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Anthropology General Anthropology Essay Sample. Acculturation. The textbook discusses the process of acculturation. Assign. After viewing the film, Indian School: Stories of Survival, answer the following questions: What is the definition of acculturation? What happened to the Native American children in the film? Why did the ronald mcdonald American government decide to acculturate them into Western culture? How did this affect them long term? Is acculturating others into another culture ever justified? Cultural Relativism. Cultural relativism asserts that every culture has its own set of uva web customs and beliefs, and that culture must be understood by the standards and values of the people within that culture.
Anthropologists think that things that might seem cruel or irrational in our own culture must be seen through the lens of cultural relativity, and that all cultures have practices or beliefs that can be seen by others as repugnant or incomprehensible. After reading the U.N. Declaration of Human Rights, explain whether you think that cultural relativism can coexist with the idea of essay universal human rights. Is it possible for anthropologists to promote human rights without imposing, for example, their own Western values and ideas of human rights? Week 2 Complete. Race and Identity.
Historian Robin Kelley stated, ďRace was never just a matter of how you look, itís about uva web, how people assign meaning to how you look.Ē With that in mind: After viewing the video clip, Social Implications of uva web assign Race, what do you think is meant by the term racial smog? How do racial categories shape our identities and social status? Language, Status, and uva web, Identity. Anthropologists believe that language sends messages about who we are, where we come from, and with whom we associate.
To download this material Click this link https://bitly.com/12By1wm. Many people think of mcdonald question parties when they hear the word college. Assign. College is much more than parties. You need to do some hard work before you start thinking about having any fun. The following paragraphs can assist you in doing just this, so that your college years make you ready for life. Anthropology General Anthropology. Week 1 Complete. Acculturation. The textbook discusses the process of acculturation. After viewing the film, Indian School: Stories of articles Survival, answer the following questions: What is the uva web assign definition of acculturation?
What happened to the Native American children in the film? Why did the uva web assign American government decide to acculturate them into Western culture? How did this affect them long term? Is acculturating others into another culture ever justified? Cultural Relativism. Cultural relativism asserts that every culture has its own set of customs and beliefs, and uva web, that culture must be understood by papers the standards and values of the people within that culture. Uva Web. Anthropologists think that things that might seem cruel or irrational in in research, our own culture must be seen through the lens of cultural relativity, and that all cultures have practices or beliefs that can be seen by assign others as repugnant or incomprehensible. After reading the U.N. Declaration of uva web assign Human Rights, explain whether you think that cultural relativism can coexist with the idea of universal human rights.
Is it possible for anthropologists to promote human rights without imposing, for example, their own Western values and ideas of human rights? Week 2 Complete. Race and Identity. Historian Robin Kelley stated, ďRace was never just a matter of how you look, itís about how people assign meaning to how you look.Ē With that in mind: After viewing the video clip, Social Implications of Race, what do you think is meant by the term racial smog? How do racial categories shape our identities and social status? Language, Status, and Identity. Anthropologists believe that language sends messages about who we are, where we come from, and uva web assign, with whom we associate. Based on the readings, can you explain how language can determine status?
Provide specific examples that illustrate and support your point of view. Is this the perfect essay for ronald mcdonald essay, you? Save time and order Anthropology General Anthropology. essay editing for only $13.9 per page. Top grades and quality guaranteed! Relevant essay suggestions for uva web assign, Anthropology General Anthropology. Mcdonald Question. Question 1 Multiple Choice 1 points A hominid is an ape-like primate that walks on two legs a non-human animal an example of uva web a #8220;paradigm#8221; none of short opinion these A Question#8230; Crash Movie Review.
When watching the movie trailer to uva web the movie Crash, I was fascinated to mla format essay see such a movie. Crash is a 2004 crime drama film, co-written, produced, and directed by Paul#8230; ďWhat courts as a decent human being is relative to historical circumstance, a matter of transient consensus about what attitudes are normal and what practices are unjustĒ(Wilson). I have to#8230; Marcus and assign, Fischer Anthropology as a Cultural Critique Notes. MARCUS AND FISCHER Ethnography Ė concern with descriptions Experimental moment Ė eccectical, free of authoritarian paradigm, interpretive, anti-establishment; Positivism vs. interpretive SELF-CRITIQUE Ė discrupts common sens, remise en question of#8230; 1. Articles. Your textbook describes Weber#8217;s famous secularization thesis in #8220;The Protestant Ethic#8221; (589-591). Uva Web. What does Weber think about the ronald mcdonald essay question relationship between religion and political structures? America is presented as an#8230; Ethnocentrism And Cultural Relativism.
Ethnocentrism and Cultural Relativism Ethnocentrism and uva web, Cultural Relativism are opposing but still complimentary forces in today#8217;s world. They are the cause of many wars and yet the enchantment of uva web assign travel,#8230;
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math essay format September 12, 1995. Section 1: Introduction: Why bother? Good mathematical writing, like good mathematics thinking, is a skill which must be practiced and developed for optimal performance. The purpose of this paper is to provide assistance for young mathematicians writing their first paper. The aim is not only to aid in the development of a well written paper, but also to help students begin to think about mathematical writing.
I am greatly indebted to a wonderful booklet, How to Write Mathematics, which provided much of the substance of this essay. Uva Web Assign! I will reference many direct quotations, especially from the section written by Paul Halmos, but I suspect that nearly everything idea in opinion, this paper has it origin in my reading of the booklet. It is available from the uva web assign, American Mathematical Society, and serious students of mathematical writing should consult this booklet themselves. Most of the other ideas originated in my own frustrations with bad mathematical writing. Although studying mathematics from bad mathematical writing is not the best way to learn good writing, it can provide excellent examples of in research procedures to be avoided. Thus, one activity of the active mathematical reader is to note the uva web, places at which a sample of written mathematics becomes unclear, and to avoid making the uva web assign, same mistakes his own writing. Mathematical communication, both written and spoken, is the filter through which your mathematical work is viewed. If the creative aspect of mathematics is compared to the act of composing a piece of music, then the art of writing may be viewed as conducting a performance of assign that same piece. As a mathematician, you have the privilege of conducting a performance of your own composition! Doing a good job of conducting is just as important to using newspaper articles in research the listeners as composing a good piece.
If you do mathematics purely for assign, your own pleasure, then there is no reason to write about it. Code Essay! If you hope to share the beauty of the mathematics you have done, then it is not sufficient to simply write; you must strive to write well . This essay will begin with general ideas about mathematical writing. The purpose is to help the student develop an assign outline for the paper. The next section will describe the difference between formal and informal parts of a paper, and essay give guidelines for each one. Section four will discuss the writing of an individual proof. The essay will conclude with a section containing specific recommendations to consider as you write and rewrite the paper. Section 2. Before you write: Structuring the paper.
The purpose of nearly all writing is to communicate. In order to communicate well, you must consider both what you want to communicate, and to whom you hope to communicate it. This is no less true for mathematical writing than for any other form of uva web assign writing. The primary goal of mathematical writing is to assert, using carefully constructed logical deductions, the using in research, truth of a mathematical statement. Careful mathematical readers do not assume that your work is well-founded; they must be convinced. This is assign your first goal in trafficking papers, mathematical writing. However, convincing the reader of the simple truth of your work is not sufficient. When you write about your own mathematical research, you will have another goal, which includes these two; you want your reader to appreciate the beauty of the mathematics you have done, and to understand its importance. If the whole of mathematics, or even the subfield in which you are working, is thought of as a large painting, then your research will necessarily constitute a relatively minuscule portion of the entire work.
Its beauty is seen not only in the examination of the specific region which you have painted (although this is important), but also by uva web assign, observing the way in which your own work 'fits' in human trafficking, the picture as a whole. These two goals--to convince your reader of the uva web, truth of opinion essay your deductions, and to allow your audience to see the beauty of your work in relation to the whole of mathematics--will be critical as you develop the outline for assign, your paper. At times you may think of yourself as a travel guide, leading the ronald mcdonald question, reader through territory charted only by you. A successful mathematical writer will lay out for her readers two logical maps, one which displays the connections between her own work and assign the wide world of mathematics, and another which reveals the internal logical structure of her own work. In order to colleges essay advise your reader, you must first consider for yourself where your work is located on uva web assign the map of mathematics. Essay Papers! If your reader has visited nearby regions, then you would like to uva web recall those experiences to essay his mind, so that he will be better able to understand what you have to add and to connect it to related mathematics. Asking several questions may help you discern the shape and location of your work: Does your result strengthen a previous result by giving a more precise characterization of assign something? Have you proved a stronger result of an old theorem by weakening the hypotheses or by strengthening the trafficking essay, conclusions? Have you proven the equivalence of uva web two definitions? Is it a classification theorem of structures which were previously defined but not understood?
Does is connect two previously unrelated aspects of mathematics? Does it apply a new method to an old problem? Does it provide a new proof for an old theorem? Is it a special case of a larger question? It is necessary that you explicitly consider this question of placement in the structure of mathematics, because it will linger in your readers' minds until you answer it. Failure to address this very question will leave the reader feeling quite dissatisfied.
In addition to providing a map to help your readers locate your work within the field of mathematics, you must also help them understand the internal organization of your work: Are your results concentrated in one dramatic theorem? Or do you have several theorems which are related, but equally significant? Have you found important counterexamples? Is your research purely theoretical mathematics, in the theorem-proof sense, or does your research involve several different types of mla format essay help activity, for example, modeling a problem on the computer, proving a theorem, and then doing physical experiments related to your work? Is your work a clear (although small) step toward the solution of a classic problem, or is it a new problem? Since your reader does not know what you will be proving until after he has read your paper, advising him beforehand about uva web assign what he will read, just as the mla format help, travel agent prepares his customer, will allow him to enjoy the trip more, and to understand more of the things you lead him to. To honestly and uva web deliberately explain where your work fits into the big picture of mathematical research may require a great deal of humility. Trafficking! You will likely despair that your accomplishments seem rather small. Do not fret!
Mathematics has been accumulating for thousands of years, based on the work of thousands (or millions) of practitioners. It has been said that even the best mathematicians rarely have more than one really outstanding idea during their lifetimes. It would be truly surprising if yours were to assign come as a high school student! Once you have considered the opinion essay, structure and relevance of uva web assign your research, you are ready to uva web assign outline your paper. The accepted format for research papers is much less rigidly defined for mathematics than for many other scientific fields. You have the latitude to develop the outline in a way which is appropriate for your work in particular. However, you will almost always include a few standard sections: Background, Introduction, Body, and Future Work. The background will serve to orient your reader, providing the first idea of where you will be leading him. In the background, you will give the most explicit description of the history of your problem, although hints and references may occur elsewhere. The reader hopes to have certain questions answered in this section: Why should he read this paper?
What is the point of uva web assign this paper? Where did this problem come from? What was already known in human trafficking, this field? Why did this author think this question was interesting? If he dislikes partial differential equations, for example, he should be warned early on uva web that he will encounter them. If he isn't familiar with the first concepts of probability, then he should be warned in newspaper in research, advance if your paper depends on that understanding. Remember at this point that although you may have spent hundreds of hours working on uva web assign your problem, your reader wants to have all these questions answered clearly in a matter of minutes. In the second section of your paper, the introduction, you will begin to lead the opinion essay, reader into your work in particular, zooming in from the big picture towards your specific results. Uva Web Assign! This is the place to introduce the using, definitions and lemmas which are standard in the field, but which your readers may not know. The body, which will be made up of several sections, contains most of your work. By the uva web, time you reach the final section, implications, you may be tired of your problem, but this section is critical to your readers.
You, as the world expert on the topic of your paper, are in a unique situation to ronald scholarship direct future research in your field. A reader who likes your paper may want to continue work in your field. (S)he will naturally have her/his own questions, but you, having worked on this paper, will know, better than your reader, which questions may be interesting, and which may not. If you were to continue working on this topic, what questions would you ask? Also, for some papers, there may be important implications of your work. If you have worked on a mathematical model of a physical phenomenon, what are the consequences, in the physical world, of your mathematical work? These are the questions which your readers will hope to have answered in the final section of the paper. You should take care not to disappoint them! Section 3. Uva Web! Formal and Informal Exposition. Once you have a basic outline for your paper, you should consider the formal or logical structure consisting of human essay papers definitions, theorems, and proofs, and uva web the complementary informal or introductory material consisting of motivations, analogies, examples, and metamathematical explanations. This division of the material should be conspicuously maintained in any mathematical presentation, because the uva web assign, nature of the uva web assign, subject requires above all else that the logical structure be clear. (p.1) These two types of material work in parallel to enable your reader to human papers understand your work both logically and uva web assign cognitively (which are often quite different--how many of you believed that integrals could be calculated using antiderivatives before you could prove the Fundamental Theorem of Calculus?) Since the formal structure does not depend on the informal, the author can write up the former in complete detail before adding any of the latter. (p. 2)
Thus, the next stage in the writing process may be to using articles develop an outline of the uva web, logical structure of your paper. Several questions may help: To begin, what exactly have you proven? What are the lemmas (your own or others) on which these theorems stand. Which are the corollaries of these theorems? In deciding which results to call lemmas, which theorems, and which corollaries, ask yourself which are the central ideas. Which ones follow naturally from mcdonald scholarship, others, and which ones are the real work horses of the paper? The structure of writing requires that your hypotheses and deductions must conform to a linear order. However, few research papers actually have a linear structure, in which lemmas become more and more complicated, one on top of another, until one theorem is proven, followed by a sequence of increasingly complex corollaries. On the contrary, most proofs could be modeled with very complicated graphs, in which several basic hypotheses combine with a few well known theorems in a complex way. There may be several seemingly independent lines of reasoning which converge at the final step.
It goes without saying that any assertion should follow the lemmas and theorems on which it depends. However, there may be many linear orders which satisfy this requirement. Uva Web! In view of this difficulty, it is your responsibility to, first, understand this structure, and, second, to arrange the necessarily linear structure of ronald mcdonald essay your writing to uva web assign reflect the structure of the work as well as possible. Code! The exact way in which this will proceed depends, of course, on the specific situation. One technique to assist you in revealing the assign, complex logical structure of mcdonald essay question your paper is a proper naming of results. By naming your results appropriately (lemmas as underpinnings, theorems as the real substance, and corollaries as the finishing work), you will create a certain sense of uva web parallelness among your lemmas, and help your reader to appreciate, without having struggled through the research with you, which are the really critical ideas, and opinion essay which they can skim through more quickly. Another technique for developing a concise logical outline stems from a warning by Paul Halmos, in uva web assign, HTWM, never to repeat a proof:
If several steps in the proof of Theorem 2 bear a very close resemblance to parts of the proof of Theorem 1, that's a signal that something may be less than completely understood. Other symptoms of the same disease are: 'by the short opinion essay, same technique (or method, or device, or trick) as in the proof of Theorem 1. ', or, brutally, 'see the proof of uva web assign Theorem 1'. When that happens the chances are very good that there is a lemma that is worth finding, formulating, and proving, a lemma from which both Theorem 1 and Theorem 2 are more easily and more clearly deduced. (p. 35) These issues of structure should be well thought through BEFORE you begin to write your paper, although the process of uva web assign writing itself which surely help you better understand the structure. Now that we have discussed the formal structure, we turn to the informal structure. The formal structure contains the formal definitions, theorem-proof format, and rigorous logic which is the assign, language of 'pure' mathematics. The informal structure complements the formal and runs in parallel. Ronald Mcdonald Essay! It uses less rigorous, (but no less accurate!) language, and plays an important part in elucidating both the mathematical location of the uva web assign, work, as we discussed above, and in presenting to the reader a more cognitive presentation of the opinion essay, work. For although mathematicians write in uva web assign, the language of logic, very few actually think in the language of question logic (although we do think logically), and so to understand your work, they will be immensely aided by assign, subtle demonstration of why something is true, and how you came to prove such a theorem. Outlining, before you write, what you hope to communicate in these informal sections will, most likely, lead to more effective communication.
Before you begin to write, you must also consider notation. Uva Web Assign! The selection of notation is a critical part of writing a research paper. Uva Web! In effect, you are inventing a language which your readers must learn in essay, order to understand your paper. Good notation firstly allows the uva web assign, reader to forget that he is learning a new language, and secondly provides a framework in which the essentials of your proof are clearly understood. Bad notation, on the other hand, is uva web assign disastrous and may deter the reader from even reading your paper. In most cases, it is wise to follow convention. Using epsilon for uva web assign, a prime integer, or x(f) for a function, is certainly possible, but almost never a good idea.
Section 4: Writing a Proof. The first step in writing a good proof comes with the statement of the theorem. Ronald Mcdonald Scholarship! A well-worded theorem will make writing the proof much easier. The statement of the theorem should, first of all, contain exactly the right hypotheses. Of course, all the necessary hypotheses must be included. Uva Web! On the other hand, extraneous assumptions will simply distract from the help, point of the theorem, and should be eliminated when possible. When writing a proof, as when writing an entire paper, you must put down, in a linear order, a set of hypotheses and deductions which are probably not linear in form. Uva Web Assign! I suggest that, before you write you map out the hypotheses and the deductions, and attempt to order the statements in a way which will cause the least confusion to the reader. In HTWM, Halmos offers several important recommendations about writing proofs: 1. Write the mla format help, proof forward. A familiar trick of bad teaching is to begin a proof by assign, saying: Given e, let d be e/2.
This is the traditional backward proof-writing of uva web assign classical analysis. It has the advantage of uva web assign being easily verifiable by a machine (as opposed to understandable by dress code colleges, a human being), and it has the dubious advantage that something at the end comes out to be less than e. The way to assign make the human reader's task less demanding is dress colleges essay obvious: write the proof forward. Start, as the author always starts, by putting something less than e, and then do what needs to be done--multiply by 3M2 + 7 at the right time and divide by 24 later, etc., etc.--till you end up with what you end up with. Neither arrangement is elegant, but the forward one is uva web assign graspable and rememberable. (p. 43) 2. Avoid unnecessary notation.
Consider: a proof that consists of a long chain of expressions separated by equal signs. Such a proof is human trafficking papers easy to write. The author starts from the assign, first equation, makes a natural substitution to get the second, collects terms, permutes, inserts and immediately cancels an scholarship question inspired factor, and by steps such as these proceeds till he gets the last equation. This is, once again, coding, and the reader is forced not only to learn as he goes, but, at assign the same time, to decode as he goes. The double effort is needless. By spending another ten minutes writing a carefully worded paragraph, the author can save each of his readers half an hour and essay a lot of confusion. The paragraph should be a recipe for action, to replace the unhelpful code that merely reports the results of the act and leaves the reader to guess how they were obtained. The paragraph would say something like this: For the uva web assign, proof, first substitute p for opinion, q, the uva web assign, collect terms, permute the factors, and, finally, insert and cancel a factor r. (p.
42-43) Section 5. Specific Recommendations. As in any form of communication, there are certain stylistic practice which will make your writing more or less understandable. These may be best checked and corrected after writing the first draft. Many of these ideas are from HTWM, and essay papers are more fully justified there. Notation that hasn't been used in several pages (or even paragraphs) should carry a reference or a reminder of the meaning. The structure should be easily discernible by headings and punctuation. Uva Web! There should be a clear definition of the scholarship question, problem at hand all the way through. The title is the uva web assign, first contact that readers will have with your paper. It must communicate something of the substances to the experts in your field as well as to the novices who will be interested.
Thus, while the terminology should be technically correct Don't over work a small punctuation mark such as a period or comma. They are easy for dress, the reader to overlook, and the oversight causes backtracking, confusion, delay. Example: Assume that aÂX. X belongs to the class C, . Assign! . The period between the opinion essay, two X's is uva web overworked. A good general rule is: never start a sentence with a symbol. Newspaper Articles! If you insist on starting the sentence with a mention of the thing the symbol denotes, put the appropriate word in apposition, thus: The set X belongs to uva web the class C, . Dress Code Colleges Essay! . The overworked period is no worse than the overworked comma. Assign! Not For invertible X, X* also is invertible, but For invertible X, the adjoint X* also is invertible. (p.
44) I recommend then with if in ronald scholarship, all mathematical contexts. The presence of then can never confuse; its absence can.(p.44) Another critical feature is the layout or architecture of the page. If it looks like solid prose, it will have a forbidding, sermony aspect; if it looks like computational hash, with a page full of symbols, it will have a frightening, complicated aspect. The golden mean is golden. Break it up, but not too small; use prose, but not too much. Intersperse enough displays to give the assign, eye a chance to help the brain; use symbols, but in the middle of enough prose to keep the mind from drowning in a morass of suffixes. (p. 44-5) The same symbol should never be used for more than one thing; if you have used n as a counter in one proof, use m in the next proof, unless the two play a similar role in each All notation should be meaningful (no free variables): avoid the use of irrelevant symbols. Newspaper Articles In Research! Example: On a compact space every real-valued continuous function f is bounded. What does the symbol f contribute to uva web the clarity of that statement. A showy way to say use no superfluous letters is to say use no letter only ronald essay question, once. (p.
41) In everyday English any is an ambiguous word; depending on uva web context that may hint at an existential quantifier (have you any wool?, if anyone can do it, he can) or a universal one (any number can play). Conclusion: never use any in mathematical writing. Replace it by uva web assign, each or every, or recast the whole sentence (p. Uva Web! 38) Other offenders, charged with lesser crimes, are 'where', and uva web assign 'equivalent', and 'if. then. if. then'. Where is usually a sign of a lazy afterthought that should have been thought through before.
If n is sufficiently large, then | an | e, where e is a preassigned positive number; both disease and cure are clear. Equivalent for theorems is logical nonsense. Assign! (By theorem I mean a mathematical truth, something that has been proved. Mla Format Help! A meaningful statement can be false, but a theorem cannot; a false theorem is uva web assign self-contradictory). As for if. then. if. then, that is just a frequent stylistic bobble committed by quick writers and human essay rued by slow readers. If p , then if q , then r . Logically, all is well, but psychologically it is just another pebble to stumble over, unnecessarily.
Usually all that is assign needed to avoid it is to mla format essay recast the sentence, but no universally good recasting exists; what is best depends on what is important in uva web, the case at hand. It could be If p and help q then r , or In the presence of p , the hypothesis q implies the conclusion r , or many other versions. Uva Web! (p. Scholarship Essay! 38-39) Use counter-examples to demonstrate the necessity of conditions on theorem Use words correctly: distinguish between function and value.
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States have the opportunity in our national balance of government power, to address policy challenges through innovation and experimentation, to lead by being the Mitigating and managing risks for both businesses and families and is critical for maintaining peace of mind that allows both businesses and families to thrive. Insurance policy ranges from short opinion essay, vehicle to life insurance and uva web assign cover everything in between. This diverse portfolio of issues can vary greatly by uva web assign state, meaning that it is important that states are able to regulate their Innovation and the intellectual property (IP) often underpinning it are crucial drivers of human progress. Uva Web. Innovation saves lives, facilitates human connections that have even sparked revolutions and entertains and using newspaper articles enchants people around the globe. Pharmaceuticals, computer operating systems, social networking sites and films are all tangible examples of the intellectual property that improve quality of life worldwide. Uva Web. IP rights and International trade creates jobs and drives economic growth. Trade supports millions of American jobs that offer higher than average wages.
The vast majority of U.S. exporters are not large corporations but small to medium sized enterprisesóan often untold story of dress code colleges American entrepreneurship. Those that doubt the power of global free markets need only observe Americaís trading partners who are accelerating State legal systems and the liability they exert on assign businesses and individuals are a disincentive to bad behavior and allow fair players to succeed in the marketplace. When lawsuits inappropriately punish good actors, resources are sucked out of the business economy, away from research development and trafficking job creation. Lawsuit reform, or tort reform, refocuses litigation on assign the reasonable reimbursement Modern, 401(k)-style plans are now commonplace in the private sector. For state workers, however, traditional pensions are still the short opinion essay norm. As former Utah State Senator Dan Liljenquist wrote in Keeping the Promise: State Solutions for Government Pension Reform, this is not a partisan issue, but a math problem. State Budget Solutions, a project of the ALEC Center for State Fiscal A market environment is essential for future success of the Internet.
A consumer and private-sector-driven approach to privacy via self-regulation avoids undue regulatory burden that would threaten a thriving electronic marketplace. The Internet has flourished due in large part to the unregulated environment in which it has developed and grown. Self-regulation, industry-driven standards, individual empowerment and a market environment generally In his first inaugural address, Thomas Jefferson said that ďthe sum of good governmentĒ was one ďwhich shall restrain men from injuring one anotherĒ and uva web assign ďshall leave them otherwise free to regulate their own pursuits of industry.Ē Sadly, governments Ė both federal and state Ė have ignored this axiom and continue to code colleges rapidly expand the assign already immense regulatory state. Virtually Smart budgeting is using articles in research, vital to a stateís financial health. The ALEC State Budget Reform Toolkit offers more than 20 policy ideas for addressing todayís shortfalls in assign, a forthright manner, without resorting to budget gimmicks or damaging tax increases. One way to stabilize budgets over time is to short embrace Tax and Expenditure Limitations (TELs). The most effective TELs, Mainstream economists, small business owners and taxpayers across the country understand that growth-oriented reforms mean increased opportunity for all. As demonstrated by the annual Rich States, Poor States: ALEC-Laffer State Economic Competitiveness Index, sound tax and fiscal policies are critical to economic health, allowing businesses and households to flourish.
A dynamic state economy starts with a principled tax code. As Maintaining a functional and healthy infrastructure is one of the cornerstones to economic growth. Assign. State transportation policy should encourage the use of using newspaper public-private partnerships to build and maintain infrastructure, give states the flexibility to determine how to best utilize transportation dollars and uva web remove unnecessary burdens to innovation. Adopting free-market policies that include collaboration with the private sector, transportation systems and American businesses are increasingly worried about the code colleges essay quality of the workforce pool from which they will be hiring. Too few American students are graduating high school or college with the skills employers need.
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Essay: ĎTess of DíUrbervillesí and the Victorian Era. Chapter 1. The Victorian Era 3 Chapter 2. Tess, the tragedy of an unfair existence 14 Chapter 3. Rape or seduction? 27 Chapter 4. Anna Karenina and Tess of the DíUrbervilles, a tragic destiny 41. Chapter 5. Conclusions. The MA dissertation ĎTess of DíUrbervilles, an unfair existenceí deals with the uva web, problematic of Victorian women, analyzed in Thomas Hardyís novel, ĎTess of using in research, DíUrbervilles. The project is an attempt to find some answers about the womenís roles in a patriarchal society ruled and uva web assign, dominated by men.
The analysis also focused on the Christian prejudices and the injustice of social law. The theoretical part is structured into three chapters. The first one is an introduction into the Victorian Epoch and analyses this period of great changes that brought England to its highest point of development and also the dramatic inequities between men and women. Mla Format Essay Help? The next chapter concentrates on Tessís life and uva web, tries to determine why Hardyís heroineĒí The third chapter tries to trafficking essay papers investigate if Tess of DíUrbervilles was raped or seduced, if she is an angel or, by contrary, a fallen woman. In the practical part I made a comparison between Tessí destiny and uva web, Anna Kareninaís fall highlighting the fact that the illusion of true love and the social rejection determined the code essay, two heroinesí destiny.
The last chapter reports the conclusions that resulted from the analysis made on Hardyís novel, ĎTess of assign, DíUrbervillesí. The Victorian era. What was the Victorian Era? What changes brought the code colleges, Victorian Age in England society and literature? How was Thomas Hardy influenced by the Victorian Era?
The Victorian era of British history was the period of uva web assign, Queen Victoriaís reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a very long period with significant changes in using newspaper articles in research almost every aspect of politics, law, economics and society. The Victorian age it was first and foremost a period of evolution. The archaic and agricultural society was transformed into a modern society with the uva web assign, reign of democracy and industrialism. In 1837, when Queen Victoria acceded to the throne, the short opinion essay, majority of Englandís people had houses in uva web the countryside; few of them could read and dress code colleges, write, children of five year old worked long days underground in assign mines or ran deadly machinery in factories. The political and legal power was in the hands of a few people- men who held land. ĎBy the time Queen Victoria died in 1901, the modern world had taken shape. Most of Englandís people were town or city dwellers. London, the human trafficking essay papers, capital of an empire that covered one-fourth of the globe, had subway trains and electric streetlights; telegraph messages speed around the world in minutes; luxurious steamships plied a busy transatlantic trade. Uva Web Assign? Education was compulsory; public hanging of criminals had been abolished; a manís religion or (lack of it) no longer barred him from attending a university or serving in Parliament.í The Victorian England was dominated by the effects of the Industrial Revolution: the population grew quickly, more and more cities appeared, a broad system of railway was built.
England became the glory of the articles in research, nineteenth century. But the Industrial Revolution had also lots of negative aspects: insalubrious shelters for the workers, the employ of young children in the workforce, unsatisfying work conditions, small wages and lots of hours of hard work. There were few laws to improve hours, earnings, safety, job security or working conditions. People worked six day a week. ĎIn the early years of the industrial revolution, the birth rate was high and many people died before middle age. Uva Web Assign? More than half the population was children and many were without parents.í The new technologies of the nineteenth century radically changed peopleís lives and perceptions. It was a century of technical innovations, industrial success and economic prosperity. All this opportunities changed the way people thought about the world. It wasnít any more a dark world; it was a bright one, which could be improved through initiative and hard work.
In what concerns the political aspects of the Victorian age it can be said that England was dealing with significant changes: the Parliament became preoccupied with the regularization of the economic conditions, public health, education, and other aspects of social life. ĎBy the end of the century, there were public hospitals for the chronically ill; asylums for articles, the mentally handicapped; schools for blind, deaf, and disabled children; homes for the elderly; and other appropriate public institutions for people incapable of self-support.í The society was divided into three categories: working class- men and women who performed physical labor being paid daily or weekly- middle class, men performed mental work, being paid monthly or annually and the upper class who didnít work but had an income came from the inherited property and investments. Uva Web Assign? This class hierarchy was accepted and understood by the entire population. Class had distinctive signs in manners, speech, clothing, education and values. The classes lived in uva web assign specific areas and assign, thought of themselves as distinct categories with well defined standards and people were expected to conform to uva web assign the rules for their class. It wasnít appropriate to uva web assign have the same behavior like someone for dress essay, a class above- or below- your own. What is important to mention is the fact that the middle class grew in size and importance during the Victorian period. This class was formed of successful industrialists and assign, extremely rich bankers or poor clerks. ĎWithin the middle class, those with the highest social standing were the professionals (sometimes referred to as the old middle class or upper middle class). They included Church of England clergymen, military and naval officers, men in the higher-status branches of law and medicine, those at the upper levels of newspaper articles in research, governmental service, university professors, and the headmasters of prestigious schools.Ē Victorian England was a very religious country, the Victorian people being regular churchgoers. The Bible was frequently and widely read by the people of every class and its dogmas were adapted to the everyday life: the individual should live a life filled with energy, tumult and struggles against doubt. Yet, towards the end of Queen Victoriaís reign, the uva web assign, Bible wasnít accepted any more as literally true and newspaper articles in research, free from errors. New ways of thinking developed and the people confronted with a crisis of faith.
In the uva web, Victorian age, women were seen through menís eyes. They were the most important characters in the domestic sphere, the uva web assign, family life being more than sufficient for their emotional achievement. The home was seen as a paradise, a refuge from the chaotic world of business and politics, a place similar with the haven, in uva web assign which men found love from their wives and children. The Victorian women were seen as being pure and ronald essay, perfect. Uva Web Assign? They were Ďangels in the houseí, wives and mothers dedicated to their families and children. They had to obey their husbands because men were the main characters in the society. Human? The marriage was a light form of slavery: after the assign, wedding everything a woman inherited and had unquestionably belonged to the husband. Trafficking? ĎEvery man had the right to force his wife into sex and childbirth. He could take her children without reason and send them to be raised elsewhere. He could spend his wifeís inheritance on a mistress or on prostitutes.[..] If a woman was unhappy with her situation there was, without exception, nothing she could do about it.í Women lived in an unfair society which tolerated and assign, encouraged menís dominance, a society in which women had no chances for emancipation.
This situation was supported by church, law, tradition, history, and seemed to have no solution for retrieval. Help? Signals of dissent were controlled by husbands, fathers and even brothers. The nineteenth century woman had to enter into a marriage because this step was necessary for her survival. She was somehow forced to depend on uva web assign man, to beg for mla format, existence and for assign, love. ĎBarred by essay help, law and custom from entering trades and professions by which they could support themselves, and restricted in assign the possession of property, woman had only one means of livelihood, that of marriage.í In order to be accepted as wife, a woman had to be virgin, pure, and free from any desire of love and papers, sexual thought before the wedding. Assign? An indecent behavior was accepted in menís case: they could have sexual relationships before and after the essay papers, marriage without any moral or legal consequences. Marriage was seen as a duty of uva web assign, women, the complete fulfillment of trafficking, their personalities, the most important step in their lives, an occasion for assign, entering the society, a way of answering the communityís requests. Giving birth to essay children was the biggest realization in a coupleís life, the Ďcrowning achievement of a womanís lifeí . Unfortunately, this crucial event didnít raise a womanís social and assign, familial status, she remained a household manager, a body for his husband, and a protective human being for the child. Wives were supposed to see the uva web assign, sexual act as a necessity for giving birth to the descendants and not as a source of pleasure. Sex for another reason than for procreation was seen as dirty and outrageous and assign, changed the husbandís image over his wife: she was seen like a perverted person without any religious values Ďa mother who lacked religious faith could not instill sexual propriety in her daughter, and thus was unfit to essay be a mother at all.í Women werenít allowed to have any personal opinions: they had to strive with the same goals as their husbands, to stay far away from the social life and to be preoccupied with the house and the childrenís raise. The Victorian woman sacrifices herself every day for the husband and children. ĎThe pure womanís life was supposed to uva web assign be entirely centered on the home.
She preserved the newspaper in research, higher moral values, guarded her husbandís conscience, guided her childrenís training, and helped regenerate society through her daily display of Christianity in action.í The Victorian woman had no power over her life or her childrenís: when she was accused of adultery, she was viewed as Ďfallení or Ďruinedí and uva web assign, her husband could kidnap and incarcerate her having the backing of the law. The children remained in the manís custody. ĎA husband could divorce his wife if she committed adultery, but the woman who wanted a divorce had to prove her husband guilty not only using in research, of adultery, but also of incest, bigamy, bestiality, cruelty or desertion. If a man did not commit adultery, he could treat his wife as badly as he liked: cruelty alone was not sufficient for divorce.í For many, the word ĎVictorianí is uva web associated with pictures of uva web assign, over-dresses woman and arrogant men gathered in salons and reading-rooms. Uva Web? In this epoch, the rules of personal conduct were inflexible and not respected. Victorians won a bed reputation o saying one thing and mcdonald scholarship question, doing another.
This feebleness will be a major writing theme for the next generations who will criticize it. In the Victorian era the assign, society was transforming fast and lots of people could not understand the societyís mechanism. The nobility, in the past at mcdonald essay question, the top of the social pyramid, lost his position and became preoccupied with the agriculture. The middle class was now in the top of England society and assign, used the poor to achieve his goals. Children were working in mcdonald scholarship the mines lots of hours and uva web, were a viable force for ronald scholarship, the societyís- capitalistic middle class- prosperity. In what concerns the Victorian literature it can be noticed significant changes.
Itís the beginning of a new way of writing prose, the lyric prose, a writing that expresses not only ideas but ideas wrote in uva web assign a beautiful form. The Victorians need in this period of great disquiet guides to better understand the economical, social and religious changes. Writers as Thomas Carlyle, John Henry Newman, Matthew Arnold helped England people to better understand the society they lived in. Newspaper Articles In Research? ĎUp the still, glistening beaches, Up the creeks we will hie, Over banks of bright seaweed. The ebb-tide leaves dry. We will gaze, from the sand-hills, At the uva web, white, sleeping town;
At the church on the hill-sideí And then come back down. Singing: ďThere dwells a loved one, But cruel is she! She left lonely for mcdonald scholarship essay, ever. The kings of the sea. Ď Thomas Carlyle was the assign, dominant figure of the Victorian Age. He succeeded to influence every category of Victorian life. Uva Web Assign? He could not accept any spiritual weakness or social destruction.
Carlyle hated the social inequalities, conventions and mendacity. He was skeptic about the uva web, role of democracy benefactions and believed that the human essay papers, population can be governed by a Ďheroí who can lead the masses to glory. The spiritual freedom was a value important for Carlyle and he succeeded through his writings to uva web highlight human cost and diseases of manufacturing. Carlyle thought that his role, the role of a writer and a thinker is to denounce the abuse that is prepared by the society. It was the writerís duty to speak out against the abuses and inequality of this new and scary world. He saw industrialization and the Industrial Revolution as responsible for extermination and also the root for using newspaper articles, the lost of human characteristics. Writers could not escape any more into fantasy or imagine great worlds with a perfect life knowing that the society they live in is ill and is a threat for the humanity. Elizabeth Barrett-Browningís poem ĎThe Cry of the Childrení is a criticism against the jobs in mines offered to the young children. He describes the assign, conditions in the England mines and wrote about the hard life children had to code colleges endure in the depth of the mines.
In Victorian Age poetry was considered superior than prose and uva web assign, also than novel theatre. The predominant figure of this period was Alfred, Lord Tennyson. Opinion? He wrote about uva web assign, social changes and uva web assign, he raised questions about the veracity of religion. Uva Web? His poetry is romantic in subject but has lots of personal reflections. Robert Browning and his wife Elizabeth Barret Browning were also popular in the Victorian period. Robert Browning is famous for his dramatic monologues but both succeeded to capture the beauty of life and the wind of changes. Francis Thompson, Alice Meynell, Christina Rossetti, Rudyard Kipling and Lionel Johnson are also famous poetry writers in the Victorian epoch. In the middle of 19th Century, the Pre-Raphaelites guided by the poet and painter Dante Gabriel Rossetti tried to bring to light the values and the principles of the culture and life. William Morris- designer, inventor, poetry writer, philosopher was the group leader helped by Christina Rossetti and Coventry Patmore. During the 1890s the decadents are the short, most important figures in the English literature. The groupís leaders are Arthur Symons, Ernest Dowson the uva web assign, most talented and controversial figure being Oscar Wilde.
The decadents rejected what they considered banal progress. They argued that art should be judged on the basis of form rather than values and this idea is perfectly sustained by the motto Ďart for artís sakeí. They also rejected the idea that literature and art have to play important ethical roles and literature can offer the uva web assign, reader models of uva web assign, excellence and honor. The Victorian epoch is mla format essay a great moment for the English novel- pastoral, realistic with a complicated action, with complex characters and long. It was the preferred form of uva web, writing to describe and analyze the contemporary life and to captivate the middle class. Charles Dickens writings are full of melodrama, amusement, complex heroes and complicated life situations.
Dickens is mcdonald question regarded as the greatest novelist of the Victorian period and one of the creators of the most well-known fictional characters. His oeuvre was extremely popular and by the twentieth century has been considered a literary genius by his critics. Uva Web Assign? William Makepeace Thackeray is essay famous for his novel ĎVanity Fairí (1848) a satire upon hypocrisy and avarice. The novels of George Eliot (Mary Ann Evans) described ethical conflicts and social concerns. Jane Eyre (1847) and Villette (1853), Charlotte Brontí??s novels respect the uva web, conventions but dare in their own way. Charles Lutwidge Dodgson writes under the pseudonym Lewis Caroll and is the author of Aliceís adventures in using Wonderland (1865) a complex and sophisticated childrenís book. At some point in the Victorian Age the novel has replaced the poetry as the most efficient and realistic transmission of uva web, art and literature. This change was a valid change accepted by the people and even preferred nowadays. Serial publication in magazines and journals became more and more favored and in a short period of short, time these writings were published and uva web assign, sold in their complete form.
Thomas Hardy was born on June 2, 1840, in a Dorsetís village of uva web assign, Higher Bockhampton. Hardy was a very sick child and his parents Thomas and Jemima Hardy thought that he wonít survive. He was kept mostly at home being a sick young. After his completely recovery he started to explore the countryside he lived in uva web observing rural families with their traditions, unwritten laws, believes. He adored the church rituals and he was member of Stinsford church musicians, playing the violin and performing traditional dances, described later in ĎUnder the Greenwood Tree.í In the ĎLifeí, Hardy describes faithfully the using newspaper in research, complex routine that shaped his knowledge at uva web, this period: ĎTo these externals may be added the peculiarities of his inner life, which might almost have been called academic Ď a triple existence unusual for a young man Ď what he used to call, in looking back, a life twisted of three strands Ď the professional life, the scholarís life, and the rustic life, combined in the twenty-four hours of one day, as it was with him through these years. He would be reading the essay question, Iliad, the Aeneid, or the Greek Testament from six to eight in the morning, would work at Gothic architecture all day, and assign, then in the evening rush off with his fiddle under his arm Ď sometimes in the company of trafficking, his father as first violin and assign, uncle as Ďcelloist Ď to play country-dances, reels, and hornpipes at an agriculturalistís wedding, christening, or Christmas party in essay a remote dwelling among the fallow fields, not returning sometimes until nearly dawn.í At the age of eight Thomas Hardy joined the Anglican school recently opened in his village and later was sent to uva web assign the school of Dorchester. After the age of teen he become more healthy and strong and he could participate to the Greek and Latin classes helped by his mother with money who believed in Thomas Ďdream to attend Cambridge in order to become a bishop. When Hardy was 22 he moved to London and worked as apprentice architect for Arthur Blomfield, visiting in the same time theatres, museums and galleries, enjoying every journey and observing attentively all the attractions London could offer. ĎIn spite of the opportunities for dissipation in the capital, Hardyís life seems to have remained disciplined and devoted to self-improvement. Newspaper? He visited the International Exhibition at assign, South Kensington (later the trafficking essay papers, Victoria and Albert Museum) for its architectural artefacts and paintings, studied the great masters at the National Gallery during his lunch period, and enrolled for French classes at Kingís College. Uva Web Assign? Finding that architecture did not challenge him intellectually, he began reading the work of John Ruskin, who wrote about the cultural significance of art, and who championed Turner as pre-eminent among European painters.í In 1863 he starts writing a notebook about ĎSchools of paintingsí because he imagines himself as an art critic. He thought also at a journalistic career as a way of earning money in order to allow him to mcdonald question attend the University and enter the church. ĎHowever, this aim receded as under Mouleís mentorship Hardy was introduced to the writings of uva web assign, a wide range of contemporary thinkers, including the uva web assign, work of John Henry Newman, the leader of the Oxford Movement, who left the Anglican Church for Roman Catholicism, and whose Apologia pro uva web, Vita Sua was published in short 1864, on which Hardy made quite extensive notes.
But Hardy also read John Stuart Mill [85, 121], a seminal philosopher and economist, who formed the uva web, Utilitarian Society, wrote On Liberty (1859), a comprehensive defense of individual freedom, and Utilitarianism (1861) and ronald scholarship question, who, in contrast to Newman, regarded the ideal of uva web, Christianity as negative and passive.í Hardy considered Mill as Ďone of the profoundest thinkers of the last centuryí and he was influenced by his writings. By 1865 Hardy had begun to see himself as a future writer. He published the essay, humorous prose ĎHow I Built Myself a Houseí, anonymously in Chambersí Journal and he won his first earnings from writing but Hardy returned to assign poetry and code colleges essay, studied intensively multiple poetry volumes. ĎDetermined and methodical, he began keeping a notebook headed ĎStudies, Specimens etc.í, in which he listed quotations, attempted to develop a vocabulary of his own, and recorded observations of people and scenes for possible poems.í Hardyís earliest poems were written in 1865 and 1866 and remained unpublished many years. The critics could not tell exactly why Thomas Hardy wasnít willing to publish his poetry because any testimony couldnít be found. In this time the young writer was involved in a relationship with Eliza Bright Nicholls, relationship described by uva web, his biographer, Michael Millgate as a weak relation and articles, Hardy was Ďmore or less formally engaged from about 1863 until 1867í. Ď His relationship with Eliza gave rise to uva web assign the ĎShe, to Himí series of poems, and in uva web assign the Wessex Poems volume in which they appear, on the opposite page is printed Hardyís drawing of two figures climbing the path that runs up to Clavel Tower overlooking Kimmeridge Bay. The end of the relationship is recorded in assign the poem, ĎNeutral Tonesí.í Bibliography Chapter One. 1. Harvey, G., ĎThe complete critical guide to Thomas Hardyí, Taylor #038; Francis e- Library, 2003. 2. Holmes, S., #038; Nelson, C., ĎMaternal Instincts: Visions of motherhood and sexuality in Britain, 1875-1925í, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997. 3. Opinion? Jennings, A., ĎStranger than Fiction. Life and Literature in the Late Victorian Ageí, Black Cat Publishing, 2001.
4. Kent, Susan.íSex and uva web, Suffrage in Britain 1860-1914?. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 5. Matthew, A., ĎThe Forsaken Mermaní in Selected Poems, 1822-1888, An electronic classics series publication, 2000. 6. Millgate, M., Thomas, Hardy, His Career as a novelist, London: Macmillan, 1994. 7. Mitchell, S.,íDaily Life in using newspaper articles Victorian Englandí, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2009. 8. Wojtczak, H., ĎWomen of Victorian Sussexí, Hastings Press, 2003. Tess, the tragedy of an unfair existence. Is Tess a victim or a blemished woman? Is Tessís tragedy inevitableí?Tess of the DíUrbervilles is the product of uva web, Hardyís fascination with women of beauty, energy and intelligence who find themselves trapped between these gifts, the aspirations such gifts justify, and their societyís assumption that respectable women must be either submissive or obtrusively and harmlessly aspiring. With few exceptions, Hardyís most interesting characters are his unconventional women including Tess who, so unconventional both before and after, is, predictably both the opinion essay, conventional ruined maid of fiction and a ruined maid like no other that has existed in British fiction.í Tess of díUrbervilles appears regularly in the literary magazine ĎThe Graphicí thorough the 1891.
This was an original method of Hardy. First, the author published his novels, serialized, in a magazine, and then, the novel is published in the book form. The bookís subtitle, ĎA Pure Woman Faithfully Presented Ďis the first evidence that Hardyís novel will shock his readers. Assign? The heroine will definitely reject the Victorian rules and will act independently and not in a predictable way as a Victorian heroine. The novelís readers were certainly impressed by the Hardyís creation: the author reveled in a candid manner the Tessís suffering and he is dress code colleges essay full of empathy and sympathy for the young girlís history. It was not easy for Thomas Hardy to assign find a publisher.
The novelís plot and also the heroine were full of sexiness. Episodes full of passion were described, Tess was too sexy and in spite the rape willingness presented, Thomas Hardy insists that his heroine remains pure. All these elements made the novel a controversial work difficult to put in mla format essay help print. In 1890, Hardy succeeded to find a magazine willing to publish his novel but he had to censor the most debatable episodes. ĎTess of the Durbervillesí was first published in a censored edition and after a few years in its original form. The author also revised later editions of his novel and uva web, was somehow forced to dress modify or even erase some problematic scenes due to uva web contemporary reviews. Modern critics admit that the 1891 edition is the closest to uva web assign the original version of Hardyís novel. Probably the readers are asking themselves why this novel was so important to print for Thomas Hardy and what changes brought this writing in the Victorian age. After a carefully reading and a harshly analysis the uva web assign, answer can be easily found- Hardy is trying to demonstrate that not all the Ďfalling womaní are prostitutes or ended up having sex outside of marriage.
His heroine, Tess, is short essay a victim of an uva web, archaic society which does not accept the womanís mistakes. This society is entirely dominated by men and accepts only the menís actions full on injustice, immorality and decadence. Thomas Hardy is trying to raise some questions about the short opinion, values of the society he lives in. He is a modern writer because has the ability to attest the validity of the Victorian age values. Itís a significant discrepancy between the standards applied to men and the rules the assign, women had to respect in opinion essay order to avoid the public humiliation and the lack of assign, respect. The rape was a sensitive subject in the epoch and always considered as determined by the womanís conduct. No presumption of using newspaper articles in research, innocence was given to the poor women who were not involved in a sexual relationship with a man, who was not protected by uva web, any legal or natural law. Essay Help? Thomas Hardy has structured his book in assign seven phases (novel division) which present the short and tragic life of his heroine, from her childhood to womanhood. ĒPhaseí is an interesting demarcation in itself. Unlike the customary Ďbookí or Ďpartí or ĎsectionĒeach a spatial marker, none temporalĒphaseí signiíes a stage of change or development as well as unobtrusively linking Tessís growth to womanhood with the rhythms of the lunar cycle. ĎSevení is, in turn, redolent of universal meanings: it is given as the Age of Reason, the Seven Ages of Man (Shakespeare), and the Seven Pillars of Wisdom. And, of course, the seventh day is the Christian Sabbathíthe sacred day of ronald mcdonald question, fulfillment in the Genesis story of uva web assign, Creation; the day of rest from mla format help, labor and of thanksgiving.í The seven phases are also divided cyclically and thematically.
The novel begins with ĎThe Maidení which presents the young Tess in a difficult situation, he feels very culpable and also responsible for the death of uva web, Prince. In ĎThe Chaseí, when she is code colleges sexually abused she realizes that she her virginity is lost and she is damned to live a sadly life, with no respect or understanding from the community she lives in. Assign? She knows she is now Ďanother girl than the one she had been at homeí A new stage of Tessís life starts with The Second Phase, ĎMaiden No Moreí. Now she is expectant a baby and uva web assign, decides that she canít stay any more in Trantridge. Tess has tried to help his parents to resolve the financial problems they had at home and struggled to make Alec understand that she is not in love with him but she has lost his innocence trying to defend it. The heroine does not want a life full of lies and a marriage without love and he decides to leave Alec and the life he can offer her. Assign? ĎOf all things, a lie on this thing would do the most good for me now; but I have honour enough left, little as ítis, not to tell that lie. If I did love you I may have the ronald mcdonald question, best oícauses for letting you know it. But I donít.í Tess does not accept the marriage with Alec because she cannot be with someone she is not in love with.
She cannot accept this marriage even though it can be the assign, solution for essay, a misery life, it can be the Ďsocial salvationí. Uva Web? Analyzing the decision Tess makes it can be concluded that Hardy wants to sacrifice Tess and to offer to opinion essay his British readers an example of morality, integrity and honor. Hardy transforms his heroine into uva web, a model of perfection knowing that greatness can be achieved but not perfection. ĎYet, in breaking the popular stereotype, Hardy was accused by some contemporary critics of misrepresenting womankind. The ideal was preferable to the real if only to set a good example for the young British person, but Hardy refused to employ his art to such an mla format essay, end. Ď On the Phase the uva web assign, Third, ĎThe Rallyí readers can meet a new Tess who is willing to forget his past and to start a new life. In this phase Tess is enthusiastic and even though her past is still alive in her soul and uva web assign, her mind she can start over full of confidence and hope for the future. The heroine is prepared to embrace the new and unknown and involves in a relationship with Angel Clare.
Is for the first time when Tess feels the uva web assign, true love, loves and is loved. Sometimes she does not know how to react when Angel shows her that he is in love. When Angel tried for the first time to take Tess in his arms to kiss her, the girl is very scared and newspaper articles in research, does not know how to assign react. She starts crying. ĎWhy do you cry, my darlingí? he said. ĎOíI donít know!í she murmured regretfully. Angel misunderstands his reaction and strongly thinks that he determined this powerful emotion being Ďtoo quick and unreíectingí . Instinctively Tess puts a barrier between her and the man she loves still being traumatized after the experience she had with Alec. Human Papers? She is not used to be in the arms of a man she has feelings for, the heroine being forced in assign the past to reject every unwanted embrace offered by her Ďcousiní. After a few minutes of distance and defense she realizes that in Angelís arms she is safe, she does not have to be afraid anymore because Angel will protect her. Mcdonald? Definitely she has to confess Angel the sin that changed her and isolated from the community she lives in but the assign, girl knows that isnít the right moment. Tess does not know how Angel will react, she knows that is a sensitive subject and she can obtain forgiveness only if Angel has true and strong feeling for dress code colleges essay, her. ĎThe Consequenceí is the title for the Phase the assign, Fourth. Tess is living a beautiful love story with Angel but her happiness is alloyed because the dress code, girl knows that she will have to tell Angel the ugly truth about her past. ĎShe makes several attempts but either she is sidetracked or she sidetracks herselfíagain, psychologically plausible self-protective behavior. And when she Ďnally writes him an explanatory note, it accidentally slips under the uva web assign, carpet as she pushes it under his door.
The cycle of intention undermined by accident seems unbreakable. Code? Tessís resolve is assign challenged; she feels quite overwhelmed.í The things are easy neither for opinion essay, Angel nor for Tess. Angel has to face his parentsí attitude, disapproval and to convince them that Tess is the best choice for him and not the young lady who he is supposed to marry with. Uva Web Assign? Even though Angel does not admit directly that he has his own prejudices in mcdonald scholarship question what concern the Tessís situation her soul struggles with his own doubt and uva web assign, his parentís opposition. ĎIndeed, his idealization of Tess is partly the cause of her failure to confess. The more he elevates her (she is mla format essay help a goddess, she is a pure daughter of Nature), the more she freezes at having to tell him that sheís none of these things. On the contrary, she is what his Evangelical family at the parsonage might call a fallen woman (and there are even uglier phrases than that).í Phase the fifth, ĎThe woman paysí presents another chapter in Tessís life, an episode full of sorrow and pain. Tess revealed Angel all the truth about her situation, she told the man she loved the truth about the sexual assault, the child she gave birth to, his short live, the uva web, baptize and the burial. The truth freed her but from Angel she did not receive understanding or unconditional love, only misery and pain. In Angelís eyes Tess is another woman, a woman with Tessís body but with a different story, with different values, a human being that he cannot forgive for his past and have a happy marriage with. Phase the sixth, ĎThe convertí, represents the story of Alec who is now a Ďpreacherí and using in research, is religious converted. Uva Web? The meeting between Alec and Tess is unwanted by the girl but is seen by the man as a cure for his soul.
Alec sees Tess, runs after her and tries to persuade her that he is changed, he succeeded to communicate with the divinity and is now aware of the pain he caused her. He makes Tess promise that she will never tempt him again. In Phase the seventh, ĎFulfillmentí Alec becomes the man that took Tessís virginity replacing the love for God with a sick love for Tess. The sexually desire is stronger than ever and uva web assign, succeeds to transform the man into a sexual exploiter. Angel can now see the truth about the Tessís personality, he can now distinguish the essences and appearances but is too late. ĎIn accordance with the fulfillment of the seventh day of creation, Tess will now rest. Turning her life around for uva web assign, the very last time, she stands to face her prosecutors with that readiness of will and pure, undaunted spirit from which heroes, not victims, are made. Essay? Where Christís words were Ďit is done,í Tessís words are ĎI am readyí.í Was Tess the victim of the inevitable fate? Could the heroine change her destiny or was she damned to self-destruction by the society in uva web assign which she lived?
Since the beginning of the novel, Thomas Hardy, the short, author, describes Tess as a beautiful and innocent girl, cheery, energy with a big smile on her face: ĎShe was a fine and handsome girl- not handsomer than some others, possibly- but her mobile peony mouth and large innocent eyes added eloquence to color and shape. She wore a red ribbon in uva web assign her hair, and was the only one of the white company who could boast of such a pronounced adornment.í Using the adjectives Ďfineí and uva web assign, Ďhandsomeí the author suggests that Tess is not just a peasant girl who can pass unnoticed, on the contrary, she is a charming girl having all the necessary physique resources for making a man, a rich man maybe, falling in love with her and saving her poor existence. She also seems to assign be Ďthe oneí because is the mcdonald essay question, only one wearing a red ribbon. Tess is the most beautiful heroine Hardy has created. It is the first novel in which the author describes so deeply the feminine beauty, he is entirely focused on all the femininities the young girl was blessed with and revels all these features step by step. ĎFailures to see Tess rightly are everywhere in the novel, however, for the opportunity to look at her is offered again and again to one pair of eyes after another, as if it were a test, a measure of value. Angelís two brothers, for example, are both short sighted thought they wear the latest fashion in spectacles (XXV, 134). Blindly, they pass right by Tess, on the day she walked fifteen miles to Emminster Vicarage to ask for help from uva web assign, her father in law. To them, she is invisible.í ĎTess herself is short opinion almost less a personality than a beautiful portion of nature violated by human selfishness and over intellectualizing.
She is the least flawed of Hardyís protagonists, but also the least human.í The mixture between red and white (Tess is wearing a red ribbon and a white dress) used by Thomas Hardy isnít an accidental choice-it has a deep signification and assign, seems to be the authorís way of saying that this girl wonít have a common destiny, she will have a different existence, a scintillating life. The contrast between white-purity- and ronald essay, red-sexual experience- shows that Tess is not like the other girls, is the authorís warning signal and his modality of saying that his heroine will break down the Victorian society rules. At the May Day festivities Tess first meets Angel. He stops to dance with the assign, women in the village garden although his brothers want to keep traveling but he doesnít choose Tess to be his dance partner observing her too late. This initial event isnít just an scholarship question, artifice of writing is also the authorís first sign that Tess and uva web, Angel arenít meant to be together. Angel doesnít observe Tess even though sheís the prettiest girl from the green garden because he canít notice the essences, only the short opinion essay, appearances. And this is probably the reason for which he cannot forgive Tess after he discovers her big secret and condemn her to self-destruction. Tessís fate is decided by the men in her life.
The first male who has a great word to say about her destiny is Tessís father. After he discovers that is the descendant of an ancient and noble family he sends his eldest daughter to claim kin. Uva Web? And this is the beginning of a terrible life for Hardyís heroine who doesnít manage in meeting Mrs. DíUrbervilles but chances to meet her debauched son, Alec. ĎHardy keeps the Ďman against natureí conflict as central in his novels, yet, he deals with the using in research, Victorian theme of uva web, social stratification through Ďman against maní conflict. With the importance attached to class in help the late nineteenth century society, Hardy shows why human altruism cannot be achieved in the Victorian world. In a society in which the uva web assign, concept of class has already been established to form the individual relations of trafficking papers, conflict and uva web assign, contract, John Durbeyfield is under the illusion that his Ďaristocratic backgroundí is significant since this background connects him to the rich díUrbervilles. It is the illusion, the anticipation that causes him to commit the fatal mistake of sending her daughter to the díUrbervilles.í About the first meeting between Alec and opinion essay, Tess, Hardy says: ĎShe had an uva web, attribute which amounted to a disadvantage just now; and it was this that caused Alec DíUrbervilles eyes to rivet themselves upon her. It was a luxuriance of short opinion essay, aspect, a fullness of growth, which made her appear more of a woman than she really was. Assign? She had inherited the feature from her mother without the quality it denoted.
It had troubled her mind occasionally, till her companions had said that it was a fault which time would cure.í Later, when Alec runs into colleges, Tess again he observes her beautiful mouth and describes it with lot of passion: ĎSurely there never was such a maddening mouth since Eveís!í Hardy describes all this physiques details because he wants to demonstrate that Alecís fascination with Tess is only physical. Alec is fascinated by her ravishing beauty and uva web, ĎAs the text progresses, Tess is once again described more than once, by her looks. This shows that Tess is being objectified by the author who seems very fascinated by her. He talks about her mouth and her lips as though he wants to kiss her.í Angel is short opinion also fascinated by uva web assign, Tessí physical features: ĎHow very lovable her face was to him. Yet there was nothing ethereal about ronald mcdonald scholarship essay, it; all was real vitality, real warmth, real incarnation. And it was in her mouth that this culminated. Uva Web Assign? Eyes almost as deep and speaking he had seen before, and cheeks perhaps as fair; brows as arched, a chin and uva web assign, throat almost as shapely; her mouth he had seen nothing to equal on the face of the earth. To a young man with the least fire in him that little upward life in the middle of uva web assign, her red top lip was distracting, infatuating, maddening.í For Angel Clare Tess is a very beautiful girl, with angelic features, lovable in spite of her beauty and essay papers, not because of it. The character sees, in general, the metaphysical aspect of the things and values the ideal aspect of every action, event, and person.
His name, ĎAngel Clareí is a significant clue of his personality: His last name ĎClareí is the uva web assign, English translation for the French word ĎClairí and defines a person with a real capability of understanding the world, a person who lives in mind and is preoccupied with the articles in research, mystical face of the humanity. The adjective Ďclareí is uva web opposed to using Ďheatí and this opposition is shown in narratorís confession of Angelís love for the heroine: ďThough not cold-natured, he was rather bright than hot Ď less Byronic than Shelleyan; could love desperately, but his love more especially inclined to the imaginative and etherealĒ. Uva Web Assign? Angel loves Tess, whom he idealizes as a Ďfresh and virginal daughter of Natureí so deeply that he finally marries Tess without caring about his familyís strong opposition. He particularly appreciates her words: ĎI do know that our souls can be made to go outside our bodies when we are aliveí . When he discusses his marriage with his family, he mentions Tess as Ď a woman who possessed every qualification to be the helpmate of an agricultureí , Ďshe was a regular church-goer, of simple faith, honest-hearted, receptive, intelligent, graceful to a degree, chaste as a vestal and in personal appearance exceptionally beautifulí . Hardy indicates: ĎIt was for her that he loved Tess, her soul, her heart, her substance-not for her skill in the dairy, her aptness as his scholar, and certainly not for her simple, formal faith-professionsí. Although Angel has liberal visions and is more open minded than his father and ronald mcdonald question, his brothers, he is uva web assign categorical and intransigent. When Tess confesses her sin, Angel is inflexible and canít forgive the heroine for her only failing: ĎIn the name of our love, forgive me! I have forgiven you for code colleges, the same! Forgive me as you are forgiven!í But Angel answered cruelly: ĎTess, forgiveness does not apply to the case! You were one person; now you are another.í ĎI will obey you, like your wretched slave, even if it is to uva web lie down and die.í ĎYou are very good. But it strikes me that there is a want of harmony between your present mood of self-preservation.í At the beginning of the novel Thomas Hardy presents a Tess Durbeyfield who is not aware of her beauty. Human Trafficking? She is just a country girl, with little education, living in uva web the domestic sphere with her parents and brothers.
Tess lives happily on uva web assign her native heath and suffers a real shock when is forced to abandon her house. When Tess goes to the DíUrbervilles mansion she meets with young Alec who is fascinated by her beauty. Uva Web Assign? And this is, probably, the moment which makes Tess aware of her charm perceived by the heroine as a curse and trafficking essay, not as a gift from God. Men in Tessí life have the wrong impression that they own Tess and can change her entirely. Alec reveals his feeling of superiority since the uva web assign, very beginning when he proclaims: Ďwhat am I, to be repulsed so by a mere chit like you!í Alec is the perfect image of the short opinion, Victorian oppressor dominated by the ordinary custom and the bourgeois view of morals. He is a sexual predator without an inner life, having a superficial existence and any moral values. Assign? The character is short essay narcissistic, individualistic and assign, heartless. Because Thomas Hardy doesnít mention anything about his childhood, the reader cannot say that Alecís personality is the result of a sad infancy. The reader is, somehow, forced to internalize the idea that society perverts humankind and human beings pervert any society. ĎAlec, the archetypal seducer in Victorian melodrama, after his violation of Tessís virginity, does not realize his sin; whatís more, he blames Tess for tempting him with her beauty.
He does the wrong and using newspaper, shifts it onto the victim. Uva Web Assign? The social consensus does not condemn or punish Alec. Instead it disdains and hunts Tess wherever she goes. The innocent pays for the guilty; the ronald mcdonald scholarship question, sinned suffers for the sinner.í Tessís badluck is related to male dominance and the idea of male supriority. The heroine is just an innocent girl who is traped in uva web assign a male-centered society. Help? She doesnít now anything about the uva web assign, world she lives in. Question? She has the pure belief that human beings are kind and canít hurt honest people. She knows little about love because she has never been in love. For her love is: Ďpatient, love is kind.
It does not envy, it does not boast, it is not proud.í Tess has a real respect for uva web, her family and essay, respects his fatherís will and not her own senses when leaves to claim kin. She accepts any job Alec offers to her because knows very well that her family needs a new horse to survive. It can be said that the heroine is like an angel for her family, a spotless soul which is damned to live among monsters with human faces. Alec is the first master of disguises Tess meets. Since the very beginning Tess dislikes Alec but endures his permanent undesirable attention because the girl has a clear purpose: to earn money. Alec calls Tess Ďcozí (cousin), wanting to worm girlís confidence but thereís nothing real in this appellative because the libertine young man has dark plans for Hardyís heroine. Tess is barely answerable for assign, her actions: even though he does not like Alec and does not want a relation with him the obsession the man gets for human, the young girl will destroy her life. Her Ďdumb and vacant fidelityí to uva web assign Angel would rather characterize a poor animal than a thoughtful human being. Uva Web Assign? Tessís sensitivity is uva web assign obviously the essay, result of emotions and not of judging.
Hardy reveals that the adoration the girl has for Angel is intense maybe extreme, but the author sees in her feelings something pure, emotions that translate generosity, self-sacrifice, forgiveness. The Hardyís protagonist has a great capacity of uva web, loving and understanding the human beings. With Alec she discovers that physical beauty can be a weight and not a blessing gave by mla format help, God. She is a beautiful Ďobjectí that Alec wants to add to his collection. He is not in love with the poor girl, he is uva web assign attracted by her appearance and is the object of his powerful sexually desire. ĎThe wicked inhabitant of the díUrbervilles hall, the permanently smoking Alec, offers Tess the red roses and the fresh strawberries. Short Opinion? He does this, actually, in a very bizarre way; he puts the strawberries directly into the Tessís mouth and assign, presses the roses onto her breasts.
The reader recognises that Alec is haunting Tess physically as well as mentally, he acts as her persecutor, who is gifted by the supreme power of reducing her not only into tears, but, more importantly, into the unconscious state.í Alec personifies the unjust moralities on women and is the reflexion of a society which encourages injustice toward marriage and sexuality. Tess is a pure woman but becomes Ďfallení because the Victorian age has a certain opinion about dress code, chastity and virginity. The girl becomes Alecís obliged mistress and THE murderess who has to uva web die. Even though she was moral oppressed and psysical assaulted, the heroine is the only culpable and has to human trafficking papers pay for her mistakes. She canít live any more in a patriarchal society which only accepts manís mistakes and uva web assign, condamns women to have a pure conduct and a martyr life. Tess is doomed to short opinion essay tragedy. She is trapped in a strange society where social prejudice meets male-dominance. Assign? ĎTessís story, to some extent, reflects the code essay, rigidity of convention, the harshness of uva web, social law and the prejudice of morality in maledominated patriarchal society. Tess deserves the reputation of Ďthe best tragedyí the code, highest tragedyí, which is defined by the author. In the worldly view, Tess is a Ďfallení woman; however, she is essentially pure and uva web assign, naturally unstained. Tess is a pure woman as Hardyís subtitle describes. Tess is tragic but pure.í ĎYou ask why Tess should have gone with Clare and Ďlive happily ever after.í Do you not see under any circumstance that they were doomed to unhappiness?
A sensitive man like Angel Clare could never have been happy with her. After the first few months he would inevitably have thrown her failings in her face. Essay Help? He did not recoil from her after the murder is true. He was in love with her failings then I suppose; he had not seen her for a long time; with the assign, inconsistency of human nature he forgave the greater sin when he could not pardon the using articles, lesser.í Tess had a tragic fate. All she ever wanted was little happiness, to love and to uva web assign be loved. Uva Web Assign? Thomas Hardy describes her as a romantic character, with no social aspirations but with a great desire of spiritual fulfillment. She is to a great extent an ignorant human being who will learn that life means injustice, sufferance, male dominance centered on the Ďdouble moral standardí of sexuality applied to man and woman in the Victorian age.
The heroineís indecisiveness, her frequent failures to mantain her resolve, condemn her to death. For example, when Tess is uva web watching the peasants of Tantridge dance, she is offered a walk home from using articles, Alec but refuses, a decision she will review later. Because she is raped by Alec, Tess swears she may never marry, confessing the dairymaids she wonít accept Angelís proposal Ďas I should refuse any maní , but she marries Angel. When Alec offers to assign make her his wife she refuse the proposal, before consenting to become his mistress. Tessí final uncertain decision is related to Angel Clare: when he comes to take her home with him the girl immediately refuse and advice him to Ďkeep awayí because is ĎToo late! Too late!í but, in the end, she murders Alec and runs to embrace her husband. Tess canít keep her promises and every time she does not truly mean what she says. Bibliography Chapter Two.
1. Blathway, Taymond, A Chat with the Author of Tess, Black and White, IV. Macmillan, 1892, London. 2. Casagrande, P., ĎTess of the DíUrbervilles unorthodox beautyí, New York: Twaye, 1992. 3. Danielova, M., ĎThe concept of purity in mcdonald scholarship Thomas Hardyís Tess of the assign, DíUrbervilles, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 4. Ertu??rul, Ko. ĎTess of the DíUrbervilles, the tragedy of a Godless human existenceí, Journals of human trafficking essay, Arts and Sciences, 12 decembrie 2009, Universitatea Cankaya. 5. Freeman, J., Studies in Philology, 1982 University of assign, North Carolina Press, Vol 79, No.3. 6. Hardy, T., Tess of the DíUrbervilles, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by mla format help, Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 7. Holmberg, Mona, ĎTess, a victim of her societyí, in Thomas Hardyís Tess of the DíUrbervillesí, Lulea University of Technology, Department of Language and Culture, 2003. 8. Uva Web? Morgan, R., Student companion to Thomas Hardy, Greenwood Press, London, 2007. 9. Rogers, Katharine, The Centennial Review, Vol 19, No.
4, 1975 Michigan State University Press. 10. Zhen, C., ĎTess in Thomas Hardyís Tess of the DíUrbervilles- victim of dress code, social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal societyí, societyhttp://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/cg/lt/rb/600/600PDF/chen.PDF. RAPE OR SEDUCTION? Was Tess raped or lied and seduced? Is Angel an ĎangelĒ?Hardyís odyssey with Tess had involved five different namings: Love, Cis, Sue, Rose-Mary, and Tess. The various overwritings and textual layerings in the manuscript testify to the indecision and assign, lack of single-minded vision in the author. Equally, the overlaid bowdlerizations testify to media or editorial censorship not only of Tessís sexuality but also of the ronald scholarship essay question, controversial issues of illegitimacy and private baptism.í Tess is a complex character who has an evolutional destiny from her growth to womanhood. She develops over time and according to chance, events, fate, intelligence, risk taking and becomes an example of adaptation.
Tess is the object of Alec díUbervilleís shameful purposes. He uses all the methods to seduce the innocent and naive girl: he compliments her excessively, he helps her family in order to win her appreciation, and uva web, the man is annoyed when Tess nonetheless continues to reject him. And because Alec knows very well how to opinion manipulate people around him he succeds to make the poor and ignorant Tess feel unsure about whatís wrong and whatís right. The heroine has deep rooted moral precepts in assign her poor education. Even though she has little school instruction, she knows that is very important to dress code colleges essay remain poor and chaste in order to be accepted in a society ruled by males. Uva Web Assign? And the girl succeeds to achieve this objective until one fatal night when, through Alecís stratagem, they are lost together in a forest and the man rapes Tess changing her life forever. About this episode of a significant meaning for using newspaper articles, the entire novel Hardy does not go into detail but rather, he reflects: Ďwhy it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissue, sensitive as gossamer, and assign, practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to mla format essay help receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the wrong woman the man, many thousand years of analytical philosophy have failed to explain to our sense of order.í Tess becomes pregnant by uva web, Alec in that fatal night and her life will be different from now on. ĎEventually, since Hardy is not one for halfway measures, sorrow turns to violence, and the loss of her virginity leads to essay Alecís murder and Tessís death on the gallows.
Even without knowledge of the dire consequences Alecís pursuit of Tess had, however, we can judge Alexís character to be frivolous, insensitive, and selfish. The question here, however, is whether he is also a rapist.í We do not know what exactly happened under the tree. Uva Web Assign? It is very probably that Alec, while Tess slept, took the opportunity to abuse her. Human Trafficking Essay Papers? And the fragile girl was unable to defend herself because a girl canít measure her force with a manís force. But is uva web assign also possible that, given Tessí tiredness and disorientation, he could persuade the dress colleges essay, poor girl to agree to have sex with him. Alec, possibly, used once more his tricky words he had been using for uva web, the past months and succeded to convince Tess that she loved him and the scene under the uva web assign, tree was just the expression of that love. ĎThis is a question of factí insofar as fictional narratives have factsíto which we cannot know the answer. Uva Web Assign? The issue here, however, is using whether it makes any difference. [Ö] If physical force or the threat of physical force is used to get a woman to agree to assign have sex, that is rape. If psychological force is used, can that also be rapeĒ?We define verbal sexual coercion as a womanís consenting to unwanted sexual activity because of a manís verbal arguments, not including verbal threats of physical force. Men use many types of verbal coercion to obtain sex: threatening to end the relationship or to find someone else to uva web assign satisfy their sexual needs; telling a woman that her refusal to have sex was changing the way they felt about her; asserting that Ďeverybody does ití or questioning the womanís sexuality . . . making the woman feel guilty; . . Assign? . calling a woman a name angrily and pushing her away when she would not have sex; and threatening to do bodily self-harm.í Although the young Tess is dependent economically on Alec and has another social position- she is a country girl without money and dress colleges essay, with little education- she has resisted his flirting. The girl was honest with Alec telling him she disliked his way of watching her, his advances, the gifts offered to her family, the attention she didnít require.
She has real moral values and cannot be bought with words or with money. She wants to fall in love with a real gentleman who is uva web assign able to papers be patient, to assign conquer her, in time, with nice gestures and to appreciate and newspaper articles, value her. Assign? But sometimes she is indecisive in uva web assign giving an answer to his proposal to treat her as a lover. She says: Ď I donít know- I wish-how can I say yes or no when-Ē . Is that a flirt, an unconsciously encouraging? It tranlates fear caused by his economic and social power or young Tess has feeling for Alec but she is uva web assign not aware of trafficking papers, them? The writer gives few clues about this situation causing the uva web, reader a great confusion. He doesnít know what to believe about the uva web assign, poor girl, he canít find her guily for uva web assign, the situation but has doubt about her moral integrity. Is she an angel or a seductive and mla format essay, indecisive woman? Is she in love with the Ďbastardlyí womanizer, the man with his crude, full lips, his bold eye and his dark moustache?
The weather conditions work against uva web, Tess. The fatal night is a foggy one. Uva Web Assign? Alec loses his way in such circumstances and the moonlights appear only when he returns to Tess who is sleeping, there, in uva web the wood. Is Tess less rational because she is sleepy and uva web assign, she cannot defend her physical integrity? The reader knows very well Alecís personality and can drop the uva web assign, sad conclusion that the man took sexual advantage of her. ĎHardy takes for granted that Tess becomes the target of the victimization simply because she is Ďstill aliveí and Ďof the female sex.í Alec puts himself into the position of the wild hunter, who waits till everybody stops dancing to catch Tess and essay, seize his power over her. The following atmosphere resembles the tranquillize state caused by taking some sleeping pills. Alec with Tess on uva web the same horse passes through the uva web assign, Chase. Tess, feeling tired after the dayís work, quickly disappears in the state of the unconsciousness in uva web assign the moment when she falls asleep.í Rather than describe the sexual scene, Thomas Hardy talks about its inevitability, brutality and uva web assign, irrationality : ĎWhy it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissues, sensitive as gossamer and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to receive; why so often the uva web assign, coarse appropriates the finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the wrong woman the man, many thousands years of analytical philosophy have failed to ronald mcdonald essay explain to our sense of order.í The meaning of this paragraph is uva web crystal clear: sometimes people cannot control the fate.
Some people are born to suffer, the universe has strange plans for them. They can fight against the destiny but that is a short battle, with no victory. Hardy uses a fatalistic expression to state the way destiny functions: Ď It was to be!í but he rejects the idea that children are punished for the mistakes of their ancestors Ď is scorned by average human natureí. When Tessís mother presents her daughter the idea about getting Alec to marry her, the ronald scholarship, heroine is offended: ĎShe had dreaded him, winced before him, succumbed to adroit advantages he took of assign, her helplessness; then, temporarily blinded by his ardent manners, had been stirred to uva web assign confused surrender awhile, had suddenly despised and disliked him, and had run away. Uva Web? That was all.í The Victorian society is cruel with the girl who canít do nothing to uva web assign change her fate and has to uva web assign face the social rejection. She is short essay seen now as an immoral woman, a sinner who must be punished. She seems to be culpable for breaking societyís rules and religionís conventions. But Hardy doesnít agree and says: Ď It was they that were out of assign, harmony with the actual world, not she. Ronald Mcdonald Scholarship? Walking among the sleeping birds in the hedges, watching the skipping rabbits on uva web assign a moonlit warren, or standing under a pheasant-laden bough, she looked upon herself as a figure of Guilt intruding into the haunts of Innocence. But all the while, she was making a distinction where there was no difference. Feeling herself in antagonism, she was quite in accord.
She had been made to break an accepted social law, but no law known to the environment in which she fancied herself such an anomaly.í Throughout the help, entire book Hardy speaks about the two types of law: natural versus social/religious. Natural laws are known as Ďa system of right or justice held to be common to all humans and derived from nature rather than from the rules of society, or positive law.í ĎWalking among the sleeping birds in the hedges, watching the skipping rabbits on a moonlit warren, or standing under a pheasant-laden bough, she looked upon herself as a figure of Guilt intruding into the haunts of Innocence. But all the while she was making a distinction where there was no difference. Feeling herself in antagonism she was quite in accord. She had been made to break an accepted social law, but no law known to the environment in which she fancied herself such an anomaly.í According to the natural laws, what happened to Tess is Ďnaturalí, in synchronism with the nature and shouldnít be regarded as a mistake which leads to uva web the total social rejection. Hardy associates the social law with convention and focuses on help the riguros Victorian sexual convention which he describes as unnatural and oppressive.
According to the natural laws, Tess is a pure woman. Uva Web? She remain pure because although her body is blotched, her soul continues to be pure. But, is Hardyís claim valid? If his argument is human trafficking essay valid then Alec cannot be accused of rape because, according to these natural laws, the man, as an uva web, alpha male, made everything possible to preserve his species. In conclusion, Hardyís argument canít be valid. Besides the social rejection, Tessí loss of virginity Ďchanged her from simple girl to complex woman. Symbols of reflectiveness passed into her face and a note of tragedy at times into her voice. Her eyes grew larger and more eloquent. She became what would have been called a fine creature; her aspect was fair and arresting; her souls that of a woman whom the turbulent experiences of the last year or two had quite failed to demoralize.
But for the worldís opinion those experiences would have been simply a liberal education.í The inevitable meeting between Tess and Alec is predicted from the earliest chapters of Phase the First. Hardy gives clues about the imminent encounter using symbols and symbolic events: the colors red and white, the virginsídance, Alecís giving Tess strawberries and opinion, the death of Prince. Uva Web? This is the using newspaper articles, authorís way of preparing the uva web assign, reader for the terrible event which will change Tessí life forver. Hardy describes the moment very carrefully: ĎTess!í said díUrberville. There was no answer.
The obscurity was now so great that he could see absolutely nothing but a pale nebulousness at in research, his feet, which represented the white muslin figure he had left upon the dead leaves. Everything else was blackness alike. DíUrberville stooped; and uva web assign, heard a gentle regular breathing. He knelt, and bent lower, till her breath warmed his face, and in a moment his cheek was in contact with hers. She was sleeping soundly, and upon her eyelashes there lingered tears.í Analysing the description, William A. Davis, Jr. observes that the agression upon Tess begins without any verbal communication between Alec and Tess.
The heroine is asleep and doesnít give an answer to Alecís accost. ĎThe silence ruled everywhere aroundí says Hardy. Short? The physical contact is at first kind and caressing Ďher breath warmed his face , and in a moment his cheek was in contact with hersí and this affirmation is assign followed with the statement that the scholarship essay question, heroine Ďwas sleeping soundlyí . ĎSubsequent descriptive details- the narrator mentions Tessí absent Ďguardian angelí , the Ďcoarse patterní about to be traced upon Tess, Ďthe possibility of a retribution lurking in the present catastropheí , and assign, the certainty that Tessí Ďmailed ancestors rollicking home from a fray had dealt the same measure even more ruthlessly towards peasant girls of her timeí Ė all suggest the violent nature of Alec assault. Articles? To an uva web assign, alert Victorian reader, however, these details would have confirmed rather than introduced the idea of rape. The rape of Tess actually begins with the passage that describe Tessí sleep and her lack of verbal response- the passage, in short, that establishes her lack of consent to Alecís advances.í ĎRape is the offence of having unlawful and carnal knowledge of ronald scholarship, a woman by force, and against her will.í Mewsí Digest of English Case Law further explains that: Ďto constitute rape, it is not necessary that the connection with the assign, woman should be had against her will; it is uva web assign sufficient if it is without her consent.í And also the law specifies that: ĎIf the woman is asleep, when the assign, connection takes place, she is incapable of consent, and although no violence is used, the pisoner may be convicted of colleges, rape, if he knew that she was asleep.í Because Alec does not receive any answer to his address, the uva web, reader can say that Tess is not a conscious woman in that crucial moment under the tree. She doesnít communicate with Alec because she is asleep and help, the reader can assume that Alec knows that the heroine is assign sleeping because he hears her breathing and receives no answer to his accost. Hardy intentionally introduces that episode full of using, signification at uva web, the beginning of the woods scene: he tries, in a subtle manner, to inoculate to his readers the idea that Tess is raped and not seduced. The girl isnít awake, her consciousness is completely or partially lost.
This sleep is crucial for the poor girl because does not allow her to return to her former condition and brings her to a new stage- the girl is obliged to start a new chapter in uva web assign her poor existence. With the beginning of uva web assign, Phase the using newspaper articles in research, Second Hardy gives another signification to the scene under the tree: he seems to replace the idea of rape with the idea of seduction: Tess isnít any more a victim of Alecís desire, she is an accomplice in a romantic relationship of several monthsí duration. ĎIn his personal comments on the novel, Hardy tended to uva web emphasize the seduction rather than the sexual assault that prededes it. For example, in a letter written in 1891 to thank Thomas Macquoid for trafficking papers, his praise of the serial Tess, Hardy refers to the seduction (but not the rape) of Tess in uva web the forthcoming volume edition: ?? Clareís character [in the serial] suffers owing to a mock mariage having been substituted for the seduction pure #038; simple of the mcdonald scholarship essay question, original MS.- which I did for assign, the sake of the Young Girl. The true reading will be restored in the volumes. Thus, Hardy saw seduction as a major part of the true reading of Tess.í Why does Thomas Hardy offer few details about the opinion essay, scene under the tree? The reader cannot tell for sure the reason why , but he can draw the conclusion that this is an uva web, artifice of writing used by the author to maintain his readersí curiosity about Tessí sexuality and purity. Uva Web Assign? In his readersí mind will be a fight between two thoughts: Tess is an innocent young girl raped by a beast; Tess is not a pure girl, she fell in love with Alec, had a sexual relationship with the man and deserves everything that happened to her. ĎAs I have suggested, Hardyís writing (and rewriting) of the first of uva web assign, these events- the assault upon Tess in Phase the dress, First- grew out of his knowledge of English rape law. The legal premise that a sleeping woman is incapable of consenting to uva web assign sexual intercourse was routinely upheld in Victorian courts. A sleeping womanís purity- purity in the sense that she cannot consent to a sexual relationship and her will cannot be known- is beyond question in using the eyes of the law; therefore Hardy turns his attention from rape to seduction and to the more complicated question of Tessí purity as an uva web, apparently consenting woman.í Alec is uva web assign a dishonest character, he knows how to uva web manipulate Tess, to play with her mind. Uva Web Assign? When the girl discover that they are lost in the forest she says: Ď How can you be so treacherous?Ö.just when Iíve been putting such trust in youí . Before Alec goes to try to find a way of leaving the wood, he makes Ďa sort of couch or nest for uva web, herí with dead leaves, checking that they are dry.
He also tells the girl that he has bought a new horse for her father and scholarship essay, her siblings have now toys to play with. Alec covers her Ďtenderlyí with his coat and uva web, goes to find the way. What can the reader notice now is the mla format help, fact that the uva web assign, entire forest is wrapped in fog. The fog has a deep signification in this episode and translate the fact that Tess is absorbed into the natural environment. Fog symbolizes confusion, danger, and the unseen. But here, in uva web assign the phase two, Maiden no more, the reader can find important clues about the uva web assign, seduction and not the rape of Tess. The heroine admits that Ďher eyes were a little dazedí by Alec and that the tragic event was a moment of vulnerability. And this is the short essay, first sign that Tess agreed to be involved in a sexual relationship. She accuses Alec for seducing her and not for an sexual assault. Writing about assign, Tessís drama, Ellen Rooney says that if the reader has no declaration about truth from essay, Tess herself, he cannot precisely say whether or not she is uva web sexual assaulted or seduced. But even though Tess never tells her story entirely, the dress code essay, reader has her thoughts on what she lived with Alec: ĎShe had never wholly cared for him, she did not care for him now.
She had dreaded him, winced before him, succumbed to adroit advantages he took of her helplessness; then, temporarily blinded by his ardent manners, had been stirred to confused surrender awhile: had suddenly despised and disliked him, and uva web, had run away. That was all. Hate him she did not quite; but he was dust and ashes to her, and mla format essay help, even for her nameís sake she scarcely wished to assign marry him.í ĎTemporarily blinded by his ardent mannersí the heroineíhad been stirred to confused surrender awhile.í From Tessí declaration the reader can draw the conclusion that for a little period of time the girl was superficially attracted to Alec and sexually stirred by him. She never Ďwhollyí loved the man and this is a strong reason to believe that the using newspaper, heroine could not have consented to have sexual relations with him. When leaving Alecís house Tess confesses that she now Ďloathe (s) and hate (s) herself for (her) weaknessí. But why the girl hates herself and blames her for her weakness if she was raped and not seduced? Why doesnít she hate Alec for assign, his cruelty? When Tess says that she Ďsuccumbed to adroit advantages Alec took of her helplessnessí , William Davis argues that she refers to the sexual assault of her while she slept. Because a sleeping woman cannot consent to sexual relation, under the Victorian Law this was rape. And surely Thomas Hardy knew about dress code colleges essay, this law and uva web, wrote this scene under the influence of such law. To conform Hardyís intentions to Victorian law on rape, Davis argues that what the author calls Ďseduction pure #038; simpleí was rape followed by ronald scholarship, seduction.
Thomas Hardy does not offer much information about the assign, tragic event from that night but he argues that his heroine was very tired that night: ĎShe was inexpressibly weary. She had risen at five oíclock every morning of mcdonald question, that week, had been on foot the whole of each day, and on this evening had, in addition, walked the three miles to Chaseborough, waited three hours for her neighbours without eating or drinking, her impatience to start them preventing either; she had then walked a mile of the uva web, way home, and dress essay, had undergone the excitement of the quarrel, till, with the uva web assign, slow progress of their steed, it was now nearly one oíclock. Only once, however, was she overcome by actual drowsiness. Uva Web Assign? In that moment of oblivion her head sank gently against uva web, him.í Tess of DíUrberville felt offended when Alec tried to take her in his arms. The girl knows that she is newspaper articles in research not safe, alone, with this man in the woods but she can do nothing to change this situation: ĎDíUrberville stopped the horse, withdrew his feet from the stirrups, turned sideways on the saddle, and enclosed her waist with his arm to assign support her. Uva Web Assign? This immediately put her on the defensive, and assign, with one of those sudden impulses of reprisal to which she was liable she gave him a little push from scholarship question, her. In his ticklish position he nearly lost his balance and only just avoided rolling over into the road, the horse, though a powerful one, being fortunately the quietest he rode.í Alec DíUrbervilles, the master of uva web assign, tricks, embraces Tess although he knows very well that the girl has no feeling for him.
He isnít dissapointed that Tess doesnít love him because Alec doesnít look for dress, love, he wants to take Tessí virginity. ĎHe settled the matter by clasping his arm round her as he desiredí and uva web assign, Tess expressed no further negative. Thus they sidled slowly onward till it struck her they had been advancing for an unconscionable timeí far longer than was usually occupied by the short journey from Chaseborough, even at human trafficking papers, this walking pace, and that they were no longer on hard road, but in a mere trackway.í After Tessís fall Hardy asks himself: ĎBut, might some say, where was Tessís guardian angel? where was the assign, Providence of her simple faith? Perhaps, like that other god of whom the dress, ironical Tishbite spoke, he was talking, or he was pursuing, or he was in a journey, or he was sleeping and not to be awaked. Why it was that upon this beautiful feminine tissue, sensitive as gossamer, and practically blank as snow as yet, there should have been traced such a coarse pattern as it was doomed to assign receive; why so often the coarse appropriates the finer thus, the wrong man the woman, the dress, wrong woman the man [Ö]í Due to Tessís first fall, her sexual experience with Alec, the girl is seen as a fallen woman who must be despised and discredited wherever she goes. When she comes back to Marlott she is gossiped and uva web assign, indirect attacked. Mla Format? In the church Ďthe people who had turned their heads turned them again as the service proceeded; and at last observing her they whispered to each other.í She knows what the people were talking about and feels so hurt that she takes the decision she wonít go to church anymore. Working in her village, on a field, to earn her living Tess still cannot escape from the rumor about her sexual relation with Alec and her child is the real proof of that sin.
She is really unhappy in her village and thinks Ďshe might be happy in some nook which had no memories. To escape the past and all that appertained thereto was to uva web assign annihilate it; and to do that she would have to code colleges get away.í Under the great social pressure Tess is uva web forced to leave her house and to try to start a new life somewhere else. She resembles with the rabbits, hares, rats, mice and snakes Ďretreating inwards as into a fastness, unaware of the ephemeral nature of their refuge and of the doom that awaited them later.í ĎShe cannot escape the censure and dress essay, condemnation, which company her like her own shadow. Uva Web? She is short hunted everywhere. Hardyís poem, Tessís Lament vividly portrays the dilemma Tess is plunged in. I would that folk forgot me quite, Forgot me quite!
I would that I could shrink from sight, And no more see the uva web, sun. Would it were time to say farewell, To claim my nook, to need my knell, Time for them all to stand and tell.
When Tess meets Angel Clare the heroine has a certain sexual experience. The love story lived with Angel, the dress colleges, love confessions they make to each other, the certainty in Angelís confessions, all these good things in her life determine Tess to accept Angelís proposal without a better prudence and understanding of the assign, facts. The heroine proved that she is capable of sustaining herself, she is fearless and uva web assign, self-determined. She can live without being married, she can feed herself just with love and he can live respectiong only the natural laws. ĎCulture alone insists on marriage just as society insists on virginity and the church insists on the subordination of the woman in assign matrimony.í In the bridal night, when Angel confesses his sins Tess has an innocent belief that she will be forgiven. Uva Web Assign? She also has a dishonorable past but she is assign willing to forgive the man she loves and to live free in a happily marriage. Her mother does not agree with her decision of confessing Angel his past because she is human papers a woman with experience and uva web assign, knows that in a society dominated by men, in a patriarchal society she will be found guilty. ĎDespite her obsessive fear of Angelís learning her history, Tess is unrealistically unable to predict his response when he doesíimprobably na??ve in her jubilation that her transgression is uva web assign Ďjust the sameí as hisí. She will not use sex to win Angel over during their honeymoon, although the narrator tells us that it might have worked.í Garson tries to determine if Tess is uva web characterized by lack of competence or honesty taken to extreme. She decides that Tess could act completely different this action having another end but Hardy does not want a happy end for his heroine, he wants to prove that Tess acts having in mind her own moral values and not the societyís. Uva Web Assign? Angel confesses to Tess his sin, his Ďdissipation with a strangerí and assign, after listening with great attention the opinion essay, girl concludes that her fall is uva web not bigger than Angelís mistake and he can obtain forgiveness. ĎIt can hardly be more serious, dearest,í says Angel, condescendingly, smilingly. ĎIt cannotíO no, it cannot!í She jumped up joyfully at the hope. ĎNo, it cannot be more serious, certainly,í she cried. ĎI will tell you now.í She sat down again.
Their hands were still joined. The ashes under the grate were lit by the Ď re vertically, like a torrid waste. Her imagination beheld a Last Day luridness in this red- coaled glow, which fell on his face and hand, and on hers, peering into the loose hair about her brow, and Ď ring the delicate skin underneath. According to Rosemarie Morgan (Student Companion to Thomas Hardy, p.93) in a later version for the 1912 Wessex Edition Hardy writes out Tessís words. After the statement ĎNo, it cannot be more serious,í he adds, Ďbecause ítis just the same!í Saying these words she tries to convince herself and the man she is in love with that she Ďcannotí, Ďcannotí, Ďcannotí be condemned by him because their situation is Ďjust the sameí. The repetitions prove that Tess is making a considerable effort to convince Angel and to convince herself that her mistake is not bigger than his. Tessí belief that Angel will love her and will forgive her sin is expressed in articles in research some words of assign, a great innocence: ĎI thought, Angel, that you loved meíme, my very self!
If it is I you do love, O how can it be that you look and scholarship question, speak so? It frightens me! Having begun to love you, I love you foreveríin all changes, in all disgraces, because you are yourself. I ask no more. Then how can you, O my own husband, stop loving meí? Angel has annihilated the image of woman he was in uva web assign love with- Ēthe woman I have been loving is not youí . Tess is scared and terrified; ĎTerror was upon her white faceí and her full and beautiful mouth that once charmed Angel and reminded him of Ďroses filled with snowí is cursed Ďa round little holeí ĎAngel, to a far greater extent than Tess, is formed and shaped by his past. She, with her rebounding spirits, vibrant sexuality and self-determination, had created herself anew, had risen above her past where Angel is still victim of his. Significantly, the ronald mcdonald question, fallen woman is uva web assign rendered dumb, mute, and prone, not by the seducer but by the lawful husband.í Thomas Hardyís heroine is not killed by uva web assign, her past but by the man she is married to. Even though her sin is still alive in uva web assign her soul, Tess succeeded to code essay forgive herself and to start a new life far away from the man who raped her and away from the family that did not succeed to uva web understand her sorrow and to cure her wounds.
In a menís world, Tess is just a victim who cannot live in a lie and decides to tell all the truth to the man who convinced her to marry him and who will kill her soul slowly and gently. The heroine is punished because she is a woman in a menís society and is married to a man caught in dress essay Victorian conventions. How can she be a real human being if the menís world decides to uva web reduce her to an objectĒ?Thus humanity is male and man defines woman not in code colleges herself but as relative to assign him; she is not regarded as an autonomous beingí.she is simply what man decreesí.she is defined and differentiated with reference to man and not he with reference to scholarship essay her. Uva Web? She is the incidental, the unessential as opposed to opinion the essential. He is the Subject, he is the uva web, Absolute- she is the Other.í Bibliography Chapter Three.
1. Conly, Sarah, ĎSeduction, rape and coercitioní, Ethics 115: 96-121, October 2004, University of mcdonald scholarship, Chicago Press. 2. Danielova, M., ĎThe concept of assign, purity in Thomas Hardyís Tess of the DíUrbervilles, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 3. Davis, W., Thomas Hardy and the law, Legal Presences in Hardyís Life and Fiction, Rosemont publishing and and printing corp, 2003. 4. Garson, M., Hardyís Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Text, Oxford University Press, 1991. 5. Hardy, T., Tess of the DíUrbervilles, edited by colleges essay, Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by uva web, Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 6. Hardy, T., ĎLetter to Thomas Macquoid Ď, 29 Oct 1981, in The collected letters of Thomas Hardy, ed.
Richard Little Purdy and code colleges, Michael Millgate, 7 vols., (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978-88, 245-246). 7. Morgan, R., Women and Sexuality in the novels of Thomas Hardy, Routledge London and New York, 2006. 8. Uva Web Assign? Morgan, R., Student companion to Thomas Hardy, Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2007. 9. Mla Format Essay Help? Muelenhard, C., #038; Shrag, J., ĎNonviolent sexual coercitioní, in Acquaintance rape, the hidden crimeí, Wiley #038; Sons, New York, 1991. 10. Simone de Beauvoir, The Second Sex, trans.
H. N. Parshley, New York, 1953, p. Assign? xiv. 11. Zhen, C., ĎTess in Thomas Hardyís Tess of the DíUrbervilles- victim of social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal societyí. Anna Karenina and Tess of opinion, DíUrberville- a tragic destiny. Anna Karenina is a novel wrote by the russian writer Lev Tolstoy, published in serial installments from 1873 to 1877. Since the novelís publication, Anna Karenina has been seen as Ďevery manís tragedyí or considered as a Bovarian banality by any masculinist critical view. Assign? Iuri Lotman, said: Ď The plot of Anna Karenina reflects, on uva web assign the one hand a certain narrow object- the uva web assign, life of the heroineÖ..We can regard the life of the heroine as a reflection of the life of any woman belonging to a certain epoch and a certain social milieu, any woman, any person. Otherwise, the tragic vicissitudes of uva web assign, her life would only be of local interest.í Lotmanís affirmation translates once again the uva web, idea that menís problems are more important than the womenís problems. Itís not quite important that a woman is not happy in her marriage, that she does not feel love and affection for the men she lives with, because the most important problems in ronald mcdonald question any society are menís problems: war, government, etc Once again, also in Anna Karenina as in Tess of DíUrbervilles it can be seen the preoccupation for assign, a society which is newspaper articles in research dominated by men, is a patriarchal epoch concerned exclusively with menís situations.
The question regarding the womenís position in society was initially formulated in the Victorian England and later this preoccupation could be also found among the assign, Russian elite after the translation of Millís oeuvre, ĎThe subjection of womení in 1869. The beginning of the mla format essay help, nineteenth century did not come with major ideas about womenís condition and life, but it can be seen as a start of reconsidering the role of women in a society governed by men and which needs a change. Russian womanís emancipation had been initially treated in literature- the novels of Ivan Turgenev, the oeuvres of uva web, Alexander Druzhininís ĎPolinka Saksí (1847), or the Nikolai Nekrasovís play, ĎSashaí. Early Russian writings concerning the uva web assign, idea of oppressed women were influenced by uva web assign, the novels of George Sand, whose feminine characters suffer because cannot be free in choosing the man they want to essay love and to be happy with. Uva Web? Anna Karenina is a very beautiful, noble, married woman from St. Petersburg who lives a life full of bitterness because she is married with a man she does not love and trafficking papers, she is in love with a young officer. Uva Web? This passion, these strong feelings will be the reason for his exile from the newspaper articles in research, society she belongs to and will bring her death.
Even though Tess of DíUrbervilles is not a rich woman, on the contrary, is a very poor girl with a family that will sign her death conviction- she is sent to claim kin and she is uva web not advised that out newspaper in research, there is a big world and she has to assign be very careful because men might want to harm her and to take advantages of her- the both heroines are guided by the same noble feeling and have the genuine belief that a woman can be happy only through love, loving and be loved. The both characters are very beautiful women- Tess is poor but beautiful, she does not have an elitist education but she cannot be seen as a simple peasant girl; Anna Arkadyevna Karenina is a model of beauty and perfection. He has a selective education, she is very intelligent, a big reader of English novels and she also writes books for children. Anna is very elegant and human, is considered a perfect woman who can make any man fall in love with her. Her life with a cold and passionless government official taught her to play the role of cultivated, noble, perfect wife. She is uva web assign also a good hostess and plays all these roles with style and refinement. The tragedy of beautiful women comes from the fact that they are considered as a trophy every respectable man must obtain.
And if the woman is married then the battle will be more powerful: the competitor will try to conquer someoneís Ďgoodí in human essay order to prove to himself that he has the real qualities to win, he is uva web assign better than the husband and he can really understand the heroineís needs for love and mcdonald scholarship essay, support. Anna is not a simple aristocratic woman who plays the role of the perfect and happy wife who is still in love with her husband, is only preoccupied with the raise of her children and obeys entirely her husband because he is always right. Anna has an ardent spirit and is determinate to live her life on her own terms. ĎAll the girls in uva web assign the world were divided into two classes: one class included all the girls in the world except her, and they had all the usual human feelings and mla format essay help, were very ordinary girls; while the other class Ď herself alone- had no weaknesses and was superior to all humanity.í Tolstoy writes ĎAnna Kareninaí in order to explain the great changes occurring in the Russian society during the late nineteenth century. The novel presents a battle between the old patriarchal values which characterize the old society, the aristocracy and the new, modern values, the West values. The landowning aristocracy believe in traditions like servitude, and autocratic government, while the West brings values like technology, democracy, rationalism. Assign? This major theme can be seen in the difficulty Levin has with his workers when he tries to introduce a new way of farming. His peasants refuse to implement the new technology having the code colleges essay, strong belief that the uva web assign, traditional Russian way of using newspaper articles in research, farming should not be changed. ĎTess of DíUrbervillesí presents the changes brought in assign the nineteenth century in the Victorian Age, also the importance of social class in newspaper articles in research England and in the same time the complication of defining class in the Victorian England.
A proof for this affirmation is uva web assign offered by short, the fact that Durbeyfields are no longer considered in the Victorian Age as a dominant symbol as it would have been in the Middle Ages. Alecís father, Simon Stokes was able to use his money and to buy a very important, aristocratic name, being another proof that in the Victorian period money are more important than the origin and family history. In the both novels, ĎAnna Kareninaí and ĎTess of DíUrbervilles the changes brought in the society are presented by assign, the main heroines. Alexei Karenin, the government official with a weak personality is playing the role of an educated and sophisticated man who is capable to mla format forgive his wife for her infidelity and to offer her the chance at a respectful life despite her adventure with the young officer. What Karenin does not understand is the power of love that can make people to choose the complicated way and uva web assign, not the simple and known path. Anna Karenina, like Tess, is not just a simple woman, who can leave in human essay conventionalism, she has another perception of live and she wants to uva web love, to be appreciated as a special woman and not just as wife and uva web assign, mother.
She craves for a life of ardent emotion and uva web, noble passions. Kareninís entire life is characterized by formalism, he knows which his duties are and he respects the professional obligations of his function. Alexei is a very good government official because this role defines him and in fact is the ratio of code, his life- a life without grand passion and excitement. Anna and Karenin have a marriage of convenience. Uva Web Assign? Thereís a big age gap between the two characters and also different ways of code colleges, living and seeing the life and lifeís values. Anna craves for sentimental devotion and sincerity while Alexei is happy with the uva web, monotonous work and scholarship question, family life. ĎAll happy families are alike; each unhappy family is uva web unhappy in its own wayí is the first line of the Tolstoyís novel and reveals the fact that the novel is concerned with the happiness, is a declaration for the need of happiness. Is it Anna Karenina happy? Why did the heroine immediately fall in love with Vronsky and renounced to her comfortable and respectful life? Why is a mother ready to sacrifice her child for a man? These are the questions Tolstoy tries to answer and his explanation is uva web assign that women are capable of great and powerful feelings. They can live in uva web misery but a domestic one, not a sentimental failure; they can have a conventional marriage but will always crave for the real love and for fervent feelings and essay, when they will meet the love they will be capable of leaving everything for that noble feeling.
Anna Karenina has an unhappy marriage, her husband does not appreciate her as a woman, he can only see the mother Anna and the wife Anna but not the woman Anna who needs love, appreciation, adventure and emotion. Anna is ready to defend her love for Vronsky, she can accept the social rejection, the fact that she will never be respected and she will be seen as a sinful women. But thatís the essence: a woman, who has the courage to love and to openly live with a man that is not her husband, is not captive in a formal arrangement that could have offered her protection and could have been the institutionalization of a lie is what defines a heroine. Tess of DíUrberville is not an unfaithful married woman, she is just an innocent peasant girl who is convinced that two people that are meant to be together will meet and will live a beautiful love story like in the novels she used to read. She is not a sinful woman because is not her choice to be raped but is uva web assign considered by the Victorian society as a decadent human being and convicted to the social rejection. ĎAnna, Eustacia, [Vye], Tess [Durbeyfield] or Sue [Bridehead] Ė what was there in their position that was necessarily tragic? Necessarily painful it was, but they were not at war with God, only with Society. Yet they were all cowed by the mere judgement of man upon them and all the while by their own souls they were right. Question? And the judgement of men killed them, not the judgement of their own souls or the judgement of Ethernal God. Lev Tolstoy chose to analyze the ďwoman questionĒ enclosed in a comparison: He puts in opposition Annaís search for sense in uva web life with that of Levin, the Tolstoyís other main character. And Tolstoy chose to do something scandalous for his epoch: He converted Anna in an unfaithful woman- a sensitive character. Anna wasnít miserable because she disobeyed her unbearable, suffocating husband and had to be punished; she was unhappy because she didnít find, in Tolstoyís opinion, meaningful love and the lifeís signification.
Tolstoyís belief that true love and happiness could be accomplished only through a love marriage means represents the heroineís drama. Anna finds for a short period of time happiness outside marriage, in Vronskyís arms but her lack of autonomy and social rejection brought by a forbidden relationship causes her sorrow. Tolstoy puts in opposition Annaís story with the story of dress, Levin, an open-minded man who succeeded in his search for meaning in life by choosing a marriage partner he considered his equal rather than his inferior. Tolstoy also presents the hypocrisy that characterizes the nineteenth society, the fact that men could cheat his partners without punishment whereas women could not. He also highlights the uva web assign, idea that lots of mla format essay, woman had relationships outside the marriage including discreet women who blames Anna for her actions similar to their own.
The Victorian controversy of grand importance in ĎTess of DíUrbervilleí is also Ďthe Woman questioní or how woman should be seen and what roles they should play in society. Many writers thought that woman should stay at home and work in the house, being unable to learn and to work for the society. The Victorian women were meant to be Ďan angel in the houseí and also for their husbands and nothing more. If the woman lost her virginity and honour, before marriage, she was convicted to live a life full of shame and sorrow. Uva Web? If the husband was unfaithful, the society wonít blame him for the sexual behaviour. R.G. Christian says: ĎIt was people not God who threw Anna under the trainí highlighting the power of the society which can determine the destiny of using, a human being. Vladimir Nabokov, in his work on Russian literature, characterized Anna as Ďa young, handsome, and fundamentally good woman, and a fundamentally doomed woman.í Nabokov also protects her role as a foreigner of the society she lives in: Ď[Anna] is a woman with a full, compact, important moral nature: everything about her character is significant and striking, and this applied as well to her love.
She cannot limit herself as another character in the book, Princess Betsy, does, to uva web assign an undercover affair. Her truthful and trafficking papers, passionate nature makes disguise and secrecy impossible.í Tolstoy makes Anna almost completely a human being of uva web assign, passion and then allows that passion to kill her. After the heroine meets Vronsky, all of her actions are concerned with keeping a loving relationship with him. Anna is also ready to renounce to her existence in order to feel and to enjoy the full love. Her passion for Vronsky causes a separation between herself and Kitty and human essay papers, also between herself and the domestic sphere.
After the social rejection also the position of mother is soon denied her, and later she is uva web assign not enough concerned in developing a relationship with her daughter and short opinion essay, make this relationship essential part of her life. Even her outfits limit the character. Uva Web? She wears only black clothing expressing the fact that she is in a profound grief and she seems convicted to die for the fact that she was capable to renounce to her family for living the code, love story of her life. Tess of DíUrberville is not a rich, aristocratic girl, on the contrary, she is uva web put under immense pressure by her family to improve their economic position and reputation. Using? She grows in a small village being protected from the influence of an aristocratic society with decadent values. She is a genuine young girl who wants to have a happy marriage, to love and to be loved. She is not interested in having a certain social position because she believes in love as a way of being happy. But the society is uva web assign cruel with the Thomas Hardyís heroine and signs her conviction to dead. Even though she cannot be found guilty because she did not consciously commit a mistake she is blamed by a superficial society which cannot see under the appearances. Short Essay? Anna Karenina is found guilty because she had the courage to uva web assign admit that her marriage is short opinion essay a formal one and she is not happy.
She discovers another Anna when she is with Vronsky and she is very happy. Her guilty is that she refuses to live a love story outside her marriage in a society in which the assign, relationships outside a marriage are accepted and help, formal alliances are protected. Tess of DíUrberville was found guilty because her family couldnít protect and uva web assign, defend herself against dress, a world dominated by men and she had the uva web, courage to tell Angel that she was raped and essay help, he had a little baby. She did not want to marry with Alec, to have a formal marriage because the hypocrisy dominated in the Victorian society did not affect her perception about does a marriage mean. Vronsky is a good looking character, rich, and assign, also a charming man who is as willing as Anna is to renounce to his social status and professional position for finding the real love.
His involvement in his hospital-building project shows a carrying person who wants to protect the weak people. But the essay help, Tolstoyís work also shows a Vronsky with defects and blames. His strange hair, his mistake in calculating the horse race, his ambitions of military fame these entire characteristics make a Vronsky human and assign, not a romantic character. Anna finds Alexei an exceptional man who could make her very happy and could offer her a completely rescue and ronald scholarship question, a burial into a seductive passion. Assign? The heroine is very disappointed when she discovers that Vronskyís passion is limited and ronald scholarship question, he is just another man and not THE man. The Tolstoyís choice to give Vronsky the same name as his husbandís suggests that Anna is uva web doomed to repeat the failure of her first relationship. ĎAnna had been preparing herself for this meeting, had thought what she would say to him, but she did not succeed in saying anything of it; his passion mastered her. She tried to code colleges essay calm him, to calm herself, but it was too late. His feeling infected her. Uva Web? Her lips trembled so that for a long while she could say nothing.í Vronskyís commitment to Anna seems to decrease in human trafficking later chapters of Tolstoyís novel but the reader cannot be convinced that this is the true situation because he finds out about this wane of devotion from Annaís confessions which betrays the fear that the man she loves and for whom she has sacrificed her marriage and her social position, becoming a mistress, is assign not any more in mcdonald scholarship essay question love with the heroine. Uva Web? The events related to this episode seem to indicate that Vronskyís love hasnít faded: he takes Anna to his country home which is luxurious, elegant, he stays with the heroine and refuses to visit his old friends and trafficking essay papers, even mother, he is still fascinated by her beauty and uva web, personality. He occasionally misses the old fame and military glory especially when he meets his old comrades but he does not blame Anna for this situation.
Vronsky accepts Annaís paranoia and her whims but for dress, Tolstoyís main character these proves are not enough, are just signs of duty and not actions indicating true love. The reader cannot decide is assign right in this situation because Vronskyís thoughts are not exposed. Angel Clare is Tessí Vronsky, the man full of passion who can kidnap the essay, heroineís present and can project a whole new world outside the mediocrity of an irrational and hypocritical society. When Tess first meets Angel she realizes that she definitely has seen him before, at the May-dance and uva web, he did not choose Tess to short opinion essay be his dance partner. But because the destiny wants to bring together Tess and uva web assign, Angel and also to determine, Tessí dead conviction, they meet again at the dairy.
The love the both characters feel for each other is genuine, pure, without being jealous or proud. ĎIt was then, as has been said, that she impressed him most deeply. She was no longer the milkmaid, but a visionary essence of woman- a whole sex condensed into one physical form. He called her Artemis, Demeter, and other fanciful names half teasingly, which she did not like because she did not understand them. ĎCall me Tessí, she would say askance; and essay papers, he did. In this quote from the novel the reader can clearly see that Angel is in love with the image of a perfect woman and not exclusively with Tess herself. She is compared with the Greek goddesses and that means that she has to be the ideal of feminine beauty and uva web assign, perfection in order to be loved by Angel. And Tess is not a goddess, sheís a simply peasant young girl who just wants to love and to be loved. In the critical essay ĎWhy women are oppressedí Anna Jonasdottir says: ĎMan is willing to accept woman as an short essay, equal, as a man in skirt, as an angel, a devil, a baby-face, a machine, an instrument, a bosom, a womb, a pair of legs, a servant, an encyclopaedia, an ideal or an obscenity; the only thing he wonít accept her as is a human being, a real human being of the real sex.í Angel seems to be a character that wants to be surrounded by angels and canít accept that human beings have a past, made mistakes, he cannot forgive and uva web, forget even though he asks for forgiveness. He is an example of a fallen angel who couldnít remain pure and in research, also failed in being a good Christian by confessing Tess his sin.
His mistake is also Tessís mistake but the influence of the Victorian society does not allow him to see clearly and to only after the longue journey he realizes that Ďthe beauty or ugliness of a character lay not only in uva web assign its achievements, but in its aims and impulses; its true story lay, not among things done, but among thinks willed.í Tess of DíUrbervilles and Anna share also another pattern-fog, haziness, mystery. When Tess of DíUrbervilles is raped, the scene is articles in research surrounded by mist and the reader does not exactly knows what to think about uva web, this situation: ĎShe was silent, and uva web assign, the horse ambled along for assign, a consider- able distance, till a faint luminous fog, which had hung in uva web assign the hollows all the uva web assign, evening, became general and enveloped them. It seemed to hold the moonlight in suspension, rendering it more pervasive than in opinion clear air. Whether on assign this account, or from absent-mindedness, or from sleepiness, she did not perceive that they had long ago passed the point at essay, which the lane to uva web Trantridge branched from the highway, and that her conductor had not taken the Trantridge track.í Anna herself speaks of a certain haze which in associating it with the purity of first love: ďI remember that blue haze, like the newspaper, haze on the mountains in Switzerland. Uva Web? That haze which envelops everything at that blissful time when childhood is just coming to using newspaper an end and its huge merry circle narrows to a path which one treads gaily yet with dread into lifeís corridorĒ . Uva Web Assign? . Code Colleges? . Kitty smiled Ö ďHow did she go through it? How I should like to know the whole romance of her life!Ē she thought, recalling the unromantic exterior of Annaís husband.í The patter appears again when Kitty realizes the visible sympathy between Anna and Vronsky at the ball and ďa mist spread(s) over her soulĒ Anna and assign, Tess are two heroines who have lots o resemblances but also dissimilarities.
Tess of DíUrbervilles is an mcdonald essay, innocent peasant girl who takes care of her family being fascinated with the novels she reads. She is not selfish, she does not to marry with an assign, aristocratic men and to be part of the aristocratic society. Anna is mcdonald scholarship also intelligent, cultivated, simple, honest, and a devoted mother. But the relationship with Vronsky changes her completely. Tessís downfall is caused by her lack of education in what concern such a complicated subject for uva web assign, the society she lives in- sexual relationships and it can be said that her trust in men is determined by reading romantic novels and identifying with their heroines in a specifically sensual and innocent way. Anna, on contrary, is unable to read her novel on ronald mcdonald scholarship essay question her train ride home after flirting with Vronsky. ďShe was too eager to uva web assign live herself.
If she read how the heroine of the novel nursed a sick man, she wanted to be moving about a sickroom with noiseless tread herselfĒ. When she discovers, it is to make an instinctual moral perception: ĎThe hero of the novel had nearly attained his Englishmanís idea of happiness Ö and mcdonald essay, Anna was wishing she could go to the estate with him, when she suddenly felt that he must be feeling ashamed and that she was ashamed for the same reason.í Anna Karenina and Tess DíUrbervilles are honorable women. Even though Anna has a sexual relationship outside her marriage she does not accept Kareninís proposal when he decides that they can stay into a formal marriage and forget Annaís infidelity. The heroine is not ashamed that she has a relationship with Vronsky because this relationship represents her entire life-love, fantasy, eternity, nobles. ĎAlexey Alexandrovitch! What is uva web it you want of opinion, meĒ?I want you not to uva web meet that man here, and to conduct yourself so that neither the world nor the servants can reproach youÖnot to see him. Essay Help? Thatís not much, I think. And in return you will enjoy all the privileges of a faithful wife without fulfilling her duties. Thatís all I have to say to uva web you. Now itís time for me to essay go. Iím not dining at home.í He got up and moved towards the door. Anna got up too.
Bowing in silence, he let her pass before him.í Tess of uva web, DíUrbervilles also refuses Alecís proposal to code essay be his mistress because she cannot have a relationship with a man she is not in assign love with, a man who harmed her. ĎVery well,í he said, laughing; ĎI am sorry to uva web assign wound you. I did wrongíI admit it.í He dropped into some little bitterness as he continued: ĎOnly you neednít be so everlastingly flinging it in my face. I am ready to pay to assign the uttermost farthing. You know you need not work in code essay the fields or the dairies again. Assign? You know you may clothe yourself with the best, instead of in the bald plain way you have lately affected, as if you couldnít get a ribbon more than you earn.í ĎI have said I will not take anything more from you, and I will notíI cannot! I SHOULD be your creature to go on doing that, and I wonít.í
Bibliography Chapter four. 1. Hardy, T., ĎTess of the DíUrbervillesí, edited by Juliet Grindle and Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by ronald scholarship essay question, Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 2. Jonasdotti, A., ĎWhy women are oppressedí, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994. 3. Lotman, Iuri, ĎThe structure of the artistic textí, translation by Ronald Vroon, University of Michigan, 1977. 4. Mandelker, A., ĎFraming Anna Karenina: Tolstoy, The woman question, and the Victorian novelí, The theory and interpretation of narrative series, Ohio State University Press, 1993. 5. Nabocov, V. ĎLectures on Russian Literature, Harcourt, 1981.
6. R.G. Christian, ĎTolstoy: An Introductioní, Cambridge 1969. 7. Tolstoy, L. ĎAnna Kareninaí, translated by uva web assign, Louise Shanks #038; Aylmer Maude, Vintage Classics, London, 2010. In the Victorian age, women were seen through menís eyes. Essay? They were the most important characters in the domestic sphere, the family life being more than sufficient for their emotional achievement. Uva Web Assign? The home was seen as a paradise, a refuge from the chaotic world of business and politics, a place similar with the help, haven, in which men found love from their wives and children. The Victorian women were seen as being pure and perfect. They were Ďangels in the houseí, wives and mothers dedicated to their families and children. They had to obey their husbands because men were the main characters in the society. The marriage was a light form of slavery: after the wedding everything a woman inherited and assign, had unquestionably belonged to mla format essay the husband. 1. Blathway, Taymond, ĎA Chat with the Author of Tess, Black and White, IVí.
Macmillan, 1892, London. 2. Casagrande, P., ĎTess of the uva web assign, DíUrbervilles unorthodox beautyí, New York: Twaye, 1992. 3. Conly, Sarah, ĎSeduction, rape and coercitioní, Ethics 115: 96-121, October 2004, University of Chicago Press. 4. Danielova, M., ĎThe concept of purity in Thomas Hardyís Tess of the mla format essay, DíUrbervillesí, Faculty of Education, Brno, December 2010. 5. Davis, W., ĎThomas Hardy and the lawí, Legal Presences in assign Hardyís Life and essay, Fiction, Rosemont publishing and uva web assign, and printing corp, 2003. 6. Ertu??rul, Ko. ĎTess of the DíUrbervilles, the tragedy of a Godless human existenceí, Journals of dress colleges, Arts and Sciences, 12 decembrie 2009, Universitatea Cankaya.
7. Uva Web? Freeman, J., ĎStudies in mla format help Philologyí, 1982 University of North Carolina Press, Vol 79, No.3. 8. Garson, M., Hardyís Fables of Integrity: Woman, Body, Textí, Oxford University Press, 1991. 9. Assign? Hardy, T., ĎTess of the DíUrbervillesí, edited by Juliet Grindle and short opinion essay, Simon Gatrell, with a new introduction by assign, Penny Boumelha, Oxford University Press, New York, 1983. 10. Hardy, T., ĎLetter to Thomas Macquoid Ď, 29 Oct 1981, in The collected letters of essay, Thomas Hardy, ed. Richard Little Purdy and Michael Millgate, 7 vols., (Oxford Clarendon Press, 1978-88, 245-246). 11. Uva Web Assign? Harvey, G., ĎThe complete critical guide to Thomas Hardyí, Taylor #038; Francis e- Library, 2003. 12. Newspaper Articles? Holmes, S., #038; Nelson, C., ĎMaternal Instincts: Visions of motherhood and sexuality in Britain, 1875-1925í, London, Palgrave Macmillan, 1997.
13. Holmberg, Mona, ĎTess, a victim of her societyí, in Thomas Hardyís Tess of the DíUrbervillesí, Lulea University of Technology, Department of Language and assign, Culture, 2003. 14. Jennings, A., ĎStranger than Fiction. Life and Literature in the Late Victorian Ageí, Black Cat Publishing, 2001. 15. Jonasdotti, A., ĎWhy women are oppressedí, Philadelphia, Temple University Press, 1994.
16. Kent, Susan.íSex and Suffrage in Britain 1860-1914?. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990. 17. Ronald Mcdonald? Lotman, I. Assign? ĎThe structure of the artistic textí, translation by Ronald Vroon, University of Michigan, 1977. 18.
Mandelker, A., ĎFraming Anna Karenina: Tolstoy, The woman question and the Victorian novelíThe theory and interpretation of narrative series, Ohio, State University Press, 1993. 19. Newspaper In Research? Matthew, A., ĎThe Forsaken Mermaní in Selected Poems, 1822-1888, An electronic classics series publication, 2000. 20. Millgate, M., ĎThomas, Hardy, His Career as a novelistí, London: Macmillan, 1994.
21. Uva Web? Mitchell, S.,íDaily Life in Victorian Englandí, Greenwood Publishing, Westport, Connecticut, London, 2009. 22. Morgan, R., ĎWomen and Sexuality in the novels of Thomas Hardy,í Routledge London and New York, 2006. 23. Morgan, R., ĎStudent companion to Thomas Hardyí, Greenwood Press, London, 2007. 24. Muelenhard, C., #038; Shrag, J., ĎNonviolent sexual coercitioní, in Acquaintance rape, the hidden crimeí, Wiley #038; Sons, New York, 1991. 25. Uva Web Assign? Nabokov, V. ĎLectures on Russian Literature, Harcourt, 1981. 26.
R. G. Christian, ĎTolstoy: An Introductioní, Cambridge, 1969. 27. Rogers, Katharine, ĎThe Centennial Reviewí, Vol 19, No. Assign? 4, 1975 Michigan State University Press. 28. Simone de Beauvoir, ĎThe Second Sex,í trans.
H. N. Parshley, New York, 1953. 29. Tolstoy, L. ĎAnna Kareninaí, translation by Louise Shanks Maude #038; Aylmer Maude, Vintage Classics, London, 2010. 30. Zhen, C., ĎTess in Thomas Hardyís Tess of the ronald mcdonald scholarship essay question, DíUrbervilles- victim of assign, social prejudice and male dominance in Victorian patriarchal societyí, societyhttp://www.ritsumei.ac.jp/acd/cg/lt/rb/600/600PDF/chen.PDf. 31. Wojtczak, H., ĎWomen of Victorian Sussexí, Hastings Press, 2003. Search our thousands of essays:
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Logistics Grads Suit Up for the Future. December 15, 2013 | Justine Brown. Universities and corporations are working together to arm logistics graduates with the skills they need to move from the classroom to the conference room. With global trade likely to rise more than threefold to $27 trillion by 2030, logistics professionals are in high demand, according to Winning the Talent Race , a report by professional services firm PwC. In fact, the U.S. logistics sector is expected to create more than one million job openings between 2013 and 2016, according to uva web assign the U.S. Colleges Essay! Department of Labor. Yet a significant gap exists between the skills logistics companies need, and those today's college graduates bring to the table. The success of companies such as Walmart demonstrates the growing importance of uva web assign supply chain and colleges, logistics, but education has not kept up with this shift, says Raymond Boykin, Ph.D., a member of Prince George, Va.-based Commonwealth Center for uva web assign, Advanced Logistics Systems (CCALS). Many schools aren't educating students about the ronald question importance of logistics in today's global economy. Many employees in the transport sector have medium or low qualification levels, according to the PwC report, and the sector's need for uva web, better-educated workers is increasing.
Ensuring enough skilled candidates are availablealong with suitable advancement options for essay, talented staffwon't be easy, but it is critical to future success, says the uva web report. More training and learning opportunities in the transportation and logistics sector are needed. Papers! Such programs could help increase the available labor pool. But generating more skilled workers is not solely an education issue. Schools and industry need to work together to make a difference, says John Taylor, associate professor and chair of the department of marketing and supply chain management at Wayne State University's School of uva web assign Business Administration in Detroit.
Educational institutions can't do it alone. They need to work closely with businesses to understand their issues and needs. Building the new logistics workforce is mla format essay help truly a team effort. Companies, schools, governments, and nonprofits must do more to identify, recruit, train, and employ skilled workers, says Dr. Sime Curkovic, professor of supply chain management at Western Michigan University (WMU) in uva web Kalamazoo, and the director of the integrated supply management program. Manufacturers who reach out to local high schools, vocational schools, community colleges, and universities help build relationships with school leaders and instructors, Curkovic adds. This outreach also helps companies shape training programs to ensure they teach relevant skills to future workers. An array of collaborative logistics education programsinvolving public schools, universities, government agencies, and corporationsalready exists in the United States. For example, Purdue University in essay help West Lafayette, Ind., and Ivy Tech Community College in Carmel, Ind., recently received nearly $900,000 in uva web grants to address the short skills gap and uva web, technical demands in using newspaper articles in research Indiana's supply chain, logistics, and manufacturing operations workforce.
Through the project, the schools will provide a diverse population of college students with a direct pathway for earning both their associate's and bachelor's degrees in uva web the field of technology-based logistics. The grants will also fund projects such as working directly with Indiana's K-12 schools to inform students about educational and career opportunities in logistics; developing curricula for Ivy Tech and Purdue; and implementing an outreach and recruitment program to ronald mcdonald scholarship essay encourage Ivy Tech associate's degree students to continue their education. Other universities are focusing on assign, introducing project-based work and internship opportunities specifically aimed at providing students with real-world logistics experiences. At WMU, several corporations provide students with hands-on lean manufacturing projects for coursework and training. The university has been working closely with industry for five years, and students have completed more than 100 projects. For example, John Deere is pursuing a division-wide Build-To-Demand order fulfillment initiative, and will use a group of WMU students to measure the Manufacturing Critical-path Time. The partnership with industry came about because WMU met with businesses, and saw the demand, says Curkovic. Kalamazoo is not a huge geographic area, but it is essay surrounded by many companies that recruit heavily from our supply chain program. The industry representatives want to ensure that students graduate with an understanding of key logistics challenges, and are prepared to uva web begin work at a company knowing how to do things better, faster, and cheaper. We created a process management class, and have taken on more industry projects, Curkovic adds.
We are no longer just talking about these concepts in the classroomwe are applying them in the workplace. One WMU project involved Portage, Mich.-based Mann-Hummel USA, an original equipment supplier to the international automotive and articles in research, mechanical engineering industries. The company was experiencing huge growth, and running out of material storage space at uva web its Portage production facility. To manage this growth, Mann-Hummel was using an ronald mcdonald essay, off-site warehousing strategy incorporating just-in-time Lean methods such as kitting, kanban, and regular milk runs to bring materials to the plant. This strategy was working well for uva web assign, the company, but it offered room for improvement. A group of WMU students, led by Curkovic, collaborated with Mann-Hummel to define a set of dress colleges essay plastic hand totes that could be employed to store 250-plus raw materials the company uses in production. The project included measuring repackaging times and costs, determining which hand totes worked best for each raw material, and obtaining a quote from a product manufacturer for the estimated number of containers necessary to implement the hand tote system. Most students don't have work experience to include on uva web, their resume when they graduate, but collaborative projects open doors for dress colleges, them to gain that experience, says Curkovic.
And many companies evaluate students as potential future employees. Another WMU project involved Battle Creek, Mich.-based food manufacturer Kellogg's Direct Store Delivery (DSD) Solution Center, a facility that assists with supply chain process issues. The solution center's analysts mainly focus on solving day-to-day issues with the delivery of Kellogg's snack products. It is a sector of the company that is vital as Kellogg's continues to acquire more business. Delivery refusals, driver delays, and uva web assign, order status are frequent problems that DSD Solution Center analysts must resolve. The WMU team was asked to mcdonald scholarship essay question find opportunities for process improvement, and time and assign, cost savings. After some research and hands-on experience in colleges essay the solution center, the WMU team identified both simple and complex solutions, including a new call center phone system, a truck driver instruction sheet, additional staff, integrated information database systems, and uva web, eliminating static routes. Building Beneficial Relationships. Wayne State University's School of using newspaper articles in research Business Administration is currently collaborating with Detroit automaker General Motors to introduce students to the issues and challenges involved in producing vehicles.
For the assign Wayne State University/General Motors Supply Chain Case Competitionwhich recently completed its third yearbusiness students from across the country came to Detroit for an in-depth look at the supply chain systems that support the uva web assign automotive industry. The students examined topics such as component purchasing strategy, global vs. domestic sourcing, risk management, and battery production locations. The competition presents an opportunity to showcase Southeast Michigan's automotive industry and supply chain management careers, as well as provide students an outstanding real-world educational experience, says Taylor. Additionally, students were able to interview with automotive companies, and assign, participate in several panel sessions on supply chain careers. The auto industry has a huge need for students, he adds.
We have to make sure we are getting the ronald essay best students in front of industry leaders to ensure those matches happen. At Ohio State University in Columbus, the Fisher College of uva web Business works with several companies as part of its supply chain management program. Dress Code Colleges Essay! The college hosts both a global supply chain forumwhich consists of 12 companies that help guide research and curriculumand the Center for uva web, Operational Excellence, which has 38 member companies and dress colleges, is instrumental in shaping the school's supply chain curriculum. Uva Web Assign! The college also operates a successful internship program. We seek industry guidance in in research devising our curriculum and executing our programs, says Dr. Uva Web! Thomas J. Goldsby, professor of uva web assign logistics at Ohio State University. We plug in to uva web industry any way we can, whether it's inviting guest speakers to campus or through class projects. Uva Web Assign! These experiences allow students to learn about business and the real logistics challenges companies face. Logistics academics naturally focus more on the real problems businesses are trying to address than educators in other industries do.
We are fortunate to be in a field that has a good working relationship with industry, Goldsby says. Uva Web Assign! Businesses are interested in our curriculum and the research we do on campus, and they want to be part of both. Other types of organizations are also working to bridge the talent gap between logistics companies and educational institutions. CCALS, for human papers, example, is assign a collaborative effort between business, government, and several Virginia universities. Formed in December 2012, CCALS strives to uva web assign improve the technological, mechanical, and human factors that enable logistics.
Several companies and government entities bring their supply chain challenges to CCALS, share the costs associated with lab testing, then own the solution. Our goal is to work together on uva web assign, solving industry issues such as supply chain risk and disruption, distribution and transportation networks, and logistics security and uva web assign, information technology systems, says Boykin. But we also seek to develop talent, so when a participating company needs employees with specific skill sets, they know where to find them. CCALS brings universities and companies together, he adds. The companies inform the uva web universities as to uva web assign what skill sets they need from assign graduates, and the universities adjust to meet those needs. Another organization working to bridge the logistics talent gap is the Transportation Club of Atlanta, which recently launched a program to provide paid internships for students majoring in short opinion logistics at uva web assign Clayton State, Georgia Southern, Georgia Tech, or Kennesaw State. Companies including Unisource, Coca-Cola, Home Depot, and ronald mcdonald scholarship question, Rubbermaid have signed on to participate in the summer 2014 program. Employment is one of the biggest problems in Georgia, notes Jeremy Estep, president of the Transportation Club of Atlanta. Many organizations want to hire students, but don't have the resources to go out to assign the universities to recruit.
Our goal is to act as an intermediary, and uva web assign, facilitate that process. The program is a win-win, Estep notes. The companies win because they get transportation, logistics, and supply chain interns who want to be in uva web assign this industry, he says. Companies are exposed to up-and-coming talent, and can identify students with management potential, perhaps saving the expense of short formally hiring someone who wouldn't have worked out. Logistics students win because they gain real-world industry experience, Estep adds. When these students graduate, they will be a hot commodity because they have both education and experience. Another aspect vital to the future of logistics is raising the sector's profile in the education system. Assign! Many students are not aware of logistics and its potential as a career field, because many high school level career development programs do not include logistics and transportation. Part of dress code colleges WMU's program involves outreach to local high schools.
We introduce junior high and high school students to supply chain management through some classroom exercises, says Curkovic. CCALS offers a dual-enrollment program in uva web assign which high school and scholarship question, community college students can take, and receive credit for, Virginia State logistics courses. We partner with four community colleges and six high schools, helping them integrate logistics education early by offering dual enrollment, says Boykin. It is important to introduce students to logistics before college, because by uva web assign that point, many have already decided where they will focus their studies. On the colleges essay other end of the spectrum, several universities are investing in continuing education and/or graduate programs to help logistics professionals keep up with changing industry demands. For example, WMU recently launched an assign, executive education program in which industry managers team with faculty, alumni, and papers, current students to help solve real-world logistics challenges. In some cases, the university is finding this model financially beneficial. We ask logistics managers about their challenges, and whether we can help with specific projects, says Curkovic. The executive education projects have gone so well, some managers are willing to pay us with some of the cost savings we generate for them. We then use that revenue to build up more projects, sponsor student scholarships, or hire more faculty. Industry professionals often teach executive education and graduate-level logistics courses, allowing for further cross-pollination.
The logistics and supply chain sector gained a head start over other industries because collaboration is ingrained in assign it, says Carole Bennett, M.B.A. director of program development and marketing at dress colleges the Georgia Tech Supply Chain and Logistics Institute in Atlanta. For example, professionals from Florence, Ky.-based logistics provider LeanCor teach the institute's professional certificate series classes. Schools with a tradition of working with industry will be better at producing students with the uva web assign skill sets needed in mla format help the future, Bennett notes. Many universities and businesses claim the general population lacks awareness about assign logistics and essay papers, how it touches every part of our lives. Corporate sourcing controversies, global supply chain disruptions, and well-known companies such as Walmart that thrive because they have mastered supply chain operations are raising awareness. The demand for logistics knowledge is enormous, because it will become a competitive advantage, says Boykin.
Many manufacturing companies are trying to cut costs anywhere and everywhere they can, and they are beginning to see logistics and uva web assign, distribution as a source of low-hanging fruit. Supply chain students can help them identify those opportunities, he explains. Putting students to work in real-life logistics scenarios enables them to respond to industry needs and help identify solutions. By working together, education, industry, and other partners may help bridge the uva web assign gap between what logistics companies need and assign, the skills today's college graduates bring to the table. Building relationships with school leaders and instructors allows companies to help shape the logistics workforce of tomorrow.