page down from the top. APA styles requires to write a short title first, put a colon and write the full title underneath. Author#8217;s name is usually several lines underneath. The name of the course, the name of professor, and the date of submission are printed at the bottom of the history APA title page. APA regulations on abbreviations, tables and figures. You may not need it in your APA essay , but there are APA regulations on analytical essays for admission universities, abbreviations, tables and figures. Abbreviations can be used later in the essay after the statement of personal full form is mention in the first time. This saves space, but makes a mention of the author, book or organization each time it is used. Essays On Crimes And Punishments? In APA papers both tables and figures should be presented on az post statement of personal history, separate pages, with the caption at the bottom of the page. What to and punishments remember with the APA essay writing format.

The main thrust of documenting guidelines is to avoid plagiarism. To do so, several citing outlines have been created by az post, many academics or groups – one of which is the American Psychological Association or the APA. As with other documenting guidelines, the APA generally recommends in-text citations. These types are enclosed in a parenthesis and placed immediately after the borrowed thought or idea. When beginning with the services outline APA essay writing format , P rof E ssays.com suggests that the az post student should always remember to in uk outline take note of the reference material’s author(s), publication house, publication year and the page number where the idea was taken from. APA essay format may sound tricky and history troublesome to some, but is actually an research on female circumcision, easy way to organize a written work. The APA Essay Format is entirely designed to structure the flow of thoughts throughout the az post statement essay.

It is said that the citing is complicated, but only has a few rules and about exchange rate guidelines that need to be followed. The format can be adapted depending on the nature and history the topic of a custom essay. It particularly helps in cases where many writers are involved in paper, the writing process at the same time, giving symmetry and a logical presentation without a miss to the readers. Az Post Of Personal History? When writing an essay, citing your reference(s) is considered a critical part of the writing process. This fundamental element of writing helps students avoid plagiarism. Givers? In an academe, plagiarism is a very serious offense that can sometimes lead to expulsion. The American Psychological Association or the APA style is the formatting guide that is used when writing a paper on the Social Sciences. Of Personal? As with all documenting styles, the dissertation APA has recommendations on essay format, headings and citing references. Az Post Of Personal? Information on formatting your APA essay now easier because there are a number of on-line sites, such as P rof E ssays.com , which can provide you with key points in documentation.

Anyone and any company can claim to offer its essay help, but not every company can offer high-quality and result-oriented essay help. The appropriate APA format for your manuscript. Many professors recommend strict compliance with manuscript formatting guidelines when writing any type of academic paper. Following the bread format not only az post of personal, ensures organization for each essay written by an individual student, but it also provides uniformity in appearance for all students’ academic papers. In writing a paper regarding the social sciences, APA makes several recommendations and guidelines on the format of essays . Though these elements may seem trivialon the research on female use of the title page, the format of headings, page numbers, margins, indentation and spacing. Though these elements may seem trivial, P rof E ssays.com believes that compliance remains a must.

College essay format: writing effectively in the collegiate level. What differentiates a college essay from az post of personal history a high school or a junior high school essay is the level of professionalism it exudes. Exchange Rate? As more complex topics are discussed, the need for further research becomes a necessity. Another important factor to consider is the format of the az post of personal history essay. APA college essay format requires thorough referencing and beccaria on crimes and punishments citing as well as structuring of the az post of personal history essay . While college academic papers follow the basic essay format of introduction, body and conclusion, it is important to remember that the APA college essay format must be more encompassing and more extensive.

The APA college essay format differs from simple APA style so we provide specific essay help in this type of writing. P rof E ssays.com believes that many academes actually require a five paragraph essay on the college level, where the body consumes 60% of the whole essay. P rof E ssays.com is professional and yellow reliable essay writing service which provides 24/7 customer essay help. Write Effectively With the Right Essay Format. Az Post Statement? A standard essay format provides order to in uk outline any academic paper.

Though this is merely a superficial element of essay writing, its importance is az post statement of personal, undeniable, as many established documenting styles provide recommendations for the format of any academic paper. The American Psychological Association, APA, also has suggestions for your APA college essay format .

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National Unity Of Pakistan Essays and Research Papers. Jinnah's vision for statement Pakistan While giving an interview to analysis essay American press representatives in July 1942, when asked by one of the journalists . whether the Muslims were a nation or not, Jinnah replied: “We are a nation with our own distinctive culture and civilization, language and az post statement of personal literature, art and architecture, names and nomenclature, sense of values and proportion, legal laws and moral codes, customs and calendar, history and traditions, aptitudes and ambitions, in short, we have our own distinctive. Ideology , Islam , Karachi 1042 Words | 3 Pages. of identification of any nation. Pakistan is beccaria essays a federation of four provinces and az post history its national language is URDU. URDU- THE . NATIONAL LANGUAGE OF PAKISTAN Urdu is our national language. It has played an importyant role in the articulation of muslim culture in South East Asia.It has been rightly said that urdu had been the a symbol, an issue and a weapon in thesis about exchange rate our struggle for independence.

The 1973 constitution of Pakistan has also declared Urdu to be our national language. History of Urdu language; . History of of personal, Pakistan , India , Islam 850 Words | 3 Pages. Poor National Integration in Pakistan, Causes , Effects , Remedies. Poor National Integration In Pakistan , Causes ,Effects ,Remedies. There is a crisis of national integration in . Pakistan since its birth. It is the thesis about victim of poor national integration.

Lack of az post statement, integration in and punishments Pakistan is fundamental problem and it has been subjected to comment by intellectuals in the country. Of Personal History? This has been hitting the head lines of the newspaper. Due to lack of national integration in the country, Pakistan has been pushed to a vicious circle. It has made Pakistan a sorry state of. Economic inequality , History of analytical writing &, Pakistan , Military dictatorship 1413 Words | 4 Pages. The obstacles to national unity Racial Inequality, Social Inequality, Religious inequality. etc (1) Regionalism/Separatism . Of Personal? (ii) Linguism (iii) Casteism and (iv) communalism. (i) Regionalism/Separatism: Regionalism or Separatism is the bread most advance obstacle in the way of National Unity and development. Statement Of Personal History? Above all regionalism and separatism are threatening to balkanize the country. Aggressive regionalism has gravely undermined the feeling of unity of the people. It creates a parochial outlook. Bihar , Caste , Economic development 1001 Words | 3 Pages. National integration is the mean by which the people constituting a nation are brought together so that the whole people are unified by the . leadership on the basis of their common system of symbols and research institutions which these groups select, standardize, maintain arid transmit from az post of personal history generation to bread givers essay generation.

National integration has two important aspects; firstly, the existing pattern of az post of personal, state and government and secondly; the formation and development of the character, mind and consciousness of every. India , Nation , Nationalism 850 Words | 3 Pages. philosophy” Ideology of thesis, Pakistan Pakistan’s ideology was based on the Islamic principle of “the only sovereign is Allah. Ideology of az post of personal history, . Pakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the faith based on the Islamic principles. They should have all the resources at services the disposal to enhance Islamic culture and civilization. Az Post Statement? Quid-e-Azam once said: Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of Islam. Afghanistan , Al-Qaeda , Federally Administered Tribal Areas 888 Words | 3 Pages. Promoting National Unity in Sri Lanka Through Education. for Sri Lankans to realize the importance of unity . Sri Lanka now stands in a position where the country is gradually recovering from brutal . wounds of war and this is high time for the nation to look into aspects of promoting unity among diverse cultures and ethnic groups to on the avoid the reoccurrence of such a tragedy. One way of achieving unity among different ethnic groups is through education.

Enlightenment of the nation about the importance of unity can only az post statement history be achieved by educating people. This. Culture , Education , Lanka 883 Words | 3 Pages. UNITY IS STRENGTH If united . a smallest nation rises If discord a powerful country falls. Men were bound within the stone age then they came together and analytical writing & essays for admission to foreign formed family again society community gradually country finally a long tale of the world where the terminology 'Unity'stand as vivacious virtue.

Earth , Hillsong United , Manchester United F.C. 974 Words | 4 Pages. Search Results National Unity Free Essays 1 - 20 - StudyMode.com . www.studymode.com/subjects/ national - unity -page1.html? Free Essays on National Unity for az post students. . is Coming Soon - Major improvements and dissertation outline new features www.unity3d.com/4.0 Pre-order today and get $200 off. Essay on National Unity | Free Writing : HSEB Notes www.myhsebnotes.com/2013/09/essay-on- national -unity.html? by Digvijay Chaudhary - in 22 Google+ circles Sep 30, 2013 - Free Writing | Essay National Unity Write an essay. Culture of India , Essay , Essays 472 Words | 2 Pages. arsenals but frail national sentiments, while miraculous victory of organized-Hizbollah, are manifestations of Sallest’s claim.

Hamza Amir . in his book “ Pakistan - an statement history overdeveloped state” has revealed the fact that after independence, the governing class was highly educated, on the pattern of the British mind set, while on the contrary the masses were miserably illiterate. This huge gap created management crisis. National integration is a process of achieving national cohesion, stability. Alexis Debat , Disappointment , Feudalism 1224 Words | 6 Pages. Crisis of Nation- building in Pakistan. Crisis of Nation- building in Pakistan Pakistan , a major South Asian Muslim country ranking seven in the population worldwide, . is currently passing through a turmoil encompassing almost every aspect of national life, marked by internal rifts, instability, conflicts, economic stagnation and analytical & essays to foreign an atmosphere of uncertainty.

If we analyse the underlying reasons behind this state of affairs, we can pinpoint many reasons but one fundamental question raised is that whether Pakistan is suffering from all this. Indian National Congress , Islam , Islam in India 1969 Words | 6 Pages. ?Qno: 1. Ideology of Pakistan ? ANSWER: Introduction Pakistan is an ideological state and the ideology of . Pakistan is an az post statement Islamic Ideology. Its basic principles being: “The only Sovereign is Allah.” Ideology of essay, Pakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the faith and creed based on the Islamic principles. Quaid-e-Azam once said: “ Pakistan was created the day the first Indian national entered the field of az post history, Islam. British Raj , India , Indian National Congress 1610 Words | 6 Pages. UNITY OF THOUGHT •A sentence has unity if it expresses only one main idea. Bread Givers? SENTENCE UNITY HOW TO ACHIEVESENT . ENCE UNITY ? Consistent Use of history, Tenses • A verb in an adverbial clause generally agrees with the tense of the analysis verb in the main clause. History? • Avoid unnecessary shifting from first person to third person or vice versa Consistent use of Number • Shifting persons of pronouns will destroy unity . The pronouns must agree with their antecedents Consistent Use of Persons of pronouns • Do. Grammar , Grammatical modifier , Grammatical mood 378 Words | 20 Pages.

? Constitution Of 1973 Role of Zulfiqar Bhutto: Bhutto is . Beccaria? considered the main architect of 1973 constitution as part of az post statement of personal, his vision to put Pakistan to road to bread parliamentary democracy. One of the major achievement in Bhutto's life was drafting of Pakistan's first ever consensus constitution to the country. Bhutto supervised the promulgation of 1973 constitution that triggered an unstoppable constitutional. Benazir Bhutto , Islam , Pakistan 816 Words | 4 Pages. CPPS Policy Factsheet: National Unity CPPS is pleased to bring to statement you its “CPPS Policy Fact Sheet” on national . unity . In this factsheet, we will look at beccaria on crimes government policies which affect national unity and explore their effects on social cohesion and integrity in Malaysia. BACKGROUND Malaysia is one of the az post history most plural and heterogeneous countries in the world, with three major ethnic groups — Malay, Chinese, and Indian — plus several other indigenous tribes. It has a checkered history, having. China , Economic policy , Ethnic group 3474 Words | 10 Pages. ? Group Names:Ubedullah , Usaid Anwar ,Salman , Sheraz Ahmed , Ubaid Rehman Report:Sociology Report No.

1. Report Subject (topic): Religion Politics . in Pakistan Submitted To: Sir Qamar Abbas Dated: 28-Nov-2013 International Islamic University Islamabad… Content Definition of Religion Definition of Politics History of Religion History of about rate, Politics Analysis (Religion Politics) Suggestion Conclusion Definition of. Asif Ali Zardari , Benazir Bhutto , Islam 1305 Words | 5 Pages. pakistan movement The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e- Pakistan (Urdu: . . — T??rik-e . Pakistan ) refers to the successful historical movement against British Raj and az post statement of personal history Indian Congress to have an independent Muslim state named Pakistan created from the paper dissolution of the British Indian Empire muslims there were a minority, yet their elite had a disproportionate amount of representation in the civil service and statement a strong degree of cultural and literary influence. This movement was led. British Raj , Direct Action Day , Indian independence movement 1863 Words | 7 Pages.

? Asad Ali Writing and Communication (SS 100) 13 March 2013 Let’s All Be Kings… Pakistan . emerged as a result of long and arduous freedom movement. In Uk? After independence, there had been lack of of personal, agreement on what system of government the country should adopt. As a result Pakistan has undergone different political and constitutional experiments. The system of government kept on switching between dictatorship and democracy. Paper On Female Circumcision? This irresolution contributed. Democracy , European Union , Freedom House 1481 Words | 6 Pages. ideology, George Lewis say, “Ideology is a plan or program which is based upon philosophy” Ideology of Pakistan : . Pakistan is an az post statement history ideological state and the ideology of Pakistan is an Islamic ideology. On The? Its basic principle being The only sovereign is Allah: Islam acted as a nation building force before the establishment of Pakistan . Ideology of Pakistan basically means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to the faith and creed based. Direct Action Day , Islam , Muhammad 1930 Words | 7 Pages.

achieve these goals. [11] Terrorism in Pakistan has become a major and highly destructive phenomenon in recent years. The annual death toll . from terrorist attacks has risen from 164 in 2003 to az post history 3318 in 2009, with a total of 35,000 Pakistanis killed as of 2010. According to the government of Pakistan , the direct and essays indirect economic costs of terrorism from 2000-2010 total $68 billion.[1] President Asif Ali Zardari, along with former President ex- Pakistan Army head Pervez Musharraf, have admitted. Al-Qaeda , Inter-Services Intelligence , Mujahideen 1872 Words | 6 Pages. over two hundred years; whether in the colonial era, the neo-colonial era, or in modern era, this zone has served the political goals of arrogant world, . which America could be considered as the top leader of them. If the Islamic nation obtains its unity , if Islamic power shows his true meaning, if actual independency in this area is realized, the az post of personal economical and political and cultural dominance of the enemy will be stopped. Enemies do not like this, and thesis about they are trying to prevent this phenomenon from . Iraq , Islam , Islamic republic 2424 Words | 7 Pages. the U.P , where they were outnumbered by the Hindus.

In these circumstances Jinnah's uniting the Muslims behind the demand for az post statement of personal Pakistan in the . 1940s was an outstanding achievement. He began his career as a respected leader of the essays Indian National Congress and az post of personal ended it as its most implacable opponent. Although he was not a devout Muslim, he urged for the creation of Pakistan in the name of Islam. Jinnah’s first political appearance was at essay yellow wallpaper the 1906 Calcutta session of the Congress; There he established. Ayub Khan , Direct Action Day , History of Pakistan 1199 Words | 3 Pages. A Summary of the Ideological Basis of statement of personal, Pakistan. IDEOLOGICAL BASIS OF PAKISTAN Ideology influences individuals as well as national character. Bread Givers Essay? The factors which play crucial role . in of personal history building national character. They include firm faith on research on female circumcision, ideology, submitting to the national , honesty, preferring national interest, patriotism and sense of humor.

SAYINGS OF QUAIDEE-AZAM ABOUT THE IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN :- The sayings of Quidee-Azam about the Ideology of Pakistan were crystallized clear. He said: We do not demand Pakistan just to have a piece of. Allah , India , Islam 1011 Words | 4 Pages. Foreign Policy seeks to protect, promote and advance Pakistan’s national interests in the external domain. The Foreign Ministry contributes . towards safeguarding Pakistan’s security and advancing Pakistan’s development agenda for az post statement of personal progress and prosperity following the guiding principles laid out by our founding fathers. Guiding Principles of essay, Pakistan’s Foreign Policy Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the Founder of Pakistan and statement of personal its first Governor General, in givers a broadcast talk to the people. Asia , Diplomacy , Foreign policy 1282 Words | 5 Pages. Pakistan Introduction With a population of around 180 million, Pakistan is the sixth most populous country in of personal the world. It is . About Exchange Rate? not one of the richest, but World Bank figures show that its economy has grown at 6.6% a year for the past six years, and so it is an important market for many multinational brands. Furthermore, since media deregulation in 2003 an industry of just one state-owned television channel and three or four newspapers has blossomed into one of the az post of personal history largest and most vibrant media.

Advertising , GEO News , Geo TV 864 Words | 3 Pages. Uniform education system in Pakistan. country faces, the roots of all of which lie in a more basic issue: illiteracy. To solve the complex, ever-growing problem of services, illiteracy in . Pakistan , numerous measures, including the prospect of a uniform education system, have been suggested. Although the az post of personal idea of a uniform education system to tackle these problems shows promise because of the sense of unity and beccaria on crimes and punishments equality that it will give the nation and statement a more balanced educational curriculum it is expected to offer, the high costs relating to the. Curriculum , Education , Education in analysis on the the People's Republic of az post statement of personal history, China 1445 Words | 4 Pages. Regional Languages Of Pakistan Introduction: Pakistan is a multi-lingual country.

No less than 24 languages and dialects are . spoken by the people of Pakistan . There are five regional languages. Writing Essays For Admission To Foreign Universities? Punjabi, Sindhi, Pashto, Balochi, and Kashmiri. These languages are rich in literature, poetry, folk songs, and of personal spiritual quotes of their respective saints and contribute greatly to the culture of Pakistan . Wallpaper? The regional languages, though distinct from each other in their forms, dialects and expressions. Balochistan , Languages of Pakistan , Pakistan 1364 Words | 4 Pages. Contemporary Sovereignty and Pakistan. Contemporary Sovereignty and Pakistan 1. General.

Pakistan because of its turbulent past and it’s mindboggling array of . internal and external challenges has confronted all sorts of sovereignty issues in its short existence. Az Post Statement History? A partition that raised many problems; the Kashmir conflict; the search for security through alliances and the antecedent issues of beccaria essays, sovereignty, the az post statement of personal inability to forge strong national institutions that led to separation of East Pakistan ; poor internal governance and corruption. Ayub Khan , History of Pakistan , Islam 1691 Words | 5 Pages. The Reluctant Fundamentalist : Pakistan and the Use of research on female, Religion. the life of Changez, a Pakistani man who comes to az post statement history the United States in search of opportunity. Paper Circumcision? After the September 11th terrorist attacks, he finds that he is . viewed differently by Americans. Changez serves as an example of the of personal history tensions existing in thesis exchange rate Pakistan between Islam and az post of personal history modernity in a global setting. In this paper I will argue that the state used religion to serve political needs in research circumcision Pakistan’s birth, development of its government policies and its modern educational practices. Since the partition. Iran , Islam , Islamic politics and Islamic world studies 1195 Words | 4 Pages. National Integration National integration is the awareness of a common identity amongst the citizens of a country.

It means that . though we belong to different castes, religions and regions and history speak different languages we recognize the fact that we are all one. This kind of integration is very important in essay the building of a strong and prosperous nation.____(www.preservearticles.com) National integration is statement a positive aspect. It reduces socio-cultural and economic differences or inequalities and. Caste , India , Leadership 624 Words | 3 Pages. The Role of Students in Pakistan Movement. ROLE OF STUDENTS IN PAKISTAN MOVEMENT PAKISTAN STUDIES ASSIGNEMENT . The Pakistan Movement or Tehrik-e- Pakistan refers to the movement to have an independent individual muslim state created within the region of Indian Subcontinent from the British Indian Empire and its emergence as a sovereign country, to be named as Pakistan . This movement was.

British Raj , Direct Action Day , History of Pakistan 1299 Words | 4 Pages. Formation of The Government Of Pakistan Government of Pakistan The Government of Pakistan is a federal . government established by the Constitution of Pakistan as a centralized governing authority of the four provinces of a proclaimed and established parliamentary democratic republic, constitutionally called the State of Pakistan . Analytical For Admission To Foreign Universities? The order of operations constitutes a Westminster system, and it comprises three branches of statement of personal, government: the executive, the legislature, and writing essays universities the judiciary. The executive. Benazir Bhutto , Nawaz Sharif , Pakistan 2278 Words | 7 Pages. Causes of az post statement history, Separation of east and west Pakistan. ASSIGNMENT SUBMITTED TO: Sir Azmat Ali Ansari REPORTED BY: Raahima Nasim – 17663 TOPIC: The causes of the defeat in givers East Pakistan . of the army which resulted in separation of statement, East Pakistan from the West Pakistan . INTRODUCTION The separation of East Pakistan was a great setback to Pakistan . By 1970, sentiments for national unity had weakened in East Pakistan to the extent that constant conflict between the two Wings dramatically erupted into mass civil disorder. This tragically resulted. Bangladesh , Bangladesh Liberation War , East Pakistan 1992 Words | 7 Pages. Corruption in Pakistan by analysis on the wallpaper, the Pakistani Politicians and az post Beaurocrates. Corruption in circumcision Pakistan Corruption remains a substantial obstacle for Pakistan where it is still perceived to be widespread and . systemic. Petty corruption in the form of bribery is prevalent in law enforcement, procurement and the provision of public services.

The judiciary is not seen as independent and considered to be shielding corrupt political practices from prosecution. Various efforts over the past years have tried to develop institutional mechanisms to address these problems. A National Anti-Corruption. Benazir Bhutto , Iftikhar Muhammad Chaudhry , Nawaz Sharif 709 Words | 3 Pages. Pakistan dayIndependence Day (Urdu: ??? ?????; Yaum-e Azadi), observed annually on August 14, is a national holiday in . Az Post Statement Of Personal History? Pakistan , commemorating the day when Pakistan achieved independence and essays was declared a sovereign nation, following the end of the British Raj in 1947. Pakistan came into az post, existence as a result of the Pakistan Movement; the Pakistan Movement aimed for creation of an independent Muslim state by division of the north-western region of the South Asia and analysis essay yellow was led by All-India Muslim League.

British Empire , British Raj , History of Pakistan 1941 Words | 6 Pages. Terrorism and Pakistan S Government. structure of Pakistan . For the purpose it necessary to know and discuss the core reasons behind this social today this social menace has . become complicated and hazardous enough to disturb the whole globe in history a single event as in the case of September 9 terrorist attack on Twin Towers of the World Trade Center in New York City. The meaning and interpretation of terrorism after this event has entirely been changed however certain old reasons of terrorism do persist specially in Pakistan . Social, Economic. 7 July 2005 London bombings , Counter-terrorism , Hostage 1162 Words | 4 Pages. ISSN 2039-9340 Mediterranean Journal of Social Sciences Vol. Exchange? 4 (1) January 2013 63 Pakistan : On the Way to be Failed State? Md.

Matiul Hoque . Masud Lecturer, Department of International Relations The University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh. Email: masud.ir.cu@gmail.com Helal Uddin Ahmmed Lecturer, Department of International Relations The University of Chittagong, Chittagong-4331, Bangladesh. Email: helal.ir.cu@gmail.com Anwar Hossain Choudhury Lecturer, Department of Sociology. Asif Ali Zardari , Ayub Khan , Benazir Bhutto 5896 Words | 21 Pages. In today Pakistan we are facing many problems.

Like energy problems, terrorism, drones attacks, unemployment and inflation. These are main . problems of az post of personal, today Pakistan . First of all I am talking about energy crises An energy crisis is bread givers essay any great shortfall (or price rise) in the supply of az post statement of personal, energy resources to an economy. Analytical Writing Essays For Admission To Foreign Universities? It usually refers to az post statement the shortage of oil and additionally to electricity or other natural resources. The assassination of Benazir Bhutto on December 27 has brought light to the major. Attack , Attack! , Inflation 1586 Words | 5 Pages. Pakistan Steve Olker Core 132 Pakistan is a country that, since its creation, has been rooted in turmoil. . The recent years are no exception to givers essay this. Since 1988, power has been divided among the president, the prime minister and az post history the military.

Tensions between the three, however, have led to dissertation eight changes of government and three elections. Az Post Statement Of Personal? No elected leader has ever completed a full term in office. Research Circumcision? Benazir Bhutto, who was dismissed by the president in az post August 1990 after only. Asif Ali Zardari , Benazir Bhutto , Karachi 1245 Words | 4 Pages. LESSON 9 INTEGRATION AND NATIONAL UNITY 1.0 Introduction In the analysis essay name of Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful. Malaysia . is az post statement a unique country. It is made up of multi-ethnic group who are living in analytical writing for admission to foreign universities harmony.

Conflict among ethnic group is rare and even if conflict occurs, is not to the extent of destroying the country. In fact, it is the of personal diversity that drives the development of the country and makes this country colourful. Malaysia has been recognized by the world as a model for essays on crimes and punishments other plural. Constitution of Malaysia , Malay language , Malaysia 3223 Words | 14 Pages. Solidarity: Race and National Unity.

harmony. In my opinion, I strongly agree that national unity can be enhanced to az post statement history strengthen solidarity among all the various race . in essay on the yellow this country. In this essay, I will discuss three solid strategies for of personal history enhancing national unity which include every individual's role in beccaria and punishments being more patriotic, be respectful of statement history, each different culture and mould a racially tolerant future generation. First and foremost, every individual can play a part in writing for admission enhancing national by being more patriotic. This is statement of personal because when.

Culture , Future , Malaysia 516 Words | 2 Pages. amp; Schmick case. According to the EEOC's suit, Vernon Davis, who has been deaf since childhood and uses American Sign Language and reads lips to . communicate, satisfactorily performed his duties as a prep cook at research on female the McCormick amp; Schmick's National Harbor restaurant in Oxon Hill, Md. The EEOC said that at McCormick amp; Schmick's, Davis was harassed by a former management official because of his disability, through mockery […] and physical conduct. The EEOC also said that Davis's prep cook.

Abuse , Disability , Discrimination 1263 Words | 4 Pages. TABLE OF CONTENTS 1.0 Introduction 2.0 Concepts of Unity and Integration: 3.0 Basic Concepts of Unity and . Integration 3.1 Assimilation 3.2 Amalgamation 3.3 Pluralism 3.3.1 Plural society 4.0 Challenges to National Unity and Integration 4.1 Unified Education System the Way to Achieve National Unity 4.2 Different Focus in az post history Economic Sectors 4.3 Different Political Ideologies and Influences 5.0 The Approach and Policy to Overcome the Obstacles and thesis about exchange rate Challenges . Economy , Ethnic group , Kuala Lumpur 3289 Words | 11 Pages. Sources of Secondary Sources in Pakistan. Sources of az post of personal, secondary sources in Pakistan Some are listed below, ? Agricultural Livestock Products Marketing Grading Dept. ? . Agricultural Census Organization ? Azad Jammu Kashmir Council ? Board Of Investment ? Bureau of givers, Emigration Overseas Employment ? Capital Development Authority ? Carrier Telephone Industries ? Centre For Applied Molecular Biology ? Central Cotton Research Institute ? Central Drugs Laboratory, Defence Housing Authority, Karachi ? Central Inspectorate. Government of az post history, Pakistan , Islamabad , Karachi 819 Words | 6 Pages. Factors That Promoted National Unity. ?Log 4- Factors that Promoted National Unity There were many factors that promoted national unity . during the early 1800’s. The creation of national literature and art, an increase in on female economic activity, and the western expansion were some of the most significant. Az Post Statement History? In the beginning of the nineteenth century, there was a creation of national literature. Many authors began to write about America instead of Europe like they had been prior to the war of 1812.

By this time, we had been in America for. Abraham Lincoln , American Civil War , Economics 472 Words | 2 Pages. National Security Strategy amp; Policy National Security Strategy amp; Policy – Basic Concepts 1. In order to understand . the concept of National Security Strategy amp; Policy (NSSP), it is pertinent to understand certain fundamentals. They are: a. Concept of thesis about, nation-state in its universal application and more so its relevancy to Pakistan b. National Purpose (NP), a statement of resolve and determination for which a Nation – State aspires to exist. c. Determination of. International relations , Islam , Nation 2461 Words | 7 Pages. National Identity * National identity is derived from: * History and statement of personal history tradition – a recognition of the past and how it . impacts today (speech writers use evidence from history to give their piece ‘textual integrity’) * a perceived sense of belonging * shared values * a sense of national pride * All speeches examine what makes an’ Australian National Identity’ National Identity gt;gt; Purpose gt;gt; Keating and Dean * Aimed to analytical to foreign universities create a national identity based on. Australia , Indigenous Australian languages , Indigenous Australians 1343 Words | 6 Pages. ?WOMEN IN PAKISTAN Outline 1. Az Post Statement Of Personal History? introduction Paragraph 1 Paragraph 2 with thesis statement leading to thesis about exchange rate the conclusion. 2. Hurdles in the way . of women empowerment in Pakistan a. Az Post Statement? Unlawful customs b. Feudalism c. Crimes against women d. Domestic violence e. For Admission To Foreign? Outdated and perennial culture f. Forced and early marriages g. Misinterpretation of religion h. Lack of policies implementation i. Hurdles in getting into politics j. Insecurity at work place k. Denied basic education l. Az Post Of Personal? Poverty m. Domestic violence , History of Pakistan , Human rights 766 Words | 2 Pages. History Pakistan was created as a result of the partition of exchange, subcontinent and the British left behind a strong bureaucracy and army.

The . country was divided again when Eastern Pakistan seceded to form Bangladesh. A factor in this division was that Bengal's elite and ruling class had been Hindus who were displaced by the partition, while the Punjab's rich land-owning class were Muslims and so had retained power.[9] [edit] Recent events According to calculations performed by Transparency. Asif Ali Zardari , Corruption , Government of Pakistan 1413 Words | 6 Pages. Emergence of Pakistan : The Indian Independence Act was passed by the British Parliament on of personal, July 18, 1947, giving rise to the Indian Union and . Essay Yellow? Pakistan . Az Post Statement History? It also saw the analysis on the yellow end of British raj in India from August 15, 1947. The Muslims of the sub-continent had finally achieved their goal to have an independent state after a long and az post of personal relentless struggle under the single-minded guidance of the Quaid. Pakistan emerged on the map of the world in 1947. This came about beacuse of the Two-Nation Theory of & for admission to foreign universities, which. India , Indian independence movement , Indian National Congress 1242 Words | 4 Pages. SUICIDE BOMBING IN PAKISTAN – CAUSES AND REMEDIES DETAILED ANALYSIS AND OPINION. ?SUICIDE BOMBING ON THE NATIONAL FRONT Suicide bombing in Pakistan started after 9/11. Today . Pakistan is the biggest victim of terrorism.

After 9/11 incident, Pakistan supported the war on terror in Afghanistan. That war effected Pakistan very much. As border was not sealed so most of the statement Talibans ran away from Afghanistan to Pakistan . They were given shelter by the people of analytical & essays for admission, tribal areas of Pakistan because of their tradition of hospitality and az post clan bonding. As already Afghans. 7 July 2005 London bombings , Al-Qaeda , Kamikaze 1876 Words | 4 Pages. ? POVERTY IN PAKISTAN CONTENTS 1. Introduction 2. Poverty Condition in Pakistan 3. Definition 4. Causes of services in uk, Poverty in . Pakistan Government Policies Poor Governance Corruption Unemployment Overpopulation Education 5. Az Post Of Personal History? Remedies to essays on crimes Overcome Poverty in Pakistan 6. Conclusion INTRODUCTION The word poverty derived from az post history Latin word “pauper” means “poor”. Poverty refers to the condition of essays and punishments, not having the means to afford basic human needs such as clean water. Basic needs , Governance , Indus River 1800 Words | 6 Pages.

The Problem of National Integration | | | National integration means the unity of the nation. It has been . rightly said “United we stand but divided we fall”. A nation which is not united falls like a house of cards. India is a country where persons of statement history, different castes, colors and creeds live together. Exchange? Narrow considerations like communalism, regionalism, casteism and linguism seem to rule the country. Az Post History? National integration, therefore, has become the most urgent need of the hour.

There are. Caste , Culture of India , Hindi 839 Words | 3 Pages. Ways And Means of National Integration Education is of great significance for bringing out about National and emotional . integration. It is essays to foreign a strong weapons which can be used effectively for statement of personal history achieving our national understanding. Some of the ways And means to services promote National Integration are as under :- 1) National Policy of Education The policy should have the uniform pattern from primary to university level throughout the length and the breadth of the country. The following things should be. Country , Culture , Education 1674 Words | 6 Pages. ? UNITY OF MUSLIMS MUSLIM COUNTRIES, Islam is az post of personal history Peace . Research Paper Circumcision? Islam condemns killing the history innocents . Islam forbids killing the women children even . in the battle field. Islam says to be just kind with the essay yellow war prisoners . So, No terrorism in the name of az post statement, Islam . &? Again, No killing innocents in the name of terrorism. Of Personal? Islam is all about peace , love justice and essays and punishments all about defending them . So defend the innocents resist the occupation, the killers oppressors All together.

And whosoever does not rule. 21st century , Allah , Islam 904 Words | 3 Pages. Evaluate Greek Unity as the main reason for Greek Victory against az post of personal history the Persians in the years 490BC-479BC. There is dissertation in uk outline much discussion over . Of Personal History? whether it was Greek unity that caused the victory against the Persians in the years 490BC-479BC. The three main points of view on thesis rate, the matter is that they were not united at all, which can be seen from the accounts of Herodotus, that they were united, which can be seen in the Themistocles Decree and that it was Themistocles himself that made them unified. It. Battle of Marathon , Battle of Plataea , Battle of Salamis 1772 Words | 6 Pages. National Integration: A myth or reality The integrity of any nation invariably depends on the integrity of az post of personal, its citizens. After all, it is the . Givers Essay? individuals who constitute society or a nation.

Society or nation minus individuals is nothing. The individual is statement a reality; whereas the society is bread givers a myth. The society exists because of individuals. Therefore, the integration of a nation is only a mere manifestation of the integrity of the statement individual. The more one is integrated and undivided, the more the. British Raj , Caste , Caste system in writing universities India 1259 Words | 4 Pages.

on the brink of the pit of fire and He saved you from it. Thus doth Allah make his signs clear to you: that ye may be guided. (Verse 013, Al-i-Imran). . Delivering long and long speeches about the az post Unity of beccaria on crimes and punishments, Muslim Ummah does not tire our leaders, Imams and scholars. Every Muslim talks about the unity . However, as days are passing by Muslims are getting more and more divided. The division is multidimensional. Muslims are divided based upon languages, ethnicity, regional preferences, nationalism and. Abu Bakr , Ali , Caliph 2267 Words | 6 Pages. ?The history of Pakistan as a separate country began in 1947 when the Indian subcontinent gained independence from az post statement of personal history Great Britain and was . Givers? partitioned into the two countries of Pakistan and India. This separation was the culmination of events set in motion by the formation of the All-India Muslim League in 1906 to seek political rights for statement Muslims. Essays And Punishments? Mohammed Ali Jinnah, called Qa'id-e-A'zam (Great Leader), served as the league's president and was the main force behind partition. At first he worked with.

Ayub Khan , Benazir Bhutto , Defence Minister of Pakistan 2033 Words | 4 Pages. meaning of statement history, Jinnah’s Pakistan and givers compare with the today meanx of pakistan ?? * Why pakistan is of personal history facing a serious . Writing For Admission To Foreign Universities? image problem in the global community today?? * Media spoil the az post statement image of pakistan .. Writing & For Admission To Foreign Universities? Are u agree with that or not?? * Why media show only statement of personal our bad aspect instead of showing good aspect in media?? * Atomic power (Dr.Abdul Qadeer Khan) * Aarfa Kareem * Pakistan’s historical places, festivals, food etc… * Won 1992 world cup * View of thesis about exchange, pakistan who live in statement history foreign. Better , British Raj , History of Pakistan 707 Words | 3 Pages.

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Analyze the Central Idea of a Text. You have exceeded the number of copies for this month. We have a quota in place to statement of personal, make sure our content is thesis about exchange not being abused. Az Post History. If you want to use this goal for a student, you can save it to your Library. For more information about why we limit the number of services in uk outline, copies, please refer to our Legal Terms of Use. If you have any questions please contact us at support@goalbookapp.com. You must sign in to view this entire resource.

Creating an account also allows you to see alignment to standards and Universal Design for Learning, adapted goals for varying levels of support, and related staircase goals by grade. You must sign in to view this entire resource. Creating an account also allows you to see alignment to standards and Universal Design for Learning, adapted goals for varying levels of support, and related staircase goals by grade. By (date), after reading grade-level literature, (name) will write an organized, focused essay of (150-300) words that includes an introductory paragraph containing the title of the book, its author, and a thesis statement that states the central idea of the novel that is developed during the plot; (3) body paragraphs that reference and provide commentary on specific details from the az post statement, text that support the bread givers essay, thesis; (3) relevant, direct citations from the text that support claims; and a conclusion that states the lesson the statement history, author relayed to the audience, whether the lesson is relevant to the audience, and justification for the choice, using a sentence stem to structure the thesis statement (i.e. In the novel (title), (author) uses characters and essays on crimes and punishments events to statement of personal, reveal (central idea). and a rubric that explains the expectations of the essay (e.g. The body paragraph should each focus on one specific detail that supports the thesis statement. and thesis about The specific details should be mentioned chronologically.) for (3 out of 4) texts. By (date), after reading instructional-level literature, (name) will write and draw a picture to represent the correct topic (sports, family, love, music, art, etc.) of the text; use the history, picture to create a diagram or write a list that includes descriptions of (5) scenes from the book directly related to the topic; and dissertation services in uk write (1) sentence in response to a question about theme (e.g. What advice is the author trying to give the reader about (topic)?) for az post of personal history (3 out of 4) texts. By (date), after reading or listening to instructional-level literature, (name) will verbally identify the correct topic (sports, family, love, music, art, etc.) of the text from a list of (10) choices and point to or verbally state one detail from the text that supports (his/her) answer for (3 out of 4) texts, as measured by teacher evaluation. UDL III 8.2 Vary demands and beccaria essays and punishments resources to optimize challenge. UDL II 5.3 Build fluencies with graduated levels of support for practice and az post statement of personal performance.

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Recognize Elements from a Familiar Story. By (date), after listening to a read aloud of a familiar text and given (1) verbal question about a story element (e.g. Writing & Essays To Foreign. “Who is Spot?”, “Where is Spot’s ball?”), (name) will point to the text illustration that matches the given story element, for (4 out of 5) story element recognition exercises. By (date), after a read aloud of a familiar story, when given a series of (3) picture cards that represent the events in the story and a verbal prompt to sequence the cards (e.g. Teacher asks What happened first?), (name) will place the statement of personal, cards in the correct story order in (2 out of 3) sequencing activities. By (date), after participating in in uk a read aloud of grade level text, (name) will retell a familiar story including (5) key details with teacher prompting (e.g. What happened in statement of personal the beginning?) in (4 out of 5 consecutive trials as measured by teacher-charted observation). Retell Beginning, Middle, End of a Story. By (date), after a teacher read aloud of a grade level literary story, (name) will retell (1) key detail from the beginning, middle, and end of the story (e.g. verbally, writing, or drawing) with the and punishments, support of guiding questions (e.g. “What did the main character do at the beginning of the of personal, story?”) and bread givers essay visual aids (e.g. picture cards, graphic organizer) for (4 out of 5) stories.

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Before students are comfortable generating a free-form response, they can demonstrate their knowledge by selecting the correct answer(s) fro. A sentence starter provides a frame for students to express their thoughts in writing or speaking. It can be used to assist students to focu. Leveled texts belong to various leveling systems and are a common feature in today’s reading programs. Texts are classified and matched to s. Have any feedback about az post statement of personal this page?

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essay figure earth Journey to the Center of the Earth . Lawrence W. Braile, Professor. Dept. of az post history, Earth and Atmospheric. Sheryl J. Braile, Teacher. Happy Hollow School. ( January 25, 2002 ; updated. April 9, 2004; October 15, 2011) “But in dissertation services in uk, the cause of science men are expected to statement, suffer.” (p. 28, A Journey to the Center of the dissertation services Earth , Jules Verne, 1864) Objectives : This virtual journey to the center of the Earth introduces the traveler to the structure, material properties and conditions within the Earth’s interior. The size and scale of the Earth and of the Earth’s internal structure are also emphasized because the journey utilizes a scale model of the depths within the Earth. Opportunities for creative writing and connections to literature are also provided through Jules Verne’s 1864 science fiction novel, A Journey to the Center of the Earth , and the 20 th Century Fox 1959 movie adaptation (titled Journey to the Center of the Earth ) starring James Mason, Pat Boone, Arlene Dahl, and Diane Baker.

Background: In the 1800’s there was considerable scientific and popular interest in what was in the interior of the Earth. The details of the internal structure (crust, mantle, outer core, and inner core; and their composition and thicknesses; Figure 1) had not yet been discovered. And, although volcanic eruptions demonstrated that at least part of the interior of the Earth was hot enough to melt rocks, temperatures within the Earth and az post history the existence of on the, radioactivity were unknown. Jules Verne’s book, A Journey to the Center of the Earth (1864, 272 pages; originally published in statement of personal, France as Voyage au Centre de la Terre ), capitalized on this interest in the Earth and in adventure with an exciting science fiction story that is still popular today. Verne introduces us to a dedicated, and somewhat eccentric professor, and his nephew through whom the analysis essay story is told (see selected quotations below), who eventually travel into the Earth’s deep interior by entering into an opening in the crater of az post, a volcano in beccaria essays and punishments, Iceland . Figure 1. Earth’s interior structure.

The Earth’s crust is made up primarily of silicic (high percentage of Silicon and Oxygen) crystalline (distinct crystals of individual minerals are visible) rocks. The mantle makes up about 82% of the Earth by volume and az post statement of personal consists of bread, Iron- and of personal magnesium-rich silicate rocks. About Exchange Rate. The core is az post of personal history mostly iron, with a small percentage of nickel. The outer core is essays and punishments molten and az post of personal history the inner core is solid. “…and my uncle a professor of essays on crimes and punishments, philosophy, chemistry, geology, mineralogy, and many other ologies.” (p.1, Jules Verne, 1864) “I loved mineralogy, I loved geology. To me there was nothing like pebbles—and if my uncle had been in a little less of a fury, we should have been the happiest of families.” (p.3, Jules Verne, 1864) “His imagination is a perfect volcano, and to make discoveries in the interest of geology he would sacrifice his life.” (p. 14, Jules Verne, 1864) Verne’s novel is science fiction. We know today that such a journey would be impossible. Az Post. The temperature and pressure conditions within the Earth are so extreme that humans could not survive below a few kilometers depth within the 6371 km radius Earth. Furthermore, we know of no significant openings that would provide access to the deep interior of the planet, and caves or cavities at great depth are nearly impossible based on our knowledge of temperature and pressure within the Earth and & for admission the properties of Earth materials.

However, Verne’s story is an interesting one and it is the of personal history inspiration (along with the desire to provide materials for learning about the Earth’s interior) for this Earth science educational activity. By the late 1800’s, observations of temperature in mines and bread givers essay drill holes had demonstrated that temperature within the Earth increased with depth, and thus it is possible that the Earth’s interior is of personal history very hot. & Essays For Admission. Seismographic recordings in the early 1900’s were used to identify the Earth’s thin (about 5 – 75 km thick) crust (in 1909) and statement of personal history the existence of the core (in 1906). In 1936, Danish seismologist Inge Lehman presented evidence for the existence of a solid inner core. Since then, seismology and other geological and geophysical studies have provided considerably more detailed information about the structure, composition and conditions of the interior of the Earth. Analysis Yellow. These features will be highlighted during our virtual “Journey to az post statement of personal history, the Center of the essay on the Earth”.

As it is commonly done, we have represented (Figure 1 and statement of personal history Table 1) the Earth as a layered sphere of 6371 km radius. The Earth is on the yellow wallpaper actually not quite spherical. Because of the rotation on its axis, the Earth is history approximately an ellipsoid with the equatorial radius being about 21 km larger than the beccaria and punishments polar radius. Also, in detail, the Earth is not exactly spherically symmetric. Lateral as well as vertical variations in composition and rock properties have been recognized from seismological and other geophysical observations. Finally, because of plate tectonics, there are significant differences in shallow Earth structure in continental versus oceanic areas, near plate boundaries, and at different locations on the surface. For these reasons, the az post statement depths to the boundaries that we will encounter in our journey would be slightly different if we chose a different location for the start of our journey. The depths, properties and other descriptions listed in on crimes and punishments, the scale model for az post of personal history, our journey are reasonable average values for a continental region. Once one realizes that the interior of the Earth is beccaria on crimes and punishments hot, it is natural to ask, why is it hot?

Because the Earth is az post 4.5 billion years old, it would seem logical that the planet would have cooled by now. The heat within the Earth results primarily from two sources – original heat from the Earth’s formation and radiogenic heat (Poirier, 2000). Beccaria. The largest of these sources, radiogenic heat, is mostly produced by three, naturally occurring, radioactive elements, Uranium, Thorium and Potassium. These elements are present in statement history, the mantle at concentrations of about 0.015 ppm (parts per million; meaning that only about 15 of every billion atoms in the mantle are Uranium) for research circumcision, Uranium, 0.080 ppm for statement, Thorium and 0.1% for analytical writing essays for admission to foreign universities, Potassium (Brown and az post Mussett, 1981). Spontaneous radioactive decay of these elements releases heat. Although the major radioactive elements are more concentrated (10 to 100 times as abundant) in the Earth’s crust, most of the dissertation services outline radiogenic heat production comes from the mantle because of the much greater volume. The original heat from formation of the Earth dates from the accretion of the Earth from planetesimals that bombarded the early planet converting gravitational energy into statement of personal history, heat. Modern scientific information about the interior of the Earth comes from and punishments, a variety of studies including: seismology in which seismic waves from earthquakes and other sources are used to generate images of the interior structure and determine the physical properties of Earth materials; analysis of the Earth’s gravity field indicates density variations; high-pressure mineral experiments that are used to infer the composition of deep layers; thermal modeling of of personal, temperature measurements in drill holes; modeling of the Earth’s magnetic field that is produced by thesis about rate, convection currents in of personal, the electrically-conductive outer core; and chemical analysis of rock samples (called xenoliths) from deep within the Earth that are brought to the surface in volcanic eruptions.

More information about the deep Earth and the methods of study of the Earth’s interior can be found in the references listed below. A good starting point is the book by Bolt (1993), the beccaria on crimes American Scientist article by az post statement of personal history, Wysession (1995) or a chapter on the Earth’s interior by Wysession from an services in uk introductory geology textbook (see reference list). More advanced readers may wish to refer to Brown and Mussett (1981), Jeanloz (1993), Ahrens (1995), Wysession (1996), Poirier (2000) and Gurnis (2001). For younger readers, examine the children’s book by az post statement of personal history, Harris (1999). Much of the information about deep Earth properties and conditions given in Table 1 comes from Ahrens (1995). Information about microbes in the Earth’s crust (mentioned in the Narrative, Stop number 3) is from givers, Fredrickson and Onstott (1996). Procedure and Teaching Strategies: A scale model (either a “classroom” scale or a “playground or hallway” scale; Figures 1 and 2 and Table 1) is az post used to provide the essays on crimes and punishments depths and locations of stops for a virtual journey to the center of the Earth.

Using a meter stick or meter wheel, mark out the locations of the 12 stops in the classroom (1:1,000,000 scale model; 6.37 m long) or playground or hallway (1:100,000 scale model; 63.7 m long). Masking tape placed on statement history, the floor or pavement is a convenient method for marking the stops. A felt pen can be used to label the stop number on beccaria on crimes and punishments, the strip of masking tape. Folded index cards, labeled with the stop number, can also be used and have the advantage that the numbers can be seen from a distance (looking forward or backward to stops along the journey. Depths and the names of the locations can also be labeled using the masking tape, if desired. Provide each student in the class with a copy of the “Tour Guide” that can be produced as described near the end of this document. Folding the page in “thirds” creates a small brochure that each student can use on the tour and statement of personal history take home to help them remember the information that they learned and research their experiences on the Journey to the Center of the Earth. 1. With the class, start at stop number 1 (the Earth’s surface) and read the first part of the “Journey to the Center of the Earth Narrative” (below). Proceed to the other stops and statement history read the appropriate section of the narrative at each stop. Be sure to point out the and punishments distance that you’ve traveled in each move (by looking forward and backward along the model and using the scaled and actual distances from Table 1) and the distance that is az post of personal remaining to travel to the Earth’s center. Answer student (traveler) questions at each stop.

The information in Table 1 may be useful for answering questions. Other questions may form the basis of writing & to foreign, class or individual student research (“let’s find out”) using the references listed below or library or Internet searches. 2. When back in the classroom, use transparencies (or copies) of Table 1 and Figures 1, 2 and 3 to review with the az post statement students the bread givers essay main features of the Earth’s interior and the properties and conditions at az post of personal history various depths within the Earth. Note the increases in density, temperature and pressure with depth within the Earth and the abrupt changes in density at the major boundaries between layers. Additional questions can be answered or used to prompt additional study (such as other activities related to the Earth’s interior structure or plate tectonics) or research or to provide an assessment of student learning from the bread essay activity.

3. History. As an extension, or to connect to beccaria essays on crimes, reading, writing and literature study, have the class read Jules Verne’s A Journey to the Center to az post of personal history, the Earth (or selected chapters) or watch the in uk movie (it is statement of personal history about 2 hours long, although one could skip the beccaria essays on crimes first approximately 30 minutes; starting as the explorers begin to climb the volcano). Relevant writing assignments for the students could be to write their own brief version of A Journey to the Center of the Earth based on the more accurate information about the nature of the Earth’s interior; write a review of the book or movie, or write about the inaccuracies and misconceptions that are evident in the book and movie. The accuracies and misconceptions also can provide material for an effective class discussion and assessment of student learning after reading Verne’s book or viewing the movie. 4. For younger students, reading Journey to statement of personal history, the Center of the Earth (Harris, 1999) or The Magic School Bus Inside the Earth (Cole, 1987) before or after completing the journey is a useful extension and connection to beccaria and punishments, literature. 5. Related Earth structure activities include Earth’s Interior Structure (Braile, 2000) and Three-D Earth Structure Model (Braile and Braile, 2000). A useful and statement of personal history attractive color poster (Earth Anatomy poster) illustrating Earth’s interior structure is available from the essay on the Wright Center for Science Education, Tufts University . A page size version of the poster can be downloaded from http://www.tufts.edu/as/wright_center/svl/posters/erth.html. 6. Additional extensions are also possible. An interesting assignment is to statement of personal history, have each student or pair of students select one stop (depth) along the services outline journey. Have the student or student team learn about the az post statement history materials and conditions at that depth (some additional reading from the references provided below or from bread givers, online sources would be necessary) and then draw an illustration that can be used to help describe each stop on the journey. Az Post Statement Of Personal History. Rock samples, if available (even photographs of rock or mineral samples from a book or from the Internet*), could also be placed at each stop to help illustrate the materials that make up the Earth’s interior. A piece of iron or steel can be used for dissertation services, the Earth’s core remembering that it will be liquid iron in the outer core.

The student experts from one class, stationed at az post statement of personal history each stop, could also be the bread tour guides that would provide information, show their illustration and rock sample, and read the appropriate section of the journey narrative for another class or group of students. History. The experience of students learning in-depth information about one area of the tour and serving as “experts” can be an excellent “students teaching students” approach to learning. To emphasize the long journey or tour experience in the “Journey to the Center of the Earth” activity, a glass of circumcision, water, a piece of candy or other refreshments could be served at one of the stops, probably the core/mantle boundary (stop 10) which is a little less than half way along the journey in terms of depth. 7. Statement Of Personal History. Connections of this activity to the National Science Education Standards (National Research Council, 1996) are listed in Table 3 below. * Photographs of appropriate rocks and minerals can be found at several online sources, including: http://www.soes.soton.ac.uk/resources/collection/minerals/ (these photos can be enlarged by clicking on the photo until the photograph is almost full screen size); examples of sedimentary rocks are appropriate for the surface stop, number 1, click on beccaria, “Sedimentary Rocks” at top of web page; for example, see sample #8, a sandstone; Granite samples from the “Igneous Rocks” link can be used for stops 2, 3, 4, and 5, alternatively, Gneiss samples could be used to represent crustal rocks, particularly for stops 4 and 5 that are deeper in the upper continental crust; Gabbro or Basalt samples, also from the “Igneous Rocks” link can be used to represent lower crustal rocks; a photograph of Olivine, an iron-magnesium silicate that is a common mineral in the Earth’s mantle – stops 6 – 10 – can be found in history, the “Minerals” section of the above web site or at: http://www.musee.ensmp.fr/gm/836.html; for the Earth’s core, a photo of an iron-nickel meteorite (http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/outreach1/expmetmys/slideset/IronMet.JPG) is a good representation of the material that forms the core. A selection of photos that are useful for representing typical rocks from the bread givers essay Earth’s interior is provided in Table 2 below. Table 1. Journey to the Center of the Earth.

Scaled Depth (m) 1:1 million. Scaled Depth (m) 1:100,000. Name or Location. Sed. Rocks Granitic Rk. Deepest Drill Hole. Mafic Rock Olivine-rich Rk. Base of Lithosphere. Upper Mantle Transition. Fe-Mg Silicate Liquid Iron. Inner Core/Outer Core Bound.

Liquid Iron Solid Iron. Center of Earth. Table 1. (cont.) Journey to the Center of the Earth. The Earth's surface is a marked boundary, between the solid or liquid Earth below and az post statement of personal the Atmosphere above, with distinct changes in properties. Surface materials on on the yellow, land are usually soil, sediments, sedimentary rocks or weathered crystalline rocks. Beneath surface sedimentary rocks, lies a crystalline basement made up of igneous or metamorphic rocks, usually of granitic composition. A typical depth to the basement is 1 km although deep (5 km) sedimentary basins are common. The deepest depth that humans have explored on land is in a gold mine in South Africa -- almost 3.6 km deep.

In the oceans, a special submarine carried explorers to the bottom of the Mariana trench at over 11 km below the Pacific Ocean 's surface. Upper layer of continental crust consists of granitic (high % of Silicon and Oxygen) rocks. Except in subduction zones, where two plates collide, most earthquakes occur in the upper crust. Lower crust is more mafic (higher % of Mg and Fe). The deepest drill holes in the Earth are about az post history, 12 km deep. Rock samples have been recovered from beccaria on crimes, these depths.

The holes have been drilled for scientific study of the crust and to explore for petroleum in deep sedimentary basins. The crust-mantle boundary, or Moho, separates mafic rocks of the lower crust from Olivine-rich rocks that make up the Earth's mantle. The depth to the Moho varies from about 10 km in oceanic regions to over 70 km beneath high mountain areas. The depth of this boundary is controlled by az post of personal, temperature. It is a gradual rather than an thesis about exchange abupt boundary. The lithosphere (tectonic plates) above is relatively cool, rigid and brittle. Az Post Statement Of Personal. Lower lithosphere is mantle. Beneath is the soft asthenosphere. Partial melting of mantle rocks in this layer produces magma for volcanic eruptions and intrusions.

Although a solid, asthenosphere is hot enough to flow in convection currents. Thesis. Lithosphere/asthenosphere boundary is shallower in hot regions. As pressure increases with depth in mantle, Fe and Mg silicate minerals compress into more dense crystalline forms in the transition zone and below. Mantle is of personal history relatively homogeneous chemically and forms. 82% of beccaria and punishments, Earth by volume. Deep earthquakes in subduction zones are found to az post of personal history, a depth of about 670 km. Boundary separates liquid iron core from the silicate rock mantle. A transition zone ( 200 km thick) exists just above the core-mantle boundary that may represent areas of partially melted mantle (the bottom of mantle plumes) from heat flowing from the outer core, or old lithospheric slabs that have descended to the bottom of the mantle. The core is. 16.5% of the Earth by writing universities, volume but about az post statement of personal, 33% of the Earth by mass. No seismic shear waves travel in outer core.

Convection currents in the electrically conductive outer core produce Earth's magnetic field. This boundary separates the solid inner core from the and punishments liquid iron (and. 10% nickel, sulfur, silicon and az post statement of personal history oxygen) outer core. Although the radius of the inner core is about 1216 km, the inner core includes only about 0.7% of the bread essay volume of the Earth. Earth's center is within the dense, iron inner core.

Although the temperature is very high, the of personal pressure is so great ( 3.6 million times the essay on the yellow wallpaper pressure at the surface), that the inner core is solid. Table 1. (cont.) Journey to the Center of the Earth Description of Column. 1. Stop Number -- The stop number for our virtual Journey to the Center of the Earth, in which we will travel from the Earth's surface to statement, the Earth's center (using a scale model). 2. Essay On The Yellow Wallpaper. Depth -- The depth (in the Earth) in kilometers corresponding to each stop in our journey. Many of the depths are approximate and will vary by location. 3. Scaled Depth -- The depth (in meters) for az post statement of personal history, each stop in the 1:1 million scale model. Total. depth (surface to center) in the scale model is 6.37 m. Classroom scale model. 4. Scaled Depth -- The depth (in meters) for each stop in the 1:100,000 scale model. Essay On The Wallpaper. Total. depth (surface to center) in history, the scale model is 63.7 m. Playground or hallway scale model.

5. Name or Location -- Description or name of the location of analytical & to foreign universities, each stop. 5. Az Post Of Personal. Rock/Material -- Rock type, description or composition of the material at each stop. Analysis Essay On The Yellow Wallpaper. Two. entries separated by a line give the rock type or material both above and of personal below a boundary at the corresponding depth. 6. Density -- The approximate density (in grams per cubic centimeter; for comparison, the. density of water is 1 g/cm 3 ) of the material at each stop. Two entries separated by a line give the density of the rock or material above and below the boundary. 7. Analytical & Universities. Pressure -- The approximate pressure (in Mega-Pascals) at each stop (depth in the Earth).

One atmosphere of pressure (the pressure at the Earth's surface due to the weight of the atmosphere above us) is history about 0.1 MPa (1 Kg/cm 2 or. 14 lbs/in 2 ). The pressure in the tires of a car (and at about 10 meters depth under water) is about 2 atmospheres or about 0.2 MPa. 8. Temperature -- The approximate temperature in degrees Celsius at each stop (depth in & essays for admission to foreign universities, the. 9. Description/Comments -- Description and az post of personal history comments about the material and conditions at. each stop in dissertation, the journey.

Figure 2. Earth’s interior (to scale) showing the depths to the major boundaries between the Earth’s layers (spherical shells). The numbered dots indicate the locations of the stops (Table 1) in our virtual journey. A close-up view (Figure 3) of the upper 150 km of the Earth’s interior shows the locations of the first eight stops. Figure 3. Shallow Earth structure showing the depths to boundaries in the upper 150 km of the Earth. The numbered dots indicate the locations of the first 8 stops (Table 1) in az post history, our virtual journey. Narrative for “Journey to the Center of the Earth”: Attention!

Attention! We are ready to start our journey to the center of the Earth. My name is Mrs. Braile 1 and I will be your tour guide today. We are going to learn many fascinating things about the interior of the Earth. Please feel free to ask questions along the way and I will try to answer them.

Our journey is long, so I hope that you’ve had a big breakfast. Also, there are no rest rooms along the thesis rate way. So, prepare yourself for an exciting journey! We will begin at the Earth’s surface – our familiar home. Except for natural caves, tunnels, mine shafts, and drill holes that extend from the surface to az post statement, depths of analysis essay yellow wallpaper, a few kilometers, we know of no large openings that could provide access to the Earth’s deep interior. Furthermore, the very high temperature and pressure and of personal history the lack of air in the deep Earth create conditions that we could not survive. In addition, it is a long journey – it is 6371 kilometers to the Earth’s center. If we were able to walk directly to writing & essays for admission to foreign universities, the Earth’s center, it would take about 53 days (at 5 km/hr, 24 hours per day) of walking. Az Post Statement History. And then, we’d have to walk back! Even if there were a very fast elevator that would take us to the Earth’s center, the time that our journey would take would only be reduced to about 4 ½ days. If there was a highway to the Earth’s center, it would take about 64 hours to analysis essay, drive there at 100 km/hr.

Because of of personal history, these facts, we will be taking a virtual journey to the center of the beccaria essays on crimes and punishments Earth using a scale model. Statement History. The scale that we will be using is 1:100,000 (one to one hundred thousand) in which one centimeter in our model represents one kilometer of depth in the real Earth. Using this scale, our model of the distance from the Earth’s surface to its center is 63.7 meters long. Thesis Exchange Rate. 2 Another way to understand the concept of scale is to realize that we would have to multiply the depths in our scale model by 100,000 in order to produce the actual depths in the Earth! We will begin at the surface and make 12 stops along our journey to the center of the az post history Earth. At each stop, we’ll observe the relative distance that we’ve traveled in our scale model, and learn about the dissertation in uk materials and conditions that exist at these locations within the az post statement history Earth. Stop Number 1 – Earth’s Surface: We’re already at our first stop – the Earth’s surface. If we began our journey at a different location we would probably find different geological materials at the surface. For example, if we started in a desert region, we might find sand deposits or sandstones at the surface, or if we started in Hawaii , we would most likely begin on volcanic rock. Paper Circumcision. If we began our journey in the middle of the ocean, we would find a layer of ocean water at the surface.

Here in az post of personal, Indiana, the near-surface deposits are mostly glacial sediments deposited during the period of 15,000 to about a million years ago. 1 Beneath the glacial sediments are layers of Paleozoic sandstones, shales and limestones that were deposited in a shallow ocean over 300 million years ago. Analysis Essay On The Yellow. Of course, above us is the Earth’s atmosphere, consisting of statement, about 21% oxygen, which we breathe in bread givers, order to live. Deep in the Earth, we would not have sufficient air to breath. However, that won’t be a problem in our virtual journey. Let’s go to our next stop – it isn’t far. Stop Number 2 – Top of the az post statement of personal Crystalline Basement: Here we are about 1 km beneath the surface. In continental regions, this is bread a typical depth to the bottom of the near-surface sediments and history sedimentary rocks. The crystalline basement is immediately beneath us. In areas where there are deep sedimentary basins, or in dissertation services in uk, ocean basins, the statement of personal history depth to the basement is significantly greater – up to 10 km or more. Research Paper. In continental areas, the crystalline basement usually consists of igneous and metamorphic rocks of of personal history, granitic composition.

These rocks have interlocking crystals made of minerals that are easily visible and have a composition that includes about 70% Silicon and Oxygen. You may be familiar with the common igneous rock of this type, called granite. Analytical & To Foreign Universities. The crystalline basement is the statement top of a layer that makes up most of the Earth’s crust. Our next stop is even deeper in the crust. Stop Number 3 – Depth of Deepest Mine: This stop is at a depth of 3.6 km (3600 meters) below the surface and is the analytical writing for admission to foreign depth of the deepest mine in az post statement history, the world. It is a gold mine in South Africa , and it’s the greatest depth that humans have gone beneath the continents. However, it is not the greatest depth where life exists. Essays On Crimes. Subsurface bacteria (microbes) have been found in history, drill holes about 3 km beneath the surface and have been shown to beccaria on crimes, be able to survive temperatures as high as 110 degrees Celsius. At this temperature, it is likely that microbes exist in the Earth’s crust as deep as about 7 km beneath oceans and about 4-5 km beneath continents.

As you might notice, it’s starting to get very warm – about 50 degrees Celsius. You can touch the rocks but don’t leave your hand on the rocks for az post statement history, very long or you will burn your hand! Stop Number 4 – Upper Crust: We’re now deep within the beccaria crust at a depth of 10 km. Because these granitic rocks are still relatively cool (although they are about 180 degrees Celsius – about as hot as a bread oven), they are brittle. Except in subduction zones, where two tectonic plates collide, most of the az post statement history world’s earthquakes occur within the upper crust within a few kilometers of analytical writing & to foreign, our present depth. If we had begun our journey above a deep sedimentary basin, we might find petroleum deposits (oil or natural gas within the pore spaces of sandstones or other porous rocks) at statement this depth. If we had begun our journey at the surface of the ocean, we would be near the base of the oceanic crust at this depth. The oceanic crust consists of marine sediments overlying rocks of approximately basaltic composition. If there are no questions, we’ll go to the next depth. Stop Number 5 – Deepest Drill Hole: Here we are at about 12 km beneath the surface.

This is the depth of the world’s deepest drill hole (in the Kola peninsula of Russia ). The pressures and givers temperatures are so great that it is of personal history difficult to build drill bits and drilling equipment that will penetrate these rocks. The rocks are also so compacted that there is almost no space between the beccaria essays on crimes and punishments crystals or grains that make up the rocks. Statement Of Personal History. We definitely couldn’t survive here. Although our next stop is the base of the services outline continental crust, it’s only about one half of of personal history, one percent of the way along our journey! We shouldn’t delay. Stop Number 6 – Base of the Crust: We’ve reached the base of the bread essay crust.

It is also called the crust/mantle boundary, or “Moho”, after Andrija Mohorovicic the Croatian seismologist who discovered this prominent boundary in of personal, 1909. If you’ll look back toward the paper on female Earth’s surface, you’ll notice that we really haven’t gone very far on our journey to statement history, the center of the Earth. The depth to the Moho averages about 35 km beneath continents but is about 10 – 15 km depth beneath oceans. Beccaria Essays. The Moho is an abrupt boundary in composition and properties. Az Post Statement Of Personal. Just above the Moho, the lowest layer of the crust consists of analysis yellow wallpaper, more mafic (higher in Magnesium and Iron) rocks than the granitic rocks that we’ve been traveling through in the upper crust. Below is the mantle – a thick layer that forms about 82% of the Earth’s volume; so we’ll be traveling through the az post statement of personal history mantle for a long time. Like the crust, the mantle is also made up of silicate (high percentage of Silicon and analysis essay wallpaper Oxygen) rocks.

However, these rocks have a significantly higher percentage of Iron and Magnesium. A common material in the mantle is Olivine – an olive green mineral that is commonly found as large crystals in basaltic volcanic rocks such as in Hawaii . Let’s go to az post statement of personal history, the next stop. Stop Number 7 – Base of the Lithosphere: Here we are at the base of the writing essays to foreign universities lithosphere. Notice that the lithosphere consists of the crust and the uppermost part of the mantle. This boundary is gradual with depth, not an abrupt “discontinuity”. The depth ( 50 – 300 km) to the base of the lithosphere is controlled by temperature. Where temperatures in the upper mantle are higher than average, such as beneath mid ocean ridges and in active tectonic zones in continental areas, the lithosphere is thinner. Az Post Statement. Old, relatively cool lithosphere is analytical writing & for admission much thicker. The lithosphere forms the tectonic plates that separate, collide, and slide past each other to create the Earth’s landscape and produce mountain ranges, faults, earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. Below the lithosphere, temperatures are hot enough to partially melt the statement of personal history mantle rocks, forming the asthenosphere – the primary source of magma that erupts from analytical writing & to foreign, volcanoes on the surface.

The asthenosphere is our next stop. Stop Number 8 – Asthenosphere: Except beneath areas that are very old (over about one billion years) and have relatively cool upper mantle, at our current depth of 150 km, we would find ourselves within a very hot (about 1300 degrees Celsius) mantle that is partially (probably less than 1-2 percent) molten and flowing. Convection currents in the asthenosphere (and perhaps deeper in the mantle) are a likely cause of plate motions. Because the plates are moving very slowly – a few cm per year (about the speed that your fingernails grow) – you don’t have to be worried about being swept away by these currents. Because seismic shear waves travel through the asthenosphere, we classify this part of the mantle (as well as the rest of the mantle) as a solid even though it flows. You are probably familiar with a material that behaves this way at normal temperatures – Silly Putty . Silly putty behaves as a solid, and even bounces (like any elastic material) when rolled into a ball and dropped onto the floor. However, it can be stretched, and statement slowly flows over longer periods of time. It even flows slowly into dissertation services in uk outline, the form of the plastic egg-shaped container that it is of personal history sold in. This behavior, over longer periods of time, is dissertation services outline more like a liquid.

Take a close look at the rocks here. Statement History. You might find diamonds! Diamonds form in the upper mantle from Carbon atoms at high pressure at depths greater than about 150 km. The diamonds can be deposited closer to the surface in about exchange, “Kimberlite pipes” – narrow vents that are created in brief explosive eruptions. Well, we’ve got a long distance to go to our next stop, so we’d better start walking. Stop Number 9 – Upper Mantle Transition Zone: We’re well below the asthenosphere now at about 670 km depth. The pressure is so great at this depth that some of the minerals that form mantle rocks undergo a transformation in their crystal structure that results in a tighter packing of the atoms that make up the mineral. Because of this tighter packing, mantle rocks in the upper mantle transition zone (about 400 – 700 km) become denser with depth even though the of personal chemical composition of the rocks is services in uk virtually the same. Therefore, lower mantle rocks are similar in composition to the olivine-rich rocks of the statement of personal history upper mantle but are of higher density. If we had selected a location for our journey that was located above a subduction zone (a place where two plates collide), we might find ourselves within a subducted slab.

These parts of lithospheric plates descend, normally at steep angles and at typical plate tectonic velocities – about 2-10 cm/year, from the dissertation services in uk outline collision zone at the surface into the mantle. Therefore, these slabs formerly were near the Earth’s surface. Because the slabs remain cooler than the surrounding mantle for tens of millions of years, deep earthquakes occur within or at the edges of az post, these slabs. Services In Uk. The deepest earthquakes occur at statement of personal about 670 km depth. I know that you can feel the intense heat and pressure that are present at this depth, so we need to research paper on female circumcision, move on. Our destination, the center of the az post statement history Earth, is research paper circumcision still very distant; in az post, fact, we’ve only traveled just over 10 percent of our journey.

We’ll make fewer stops for the rest of the journey. Stop Number 10 – Core/Mantle Boundary: We’re now 2885 km below the surface and at the core/mantle boundary. Let’s turn around and analysis on the yellow look at the Earth’s surface to see how far we’ve gone and to see how much of the Earth is statement of personal mantle. Analysis Essay On The Yellow Wallpaper. Let’s also look further down in depth to the Earth’s center to see how far we have to go. Statement. This boundary is the most prominent boundary in the Earth’s interior. It is a dramatic boundary in composition, and paper on female therefore density, with silicate rocks of the mantle above and dense iron and nickel below. In addition, the mantle above is solid and statement the outer core below is liquid.

The boundary probably varies laterally, and in analytical essays universities, detail is a transition zone above the liquid outer core that is about 200 kilometers thick. The transition zone has been interpreted to consist of the bottom of mantle plumes where heat flowing from the outer core causes partial melting of the mantle rocks above the core mantle boundary and lithospheric plates (old subducted slabs) that have descended to the bottom of the mantle. The temperature here is about 3500 degrees Celsius, about 2 –3 times hotter than a blast furnace and hot enough to melt iron even under the great pressure that exists at this depth. Because of the az post statement of personal history dense rocks and high pressure, compressional seismic waves (P-waves) travel at nearly 14 km/s in the mantle just above this boundary. Because the outer core is liquid, the P-wave velocity decreases to about 8 km/s and shear (S) waves cannot propagate in dissertation in uk, the outer core. Also, the hot, electrically-conductive outer core liquid flows by convection, generating the az post statement Earth’s magnetic field. It is this magnetic field that aligns the needle on exchange, our compass at the Earth’s surface. You may wonder why the temperature is so high in the Earth’s interior.

Most of the heat comes from radioactive decay of Uranium, Thorium and Potassium atoms that are found in the mantle. These elements are of az post of personal history, fairly small concentration in the mantle, so the level of radioactivity is low. Analysis Essay On The. However, there are enough radioactive atoms in the mantle to az post statement of personal history, generate significant heat. Some of the Earth’s heat was also generated at the time of formation of the planet by bombardment of planetesimals (causing melting) during the accretion of the Earth. Because rocks are not good conductors of heat, the temperature in the interior has remained high. Well, it’s really getting hot, so I’m sure that you’re anxious to dissertation outline, complete our journey and get back to the Earth’s surface. Let’s hurry to our next stop. Stop Number 11 – Inner Core/Outer Core Boundary: We’re now 5155 km beneath the surface at the inner core/outer core boundary. The material both above and below us is iron, along with a small percentage of nickel and probably oxygen or sulfur. Above us the iron-nickel outer core is molten.

Below us the pressure is so high that, even though it is very hot, the iron-nickel inner core is solid. Although the radius of the inner core is 1216 km (look toward the center of the Earth in our model; that’s how far we have to go), the inner core is only 0.7 percent of the Earth by az post statement history, volume. Let’s hurry; only one more stop! Stop Number 12 – Center of the beccaria and punishments Earth: Well, we made it. Congratulations, we’re at statement history the center of the Earth! It’s 6371 km back to the surface. Take a look at how far we traveled from the surface. For Admission To Foreign. The temperature is about 5500 degrees Celsius.

The pressure is over 3.6 million times the pressure at the Earth’s surface. However, I must warn you to hold on ! Because there is az post statement approximately the same amount of Earth all around us (we’re in the center of exchange rate, a nearly spherical planet), Earth’s gravity here is ZERO. Az Post Statement Of Personal History. If there was an givers essay opening here, we would feel weightless! However, the pressure and temperature are very high, so we could not survive. It’s a good thing this is a virtual journey! It’s now time to go back to the surface. It’s been a long journey, so let’s go directly back. Back at Stop Number 1 – Earth’s Surface: Thank you for being such a good tour group! I hope that you’ve enjoyed our Journey to the Center of the Earth and that you’ve learned some interesting things about the Earth’s interior.

If you have any additional questions about our journey or about the interior of the Earth, I’d be glad to try to of personal history, answer them for you. 1 There are several places in the narrative that can be personalized for your use. 2 The narrative is research on female written assuming the playground or hallway (1:100,000, or 63.7 m long) scale model (Table 1). Az Post Of Personal. If the classroom (1:1,000,000, or 6.37 m long) scale model (Table 1) is used, change the appropriate numbers in the narrative. Ahrens, T.J. (editor), Global Earth Physics: A Handbook of Physical Constants , American Geophysical Union , Washington , DC, 379 pp., 1995. Bolt, B.A., Earthquakes and Geological Discovery , W.H. Freeman and on crimes and punishments Co., New York , 230. Braile, L.W., Earth’s Interior Structure, 2000,

Braile, L.W., and S.J. Braile, Three-D Earth Structure Model, 2000, Brown, G.C., and A.E. Mussett, The Inaccessible Earth , Allen and Unwin, London , 235. Cole, Joanna, The Magic School Bus Inside the of personal history Earth , Scholastic Inc., New York, 40 pp., Davidson, Keay, and A. R. Circumcision. Williams, Under our skin: Hot Theories on the origin of the. Earth, National Geographic , 189 , 100-111, January, 1996. Fredrickson, J.K., and T.C. Onstott, Microbes deep inside the Earth, Scientific American , 275 , 68-73, October, 1996.

Gurnis, Michael, Sculpting the Earth from Inside Out, Scientific American , 284 , 40-47, Harris, Nicholas (American text by Marc Gave; illustrations by Gary Hincks), Journey to. the Center of the Earth , Reader’s Digest Children’s Publishing, Inc., Pleasantville, NY, 31 pp., 1999. Jeanloz, Raymond, and Thorne Lay, The Core-Mantle Boundary, Scientific American , 268 , Journey to az post statement, the Center of the Earth , video, Twentieth Century Fox, 1959, $9.98, available. at www.amazon.com. [As would be expected, the movie version of on crimes and punishments, A Journey to the Center of the Earth is somewhat different from the story in the book.

There are additional characters and the story line has been changed, although the main feature of the story – the journey to the center of the history Earth – remains, and the personalities of the main characters are, in general, retained.] National Research Council, National Science Education Standards , National Academy of Sciences , Washington , D.C., 262 pp., 1996. Poirier, J.P., An Introduction to the Physics of the Earth’s Interior, 2 nd ed., Cambridge. University Press, Cambridge , UK , 312 pp., 2000. Verne, Jules, Voyage au Centre de la Terre , 1864; English translation, A Journey to the. Center of the Earth , originally published in English by Griffith and Farran, 1871; “Professor Hardwigg” version available in a Mass Market Paperback, 1995, $5.95, also available at dissertation in uk www.amazon.com, the text is also available online at: http://www.vt.edu/vt98/academics/books/verne/center_earth; “Professor Lidenbrock” version available in az post statement, a Penguin USA paperback, 1995, $4.95, also available at www.amazon.com; the text is analytical writing & essays for admission to foreign also available online at: http://jv.gilead.org.il/vt/c_earth/. [At least two, somewhat different, translations of Verne’s book are available. One, refers to a main character, the professor, as “Professor Hardwigg”, the other refers to this character as “Professor Lidenbrock”. We prefer the content and writing style of the “Hardwigg” version.] Wysession , M.E. , The inner workings of the Earth, American Scientist, 83 , 134-147,

Wysession , M.E. , Journey to the Center of the az post statement of personal history Earth, Earth , 5 , 46-49, December, 1996. Wysession, M.E., Earth’s Interior, Chapter 12 of Earth: An introduction to physical geology, 8th. Acknowledgments: We thank Michael Wysession, Barry Marsh and John and Kathy Taber for beccaria essays on crimes and punishments, providing information or assistance. The development of this activity was partially supported by of personal history, the National Science Foundation. Tour Guide: Provide each student in the class with a copy of the “Tour Guide” that can be produced by printing the next two pages of this document. Outline. Trim each image and enlarge each one to fit on one page. Or, print the Tour Guide from the .doc (recommended; margins are better) or .pdf files: guide.doc or guide.pdf. Statement. Copy (in color or black and white) on the front and back of a sheet of paper. Make copies for the class. Folding the page in “thirds” creates a small brochure that each student can use on the tour and take home to help them remember the information that they learned and their experiences on the Journey to the Center of the Earth.

To generate additional interest in the Journey to the Center of the Earth tour, one can make a construction paper “hardhat” (Figures 4 and beccaria on crimes 5) for the tour leader or for each participant in the tour (the idea of wearing a hat for the tour was provided by John and Kathy Taber). Labels: A set of labels for the stops along the Journey tour is available in the MS Word document: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/ braile/edumod/journey/labels.doc. The labels include a single page to mark the az post first five stops. Labels that can be placed at the appropriate scaled distance for Stop 1 and analytical writing essays for admission universities Stops 6-12 are also included. The label for the first five stops is designed for az post statement, the 1:100,000 scale (63.7 m scale model). The labels should be printed on card stock paper. Labels for Stops 1 and 6-12 can be folded to make a convenient and visible sign. This document at: MS Word format: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/

HTML format: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/ PDF format: http://web.ics.purdue.edu/ Figure 4. Template for making a “hardhat” (Figure 5) out of construction paper for the Journey to the Center of the Earth tour. Figure 5. Photograph of completed construction paper “hardhat.” The templates for the sides and top are given in Figure 4. The two sides are joined to the top with small pieces of transparent tape in the inside of the about exchange rate hat. Az Post History. The Journey to the Center of the Earth logo (below) is taped to the front of the hat with two-sided tape. Table 2. Photographs of thesis about rate, rock samples that can be used to represent possible rock types for selected stops in the Earth’s interior*. 6. Iron-Nickel Meteorite. * Photos 1 – 5 courtesy of Barry Marsh, School of Ocean and of personal Earth Science, Southampton Oceanography Center , University of Southampton , UK ; used with permission. For more information and additional rock and mineral sample photographs, see http://www.soes.soton.ac.uk/resources/collection/minerals/. Photo 6 is from and punishments, NASA, http://www-curator.jsc.nasa.gov/outreach1/expmetmys/slideset/Slides35-42.htm. Table 3. Journey to the Center of the Earth and the National Science Education Standards (NSES; National Research Council, 1996).

How standard is addressed in Journey to the Center of the Earth activities (see Procedure and statement of personal history Teaching Strategies section for more details)* Activities include inquiry and opportunities for student involvement (A, B) and provide opportunities for ongoing assessment of student learning (C). The activity provides opportunities and bread essay appropriate resource material for teachers to learn about an Earth science topic that is not likely to have been included in their previous educational experiences and that build on az post statement, their previous knowledge (A, C) and includes suggestions for effective teaching strategies (B). Authentic assessment activities are suggested (C). - Unifying Concepts and.

Processes in givers essay, Science. Activity provides experience with observation, evidence and explanation, and constancy, change and measurement. - Science as Inquiry. Includes discussion of statement of personal history, observations and evidence that result in conclusions about properties and conditions in the Earth’s interior. - Physical Science Standards. Activity explores properties and changes of essays, properties in matter (Grades 5-8, B). Activity explores structure and properties of matter (Grades 9-12, B). - Earth and Space Science. Activity explores structure of the Earth system (Grades 5-8, D). Activity relates to energy in the Earth system, origin and evolution of the az post Earth system (Grades 9-12, D).

- History and Nature of Science. Activity includes discussion of essay, history of science, science as a human endeavor (and a connection to az post statement of personal history, literature) (Grades 5-8, G). Activity includes discussion of science as a human endeavor and historical perspectives (and a connection to writing & essays for admission to foreign universities, literature) (Grades 9-12, G). Copyright 2002-2014. L. Braile and S. Braile.

Permission granted for of personal, reproduction for non-commercial uses.