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Achilles a hero essays

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C Tutorial File I/O (using text files) The file I/O functions and types in the C language are straightforward and easy to understand. To make use of these functions and types you have to include the stdio library. (Like we already did in most of the a hero, tutorials). Cover Letter School? The file I/O functions in the stdio library are: The fopen library function is used to open a text file. Achilles A Hero? You also have to technology in our essay, use a specified mode when you open a file. The three most common modes used are read (r), write (w), and append (a). Take a look at a hero an example: So let#8217;s take a look at the example: The fopen statement opens a file #8220;output.txt#8221; in the write (w) mode.

If the file does not exist it will be created. But you must be careful! If the file exists, it will be destroyed and a new file is created instead. Technology? The fopen command returns a pointer to the file, which is stored in the variable ptr_file. If the a hero essays, file cannot be opened (for some reason) the variable ptr_file will contain NULL. The if statement after de fopen, will check if the contest, fopen was successful. Achilles A Hero? If the fopen was not successful, the cover letter school, program will return a one. (Indicating that something has gone wrong). This for loop will count to ten, starting from one. The fprintf statement should look very familiar to you. It can be almost used in the same way as printf. Achilles? The only new thing is teacher school that it uses the achilles a hero, file pointer as its first parameter.

The fclose statement will close the file. This command must be given, especially when you are writing files. So don#8217;t forget it. You have to be careful that you don#8217;t type #8220;close#8221; instead of #8220;fclose#8221;, because the close function exists. But the close function does not close the files correctly. (If there are a lot of school, files open but not closed properly, the program will eventually run out of file handles and/or memory space and crash.) If you want to achilles, read a file you have to open it for reading in autumn essay the read (r) mode. Then the fgets library functions can be used to read the contents of the achilles, file. (It is also possible to make use of the techniques brainstorming, library function fscanf. But you have to be sure that the achilles essays, file is perfectly formatted or fscanf will not handle it correctly). Let#8217;s take a look at an example: Note: The printf statement does not have the new-line (n) in the format string. This is not necessary because the library function fgets adds the n to the end of each line it reads. A file #8220;input.txt#8221; is opened for reading using the function fopen en the mode read (r).

The library function fgets will read each line (with a maximum of techniques brainstorming essays, 1000 characters per line.) If the end-of-file (EOF) is reached the fgets function will return a NULL value. Each line will be printed on stdout (normally your screen) until the EOF is reached. The file is then closed and the program will end. That#8217;s all for this tutorial. There are currently 31 responses to #8220;C Tutorial File I/O (using text files)#8221; Why not let us know what you think by adding your own comment! i am doing my final yr B.E. mechanical engg, u tutorial helped me much in obtaining output file in txt format, thank a lot for ur help. I loove you. First year student at essays university with no programming experience looking for season something like this to process some files for essays an assignment.

Thank you and I loooooooooooooove you for this. very usefull..thank you .. superb#8230;.clearly understandable#8230;.thnk u#8230;expecting more like this#8230;.. very short and sweet programs. India? concise and to the point, got me started with fprintf no problem, thank you , steve. Thanks. Achilles A Hero? I am going through a C database book that doesn#8217;t explain how this works. I really enjoy how you made it simple thanks. Do you have a complete tutorial online of essay, everything C? I would love to go through it if you do. thanks..its very simple explanation about files.. also expecting more like this….. hello these are vry usefull for me so please send the complecated problem to my mail. Thanks in advance, it was very simple (like that)and rather helpful#8230; Thanks again. this is what i was looking for#8230;.. thanks #8230; I#8217;m a first year college student and achilles essays, this is very useful for my report thank you ! #128512; is it a variable type ? Thanks a Lot for your time and effort in to school, focus in this great nutshell tutorials. This is a real example in how to teach the concepts to everyone. thanks for the info, this will be in my final exams!:) Really I liked it. You approach of defining the things is best.

The tutorial itself is short and precise void of achilles essays, spaghetti contents! Be blessed. thanks. but i have a doubt,how to check the number of essay, letters in each line of a file. this example is really helpfull 4 first time programming in achilles essays c#8230;.thanks a lot!! This tutorial was really helpfull for me to learn file operation. I. was able to create input.txt file in C:TCBIN folder (By default). And. now my question is that how to create file on specific path? Osome #128578; Expecting more like this.. Really nice #8230;! simple Neat explanation of will do school work, Pointers. But what if you want the program to be able to process different text files?

Not just a hard coded single file like in the example. Like opening the program with a passed in achilles a hero essays text file from a command line. Will Work? Like: cat bunchofwords.text | wordprogram.c. and want to be able to a hero, use a different text file each time. How will the program read the file? scan? Thanks alot, this site really helps me. it is so helpful.

Awesome . very productive . one of the best online tutorial. Nice language. easy to understand. Will Do School? good for beginner. Essays? loved it. how do you get the code to print the numbers on the same line. Thanks. TERMS and Privacy Policy UNDER WHICH THIS SERVICE IS PROVIDED TO YOU.

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Heroes of Their Time, Achilles essays

niiwam resume God's Bits of Wood/ Les bouts de bois de Dieu. Sembene Ousmane's third novel, God's Bits of Wood , was originally written and published in a hero French as Les Bouts de bois de Dieu . The novel is set in pre-independence Senegal and technology in our society essay, follows the achilles essays, struggles of the African trainworkers in three cities as they go on teacher independent school strike against their French employers in an effort for equal benefits and compensation. The chapters of the book shift between the cities of Bamako , Thies , and Dakar and track the actions and growth of the men and women whose lives are transformed by the strike. Rather than number the achilles a hero, chapters, Ousmane has labeled them by the city in which they take place, and the character who is the focal point of that chapter. As the will do school work, strike progresses, the French management decides to starve out the striking workers by cutting off local access to water and applying pressure on local merchants to prevent those shop owners from selling food on credit to the striking families. The men who once acted as providers for their family, now rely on their wives to scrape together enough food in order to feed the essays, families. The new, more obvious reliance on women as providers begins to use contractions narrative essay, embolden the women. A Hero Essays? Since the women now suffer along with their striking husbands, the wives soon see themselves as active strikers as well. The strategy of the French managers, or toubabs as the African workers call them, of using lack of techniques brainstorming essays food and water to a hero essays, pressure the strikers back to work, instead crystallizes for workers and their families the gross inequities that exist between them and their French employers.

The growing hardships faced by the families only strengthens their resolve, especially that of the cover letter teacher school, women. In fact, some of the achilles a hero, husbands that consider faltering are forced into resoluteness by their wives. It is the women, not the men, who defend themselves with violence and clash with the armed French forces. The women instinctively realize that women who are able to stand up to white men carrying guns are also able to assert themselves in essay their homes and villages, and make themselves a part of the decision making processes in their communities. Achilles Essays? The strike begins the can you narrative, awakening process, enabling the women to see themselves as active participants in their own lives and persons of influence in their society. About Sembene Ousmane. Sembene Ousmane was born in achilles a hero the Cassamance region of Senegal in 1923, the son of a fisherman. Ousmane received only three years of formal education, after he was dismissed for striking back at a French teacher who had first struck Ousmane . Rather than being angered by this incident of retribution, Ousmane's father was pleased that his son had defended his dignity. Editors Samba Gadjigo and Ralph Faulkingham write that this incident that ended Ousmane's school career would presage his efforts to reclaim from colonial and neocolonial misrepresentation the reality of an African past and present and to proclaim the dignity, independence, and power of African cultural forms for the continent's future ( Gadjigo and Faulkingham 1). Although he spent time employed as a dock worker and a sharp shooter for the French military in World War II, when Sembene Ousmane began his career as a writer, he was self-taught. Autumn India Essay? ? Perhaps Ousmane's lack of formal education has also been a lack of a hero formal indoctrination, allowing him to form his own ideology and form career goals that have set him apart from cover letter teacher school his contemporaries.

Ousmane has said that French and English are the only media that allows Africans to communicate with one another (Henry). ? His decision to publish his work in French was a matter of function, since that was the language with which he felt he could reach the widest African audience. A Hero Essays? ? It was this desire to expand the reach of his ideas that led Ousmane to shift his focus from the written word to the world of film. ? Ousmane traveled to Moscow and used a scholarship to study filmmaking at commonwealth contest the Gorki institute (Guardian). Since the late sixties, Ousmane has primarily created his work in movie form. He is considered to achilles, be the father of African film, as his 1966 movie La Noire De / The Black Girl was the first feature length film to be produced in sub-Saharan Africa (Heath). Le docker noir . Paris : Debresse , 1956. Translated into English by Ros Schwartz and published in commonwealth English as The Black Docker . London : Heinemann, 1987. O pays, mon beau peuple . Paris : Le Livre Contemporain , 1957.

Les bouts de bois de Dieu . Paris : Le Livre Contemporain , 1960. Translated by Francis Price and published as God's Bits of Wood . London : Heinemann, 1962. Voltaique . Paris : Presence Africaine , 1962. L ' Harmattan . Paris : Presence Africaine , 1964. Le mandat , precede de Vehi-Ciosane . Paris : Presence Africaine , 1966. Translated into English by Clive Wake and achilles a hero essays, published as The Money Order , with White Genesis. Commonwealth Essay? London : Heinemann, 1972. Xala . Presence Africaine , 1973. Translated into essays, English by Clive Wake and published as Xala . Westport : L. Hill and Co., 1976.

Le dernier de l'Empire , tomes 1 2. Paris : L'Hartmattan , 1981. Translated into will do school work for you, English by Adrian Adams and achilles essays, published as The Last of the Empire: A Senegalese Novel , two volumes. London : Heinemann, 1983. Niiwam . Paris : Presence Africaine , 1987. Translated into English and published as Niiwam and Taaw : Two Novellas . Oxford and Portsmouth , N.H. : Heinemann, 1992. L'Empire Songhrai (1963) [In French ] Black and white. 20 minutes. Borom Sarret (1963) [In French with English subtitles ] Black and white. 20 minutes. Niaye (1964) [In French ] Black and white. 35 minutes.

La Noire De… (1966) [ Black Girl . In French with English subtitles ] Black and white. 60 minutes. Mandabi (1968) [ The Money Order . In Wolof with English subtitles ] Color. 90 minutes. Taaw (1970) [In Wolof with English subtitles ] Color. Teacher School? 24 minutes.

Emitai (1971) [ God of Thunder . In Diola and French with English subtitles ] Color. 101 minutes. Xala (1974) [In French with English subtitles ] Color. 123 minutes. Ceddo (1976) [In Wolof with English subtitles ] Color. 120 minutes. Camp de Thiaroye (1989) [In Wolof and Fench with English subtitles ] Color.

153 minutes. Gelwaar (1992) [ Gelwaar : An African Legend for the 21st Century . In Wolof and Fench with English subtitles ] Color. 115 minutes. Faat Kine (2000) [In Wolof and French with English subtitles ] Color. A Hero Essays? 120 minutes. The Question of Language. Ousmane may view language as simply a media between Africans when it comes to the interaction between equals, but when there is a divide between the do school work, status of the parties, and the interaction is between have and have not, then the selective use of achilles a hero language begins to enforce the boundaries of power from ruler to ruled. In God's Bits of Wood , the striking African train workers and their families are primarily speakers of the brainstorming, African language Ouolof . As a result, learning French is not necessary in their struggle to achilles a hero essays, organize amongst themselves. While in I, Rigoberta Menchu , Menchu comes to understand that Spanish can be a tool to help the different Indian people find a common language, there are enough Ouolof speakers that French is not needed to serve that function. In fact, French serves as the language of exclusion.

Beaugosse, one of the junior union officials who has hope of leaving the union and joining the favored elite, uses French in his conversations with the local union leaders. It is Bakayoko who tells Beaugosse You can keep your French for yourself. The men will understand you better if you speak their language (Ousmane 186). It is will do school work, not Beaugosse's intention to communicate with the a hero essays, men directly, only to voice his disproval with the direction of the strike with those men that he sees as being in can you use contractions in a charge, men he also knows are part of a hero essays his group of rare Africans that speaks French. While Bakayoko wants all of the strike workers present to be able to hear the union decision making process as it unfolds, since the strike is effecting everyone directly and evenly, it is the elitist Beaugosse who is resistent to making the deliberations understandable to letter independent school, everyone. There are similarities between God's Bits of Wood and Nine Guardians in the way in which the language of the oppressor is used as a unexpected weapon against the agents of the colonizers. In Nine Guardians , the achilles essays, Indian leader Felipe surprises the land-owning Arguello family by confronting them in their ranch home and cover letter independent school, demanding, in Spanish, that they provide a school and honor the law that Indian children have access to education. The lady of the house, Zoraida Arguello, is incensed that Felipe, someone that she perceives as an inferior, is achilles a hero, speaking to the family in Spanish, as if he was their equal. In God's Bits of Wood , N'Deye Touti's knowledge of French allows her to embarrass the local French constable.

The constable assumes that because N'Deye is technology in our, Black and female, that she is an ignorant savage and is incapble of learning French. Achilles? The constable discusses N'Deye's physical attributes as if she is a call girl, and remarks that he could likely bed her for less than a pound of rice. It is when the constable later realizes that N'Deye does speak French that his words come back to shame him. Bakayoko points out during the tense negotiations between the striking Africans and their French employers, that since your ignorance of our language is use contractions in a essay, a handicap for you, we will use French as a matter of courtesy (Ousmane 180). Achilles? But when Bakayoko informs the management representatives that this courtesy is one that will not last forever (Ousmane 180), he is making it clear that he sees the languages and lifestyles of the African train workers to contest, be every bit as significant and worthy as that of the achilles a hero essays, French. Establishing the equality between the African and French languages is a step in making clear the equality between African and French humanity. Bakayoko puts the French negotiators on notice. Cover Letter Independent School? If the Africans must learn French in order to deal with the achilles a hero essays, managers, those French managers will soon have to learn Ouolof or Bambara in order to communicate with the African employees. Bakayoko's forthrightness exposes the do school work, chauvinism of the French managers and makes known to the French that the Africans are formidable.

The Presence of African Humanity. God's Bits of Wood provides a welcome break from the achilles a hero, bigotry of Joseph Conrad's canonical bludgeon Heart of Darkness . In Conrad's work, Africans are at best voiceless savages, distant cousins, estranged from Europeans on the family tree of humanity. Ousmane intentionally shares with readers the customs of indigenous life in techniques brainstorming essays pre-independence Senegal, as well as the achilles a hero, goals, the growth, the frustrations and the flaws that are signs of humanity. Ousmane presents complex people that create strategy as they struggle and technology, succeed together in an effort to improve their condition. Essays? In Conrad's Heart of Darkness , despite being set in Africa, Africans serve as stage props whose only purpose is to autumn india, provide shelf and support to Conrad's complaints against a hero essays, the Belgians and his literary white supremacy. The Voice of Indigenous Resistence and essays, the Chimera of Balance. While the novel format of God's Bits of Wood separates it from testimonios like I, Rigoberta Menchu and Elvia Alvarado's Don't Be Afraid Gringo , all three texts place the reader inside the struggle of indigenous people against forms of colonial oppression.

All three works expose readers to a hero essays, the vulgar inequaties between the people who come from the land, and the foreign colonizers and their agents who come to the land in can you in a order to control and essays, exploit its natural and human resources. More pivotal than illuminating the problems caused by western colonial aggression is the process of illustrating indigenous resistence that all three works employ. Will Do School For You? Menchu and Alvarado provide first-hand testimony of the a hero essays, suffering of the rural agricultural workers in for you Guatemala and Honduras, while also describing the manner in which the indigenous peoples in their countries have organized and sacrificed in their efforts to lay claim to their humanity, land, culture, and political voice. In Ousmane's narrative account of the achilles essays, 1947-8 Dakar-Niger railway strike that he himself took part in, Ousmane presents a similar battle for cultural uniqueness in season essay an industrialized African setting. The African trainworkers are engaged in a strike, which by achilles its very nature creates an adversarial relationship between employer and employee. This natural tension is commonwealth essay contest, magnified several times over by the fact that the French management is supported by the French government that has subjugated the indigenous people of the region. The strikers and achilles a hero, their families are being denied food to eat as a French method of strike busting. Work? At the essays, same time, the previous way of life and environment that would have provided the African strikers with sustenance has been forcibly replaced by the French with subservient industrialization and the rule of the machine. The very nature of the power relationships between the colonized and the colonizer in God's Bits of Wood , I, Rigoberta Menchu , and Don't Be Afraid Gringo are wildly out of balance. The vast and intentional gulf that separates the foreign haves and teacher independent school, the indigenous have-nots is intrinsic to the colonial system. Yet when some Western readers encounter these texts, they are overwhelmed by a sense that these works fall prey to a language of polarity that is as detrimental as armed insurrection (Grate).

Rather than forcefully condemn the achilles essays, brutality of the armed colonial aggressor in clear and unambiguous terms, this sqeamish line of thought places the unfair expectation upon the indigenous person of displaying a pie-in-the sky pacifism bordering on masochism that would be beyond even the unholy love child of Martin King, Mahatma Gandhi, and do school work for you, Jesus Christ Superstar. Achilles Essays? If there is a complaint that these texts lack a balanced and sympathetic portrayal of the colonizer, then the honest finger must be pointed at the colonizer himself, for it is the will for you, colonial system that he has created that is without balance and undeserving of sympathy. Achilles A Hero Essays? It is his colonial system that feeds on the starvation and in a narrative, deprivation of the achilles a hero essays, indigenous spirit. It is his colonial system that requires that denial of cover letter adequate food, education, and health care for the indigenous people of the colonized land. And it is also his same colonial system that actively creates political and military policy to essays, prevent the countries of these indigenous peoples from developing and season essay, attaining the necessary means to achieve economic independence. A conscientious reading of these works makes it clear that the colonial system is predicated on the privation of the indigenous person for the direct benefit of the colonizer and his agents. Those that would shy away from blaming the colonizer, and instead place culpability on a dichotomized Power Over system (Grate), are declaring the gun guilty of murder yet exonerating the achilles a hero, shooter. When texts like God's Bits of Wood , I, Rigoberta Menchu , Nine Guardians , and Arrow of God present us with colonial settings that are founded on obvious and brutal inequities, then, if we are persons of conscience, those texts also lead us to commonwealth contest, certain obvious judgments. The switch in genre between Menchu and a hero, Alvarado's testimonio and Ousmane, Castellanos, and Achebe's narrative may provide some Western readers with the guilt-produced fever-dream of fictive distance and impartiality, but all five authors are clearly attacking not only the colonial system, but also the foreign colonizers and the ruling elite that are grasping the reins.

The Changing Role of Women. The evolution of the strike causes an in our society evolution in achilles a hero essays the self-perceptions of the Africans themselves, one that is most noticeable in the women of Bamako , Thies , and Dakar . These women go from seemingly standing behind the men in their lives, to walking alongside them and eventually marching ahead of them. When the use contractions in a narrative essay, men are able to achilles, work the jobs that the train factory provides them, the women are responsible for running the markets, preparing the food, and rearing the children. But the onset of the strike gives the role of can you in a narrative essay bread-winner-or perhaps more precisely bread scavenger-to the women. Women go from supporting the achilles essays, strike to participating in the strike. Eventually it is the women that march on foot, over four days from Thies to Dakar. Many of the men originally oppose this women's march, but it is precisely this show of determination from those that the French had dismissed as concubines that makes clear the strikers' relentlessness. The women's march causes the French to understand the nature of the willpower that they are facing, and shortly after the French agree to technology in our essay, the demands of the strikers. Perhaps no female character better captures transformation of the African female than Penda. A Hero? Penda is first introduced as an unmarried women who breaks custom by having periodic escapades with men (Ousmane 137). But the brainstorming essays, experience of the strike turns what once was anger and stubborn independence to dedication and selfless communalism.

Her strength of spirit leads the union officials to seek her out to be in charge of the line distributing rations to the striking families. Penda's firmness of purpose proves surprising and implacable to those that try to use her reputation for promiscuity against her. Penda goes so far as to publicly slap a man who chooses to pat her behind (Ousmane 142). It is Penda who gives voice to the women's desire to march to Dakar to support the essays, strike. It is also Penda who shifts between cheerleader and autumn essay, drill instructor in essays order to keep the women walking and in our society essay, together during the journey. The novel itself draws its name in part from Penda's method of keeping the achilles essays, march together.

The local tradition holds that the practice of in our society counting adults and children directly brings misfortune and possibly death. Instead of counting people, the people of the region count God's bits of wood. Penda willfully violates this tradition and begins counting women directly, in order to prevent some of the marchers from surrendering to fatigue and quitting. Even though Penda is later killed in a fourth clash between the African women and the armed French forces, her example and resolve encourages the woman to complete their march to Dakar. In Partial Defense of Polygamy.

For those of us with Western sensibilities, it is difficult for achilles essays, us not to instinctively turn up our nose at the notion of one man marrying multiple wives. The practice of polygamy does allow for the mistreatment of women, and, as Ousmane shows us in his novel Xala , the routine of aging men claiming younger and younger women tends to create rivalries and jealousies between the wives as each wife vies for a piece of the do school for you, husband's attention. In God's Bits of Wood , we do see some of the advantages of polygamy. Achilles A Hero Essays? The character of Bakayoko keeps with the customs of his people, and, when his brother is killed during a labor conflict with the French, Bakayoko takes his brother's widow, Assitan , as his wife, providing for technology in our society essay, her and achilles, her clever daughter, Ad'jibid'ji . While Bakayoko professes to being against polygamy, at the novel's end he ruminates how he might have made Penda his second wife had she lived. Such a marriage would have been a polygamous union of the novel's two ideal characters, and perhaps this is Ousmane's allowance that polygamy has some merits as a constructive social system. Ousmane is more direct in his distain for the chauvinistic Western habit of dismissing polygamy as a practice of savages. In the novel, one of the demands of the striking train workers is that they be given family allowances as part of their compensation. The objection of the French managers is can you in a, that they do not want to support women who are only concubines by ratifying the custom of inferior beings ( Ousmane 181).

It is the arrogant French dismissal of the polygamous family that helps fuel the determination of the women and motivate them to make their march from Thies to Dakar. Part of what makes the train worker's strike successful is the ability of the local, lower level workers to achilles essays, organize amongst themselves and run the strike on their own, without involving the union officials or the African members of the local government. Essay? The union officials have been corrupted by the money and ease of lifestyle afforded them through their cooperation with the achilles essays, French management. Along with the technology, Muslim religious leadership, the union and a hero essays, government officials form an indigenous elite that is being used by the French management and French government to put a African face on the French efforts to commonwealth essay, rule and achilles, exploit the people and resources of this African colony. The Rule of the Machine. As the strike begins to techniques, take effect, the striking workers, particularly Bakayoko, come realize how industrialization and the machine have changed their lives.

While the men can recall their elders telling them of a time when Africa was just a garden for food the essays, stoppage of the machine makes them conscious of their strength, but conscious also of their dependence (Ousmane 32). Had they lived in the Africa that existed before the coming of the French, the men and women of the strike could have fed themselves from the natural abundance of Africa. But beyond making the families dependent on the machine and its masters for food, the machine has also forced the men to rely upon the machine for their sense of purpose. Without the sound of the factory and the schedule of maintaining the train, the men feel a temporary emptiness. Talking with the Father of African Film.

This site contains an brainstorming essays interview with Sembene Ousmane during the a hero, 2001 tour for cover teacher school, the movie Faat Kine . Among other topics, Ousmane discusses the a hero, diversity of society Africa , his disbelief in the terms Francophone and Anglophone, and the importance of the changing role of women. This site contains a biography of Sembene Ousmane and a discussion of his work and motivation as an author and filmmaker. This site features a biographical record of Ousmane from The Columbia Sixth Edition 2001. This site provides a brief discussion of Ousmane as a filmmaker, but supplies links about his films, interviews with Ousmane , and a hero essays, suggested further reading. Unfortunately, many of the links on essay this site are broken. This outstanding site by former Senegalese Senator Amadou Thiam provides information on achilles Senegalese history, geogrpahy , culture, lifestyles, religion, literature, films, fashion, business, and tourism. There are also links to commonwealth contest, online newspapers in Bermuda, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guyana, Jamaica, Kenya, Namibia, Niger, Nigeria, Trinidad, Western Sahara, and St. John's U.S.V.I.

This site provides thematic examinations of two of Ousmane's novels, Le docker noir/The Black Docker and essays, O pays, non beau peuple. This is a teaching site by Fred Carlisle on the novel God's Bits of india essay Wood. The site features a brief biography of Ousmane , a synopsis of the novel, and questions for reading the novel, and issues for a hero, discussion and reflection. This site reviews Ousmane's 1975 film Xala. This page is autumn india, created by the Norwegian Council on Africa and contains general information on Senegal . This site was created by student Serigne Ndiaye as part of a post-colonial literature class at Emory University . The site contains a biography of Sembene Ousmane , a discussion of Ousmane's literary and filmic aesthetic, an examination of Ousmane as a social critic, and a bibliography and filmography of Ousmane's work. This site is achilles essays, accessible in French, English, Italian, and Spanish, and appears promising, but unfortunately seems to have loading problems. Rap and techniques essays, Hip-hop culture in Dakar , Senegal. This site contains the article Symbolic Impotence: Role Reversal in Sembene Ousmane's Xala by Phoebe Koch. Daily postings of achilles a hero headlines concerning Senegal are posted at autumn india essay this site.

This is the site for achilles essays, the newspaper and radio station. The are live Internet broadcasts available. This site offers online Wolof courses. This site is an Africa-only search engine. This yahoo pages contains a brief biography on commonwealth essay Ousmane , a partial filmography , and links to other sites about the Senegalese filmmaker.

This article on this site provides an achilles overview of Ousmane's career and an interview in which Ousmane discusses his motivations and aspirations as a filmmaker and a writer. In teaching God's Bits of Wood , some prior discussion of colonialism and the French presence in Senegal would prove useful. A knowledge of pre-colonial West Africa would also be benefical. The following questions work well as either discussion questions or as short paper topics. What are N'Deye Touti's definitions of love and civilization at the beginning of the novel? From where does she get her ideas? How are these ideas at techniques essays odds with her own background and experience? When the Black mayor-deputy addresses the people of Dakar , why does he address them in French and not Ouolof or Bambara ? Compare the French factory official Edouard's treatment of N'Deye Touti during the women's uprising at Dakar (page 117) to his treatment of her before the achilles a hero, rally at Dakar (page 213).

What do you see as accounting for any differences in his treatment? How are the recognized religious figures treated in this novel? What methods of characterization does Ousmane use? Discuss the Imam's belief on the necessary acceptance of season india essay poverty as divine will. What are some of the changes that take place over the course of the strike in female characters such as Penda, N'Deye Touti, and Ramatoulaye? Choose one of the protagonists of in the novel and chart that character's growth over the course of the novel. Gadjigo , Samba and Ralph H. Faukingham eds. Ousmane Sembene Dialouges with Critics and Writers. Amherst : Univ. of Massachusetts Press, 1993. Grate, Lynnette. I, Rigoberta Menchu.

Western Michigan Univeristy/Dialogues . 15 April 2002. 18 April 2002. http://www.wmich.edu/dialogues/texts/irigobertamenchu.html. Ousmane , Sembene . God's Bits of Wood. Achilles Essays? Translated by Francis Price. London : Heinemann, 1962.

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What I Learned Teaching Arabs About Judaism in Abu Dhabi. It was ironic, to say the least, that it took coming to an oil-rich Arab emirate to get me to lead my first Rosh Hashanah service. Forty-five years ago I had earned Conservative rabbinic ordination from a hero New York’s Jewish Theological Seminary. But this was the first time I had ever used it. I had turned, instead, to autumn season india, a career in scholarship as a professor of a hero essays, Near Eastern studies for several decades at Princeton University.

But my role at this Rosh Hashanah service last September was a byproduct of my work this past semester as a visiting professor at cover teacher school New York University’s new campus, in essays Abu Dhabi. In fact, this event — probably the first Rosh Hashanah service to can you use contractions, ever take place in Abu Dhabi — was just part of the broader role that NYU’s new campus is starting to play in the region’s intellectual life. Even as controversy has dogged the deplorable labor conditions surrounding its construction, the campus’s role as a Western university operating on Western standards is beginning to have an impact. To be sure, questions persist about the academic freedom NYU will be permitted in a kingdom ruled by an absolute monarch whose government imposes sharia-based punishments and strictly controls the a hero press. But my experience teaching there for a semester testifies to an important additional component to this story. It was my recent retirement following a 40-year career teaching about can you use contractions, Jews in the Islamic world at Princeton that gave me the opportunity to achilles, accept NYU’s invitation to lecture at its Abu Dhabi center.

I am quite certain that the seminar I taught — “Jews in the Muslim World in the Middle Ages” — was never before taught in those parts. Along with a side trip to Saudi Arabia to brainstorming essays, lecture on the Cairo Geniza — the essays traditional repository where Jews stored sacred and everyday writings — it was a remarkable experience, suggesting new opportunities for will do school, talking about Jewish-Muslim relations inside the Arab world, notwithstanding widespread hostility toward Israel and the prejudicial beliefs about Jews. I arrived in achilles a hero Abu Dhabi at the end of August, in 115-degree heat, to find myself on a spanking new university campus, built by commonwealth essay contest Crown Prince Sheikh Mohammed bin Zayed al-Nahyan, whose father, Sheikh Zayed, founded the a hero essays United Arab Emirates in 1971. The UAE, with Abu Dhabi as its capital, is a decentralized nation consisting of seven emirates, each with its own monarch. The country came into being when Britain gave up its informal protectorate over what were then called the “trucial states,” an arrangement intended to protect the British India trade from so-called “pirates.”

The university is situated on Saadiyat Island, about 10 to 15 minutes from the city by car or taxi. With luxury hotels and beautiful beaches, the island, which is being developed as a tourist and cultural center, shows off Abu Dhabi’s bid to can you, use its oil money to construct an ultra-modern and cosmopolitan — if still authoritarian — oasis in the Middle East. The Louvre has built a branch on Saadiyat Island, and the Guggenheim will soon follow suit. Achilles Essays! NYUAD contributes to the cultural scene by sponsoring events in the arts as well as lectures open to the wider Abu Dhabi community. As a visiting professor at do school work NYUAD, I had five students in my course (a typical enrollment for an elective), including two Muslims and one Jew. Out of achilles, a total of in a narrative essay, 726 students, there are no more than a handful of Jews enrolled at the university. That’s understandable, but regrettable. Academic standards at NYUAD are very high — comparable with the level to a hero essays, which I had long been accustomed at Princeton.

And the favorable teacher-student ratio throughout the techniques essays university offers a high-quality classroom experience. Most of the teachers at NYUAD are young, ranging from freshly minted PhDs to men and women in their early 40s. Some senior faculty from NYU in New York and a hero “ringers” like me cycle through periodically. The faculty is enthusiastic and devoted. They feel part of techniques brainstorming, a mission — helping to create a new and exciting experiment in global education. Other Western universities have also established outposts in essays the Gulf. The University of Paris, Sorbonne has a campus in Abu Dhabi, similarly under the teacher independent patronage of the Crown Prince. Several Western universities have branches in nearby Qatar. The earmark of the Abu Dhabi student body is its geographic diversity. Students come from more than 100 different countries, though all of essays, them speak, read and cover independent write excellent English, which is the medium for achilles, instruction. The countries most heavily represented include the United States, UAE, China, India, Pakistan, Russia, South Korea, the United Kingdom, Ethiopia and india essay Australia.

I met the only Azerbaijani student, who happened to be Jewish. I asked one of the essays senior university officers why the Crown Prince has made this enormous investment. His answer was that the country wants its secondary school graduates to acquire a high-quality Western-type university education. That explains why NYUAD has programs in the natural sciences, in will work for you engineering, in economics and in computer science, in addition to the humanities and other social sciences. Currently only about 15% of the student body is achilles a hero essays, Emirati, but that percentage is expected to grow, as will the size of the undergraduate student body, which is targeted to technology in our essay, reach 2,000.

Apart from my teaching and writing, I engaged in several extracurricular activities involving Jews, Judaism and Jewish-Muslim relations. The Rosh Hashanah service which I led, was held the first night only. Very few of the campus’s small number of Jewish students attended, and not many members of the school’s numerous Jewish faculty were there, either. Achilles! But several non-Jews, including both a Catholic priest who teaches religion and an Emirati student of letter teacher school, mine, attended at my suggestion. The service was followed by a Rosh Hashanah meal, complete with challah and gefilte fish. Two weeks later I gave a talk about the holiday of Sukkot at a party held in a sukkah erected on campus by Jewish and non-Jewish students at the initiative of a Jewish staff member who grew up on achilles essays, a kibbutz in cover letter independent Israel. Apart from Emirati students, I met Muslims from such countries as Yemen, Jordan, Pakistan, Bangladesh and Iraq. In response to an invitation from the a hero essays Arab Cultural Group at NYUAD to lead a program for them, I screened the prizewinning documentary “Forget Baghdad.” The film, by Samir Jamal Aldin, an society essay Iraqi Shiite living in Switzerland, features interviews in Israel with Iraqi-born Jews, like the famous writer Sami Michael, about their memories of Iraq and its once cosmopolitan capital. In the film, the a hero Iraqi Jews speak nostalgically — in Arabic, not English or Hebrew — about their lives there before emigration in 1950 and 1951. In late October, the filmmaker himself met for lunch with students and faculty at my invitation when he happened to be in town for the Abu Dhabi Film Festival. As we dined in the cafeteria, discussion got around to the tepid reception that “Forget Baghdad” met in Israel.

My own suspicion is do school for you, that the warm nostalgia for Iraq that the Iraqi-Israeli interviewees expressed and the complaints they voiced about achilles a hero, their harsh life upon arrival in Israel offended Zionist sensibilities. Samir shared a telling anecdote. When the film was finally shown in Israel, he was present at the screening. As the film ended and the lights went up, viewers in the audience of society essay, Arab-Jewish background jumped to their feet shouting at the Ashkenazim in the audience, “See what you people did to a hero, us!” Courtesy of Mark R. Cohen. Jews in Islamic Life: Near East studies scholar Mark Cohen lectures on the Cairo Geniza to a male-only audience at King Saud University in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Women attending a different college campus were able to can you use contractions narrative essay, listen to the lecture by remote access. Samir described himself as completely taken aback by this fierce reaction, unaware as he was of the longstanding hostility between Mizrahim and Ashkenazim in Israel. The biggest surprise of my stay was to a hero, find myself teaching Arabs a noncredit course in in our society essay Judeo-Arabic, the form of Arabic spoken and written (in Hebrew letters) by Jews in the Arab world down to modern times. The course resulted from achilles a conversation I had with a senior from do school for you Yemen. Back home, he had discovered and bought a book containing an Arabic transcription of a hero, a Judeo-Arabic travel account of Yemen, written in essay the 19th century.

I volunteered to teach him the achilles essays language. Word spread, and soon 11 students turned out for work for you, the class, most of them Arabs or non-Arab Muslims. They found Judeo-Arabic utterly fascinating. A Hero! I had them learn the Hebrew alphabet, and, as a first text, I gave them two suras from the techniques essays Quran, which I transcribed into Hebrew letters. I also showed them an image of a Geniza fragment of the achilles a hero Quran in commonwealth essay Hebrew letters, from the 11th or 12th century. One Muslim-Arab student was perplexed. Why, he asked, would Jews have wanted to read the Quran? This gave me an achilles essays opening to speak about Jewish-Muslim coexistence in letter independent the Middle Ages and about Jewish acculturation to Islamic-Arabic culture. Jews read the Quran, I said, because they recognized the similarity between Judaism and Islam. Writing in Arabic in the introduction to his prayer-book, the great 10th century rabbinic sage Saadia Gaon of Baghdad referred unselfconsciously to the Torah as “sharia” and even as “Quran”; to the direction of achilles essays, prayer toward Jerusalem as “qibla,” the Arabic term for will do school work, facing Mecca, and to the hazan, or cantor, as the “imam.” Jews read the Quran, I added, despite a medieval Islamic prohibition against non-Muslims teaching their children the holy book of Islam.

At the end of the semester, the same Muslim student came to thank me for offering the course. “My aunt,” he told me candidly, “couldn’t understand why I was doing this. She said I was being a traitor.” I responded: “I understand your aunt’s feelings. Given what is happening today between Israel and Palestine, it’s hard to essays, believe that there ever was a time when Jews and Muslims coexisted and can you shared similar cultural interests.” This young Muslim’s exposure to Judeo-Arabic taught him otherwise. The Geniza provided another platform for speaking about achilles essays, Jewish-Muslim coexistence in technology in our essay past times. In November, Amitav Ghosh, the achilles a hero essays celebrated Indian writer, and his wife, biographer Deborah Baker, visited NYUAD as writers in residence.

I had been Ghosh’s historical consultant for his Geniza-based book, “In an Antique Land.” In Abu Dhabi we collaborated on a public program for the NYUAD Institute, where, in the presence of commonwealth essay, a sizable audience, we were interviewed about the a hero essays Geniza and about his book. Independently, I also gave a lecture on techniques brainstorming, the Geniza to NYU alumni living in the Gulf. I showed the respective audiences an image of a Geniza merchant’s letter and talked about the importance of the Geniza for understanding that, for all their statutory legal inferiority, the Jews lived securely among Muslims, traded with them and experienced minimal discrimination most of the time. In general the Muslim students I met at NYUAD — whether they were Emiratis, from another Arab country, from Pakistan, Bangladesh or Africa — were very curious about Jews, Judaism and Jewish-Muslim relations, while thirsting at the same time to be disassociated from the murderous Islamic extremism that plagues the essays world today. Some 30 students and faculty showed up at one event to cover letter school, which I was invited to speak about Jewish-Muslim relations. Achilles! There, a Muslim student from Pakistan spoke passionately in defense of the true Islam, which, he said, has been distorted by groups like the Islamic State, or ISIS. Another student at this gathering — an American, if I recall correctly — posed what he apologetically called an “aggressive” question about Israeli repression of Palestinians. He was probably surprised by autumn essay my unapologetic response, in which I expressed my own critical view of the policies and actions of the Israeli government.

The capstone of my activity speaking about Jews and Islam in the Arab world was my trip to Saudi Arabia in December. I was invited to lecture at King Saud University in Riyadh, where I gave two talks explaining the achilles importance of the Geniza for Islamic as well as for Jewish history. The subject fascinated the faculty and graduate students in attendance. I described how the Jewish Geniza could be useful to them in their own research on Islamic history. At the same time, I used the occasion to show that the do school work Geniza documents, largely ignored by a hero Islamophobic writers, reflect Jewish-Muslim coexistence and Jewish immersion in medieval Arab society. Courtesy of Mark R. Cohen.

Cultural Exchange: Cohen found that Muslims were fascinated with Muslim-Jewish interactions from the Middle Ages. One of the Saudi professors asked whether the good relations between Jews and Muslims attested to in the Geniza constitute a response to extremists. “Which extremists?” I asked. “Jewish extremists,” he replied. Techniques Brainstorming! My response was that Islamophobic Jewish writers who believe that Islam has persecuted the Jews from the time of the Prophet Muhammad on are not interested in Geniza evidence of decent Jewish-Muslim relations; it spoils their distorted, negative picture of Islam. The unusual nature of my presentation did not escape me or my hosts: Here I was, a Jewish professor known to have connections with Israel — the home of my daughter and two granddaughters — and achilles a hero a historian of the Jews in the Muslim world, addressing Muslim scholars of Islam in a conservative Islamic country. These opportunities to contribute to technology essay, a better understanding of relations between Jews and Muslims reinforced my feelings about the dearth of Jewish students at NYUAD. Jewish parents and students alike often recoil at the idea of studying in an Arab country. They cannot imagine being safe in the UAE, or in any Arab country for that matter.

This is unfortunate, because Abu Dhabi is not a dangerous place. Students freely travel to the city and to achilles a hero, other places in brainstorming essays the Emirates. Students participating in courses on the Arab world often take a class trip to some other Arab or formerly Arab country, like Spain. The university itself constitutes a truly pluralistic and cosmopolitan environment, with students from a wider variety of geographic, national, linguistic and religious backgrounds than any American university can offer. If the achilles a hero Jewish student body were larger, Jews and brainstorming Muslims would inevitably interact, form bonds of friendship and find ways to dialogue.

Getting to know one another in the rich academic environment of NYUAD, Muslim and Jewish college-aged students are bound to gain a better understanding of each other and break down the barriers that divide them. Mark R. Cohen is emeritus Professor of Near Eastern Studies at Princeton University. The Forward's independent journalism depends on donations from readers like you. Now you can double your donation ! Simply donate $120 or more and your gift will be matched dollar for dollar. The Forward welcomes reader comments in order to promote thoughtful discussion on issues of a hero essays, importance to the Jewish community. All readers can browse the comments, and all Forward subscribers can add to techniques brainstorming, the conversation. In the achilles a hero essays interest of maintaining a civil forum, The Forward requires that all commenters be appropriately respectful toward our writers, other commenters and the subjects of the articles. Vigorous debate and reasoned critique are welcome; name-calling and personal invective are not and will be deleted. Do School Work! Egregious commenters or repeat offenders will be banned from commenting.

While we generally do not seek to edit or actively moderate comments, our spam filter prevents most links and certain key words from being posted and the Forward reserves the right to remove comments for any reason. You are now signed up to receive our newsletters. We’ll email you whenever we publish another article by achilles essays J.J Goldberg.

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English 245: Film Form and Culture. Christopher Nolan is an American/British film-maker, who lives and works in London and Los Angeles. He first started making films (on Super8) when still a child. He studied English literature at University College, London, which he chose specifically because they had the achilles a hero essays, facilities to autumn make films. His debut feature was Following (1998), a neo-noir thriller. He has made some of the highest grossing films of all time, such as The Dark Knight , the second film in his Batman “reboot” series, which grossed over a billion dollars at the box office. Filmography (as director): All of Nolan’s films have been critically acclaimed. His films have been nominated for 21 Academy Awards. This is achilles a hero essays, astounding given the short period of time he has been making films. Particularly notable are the can you use contractions narrative, eight Oscar nominations each for achilles a hero essays, The Dark Knight and Inception . His films have won 6 Academy Awards, most for sound and visual editing.

His films have also been nominated for 21 BAFTA awards (winning 6). His films have won many other international film awards. Nolan has never won an Oscar for Best Director. Season India? In fact, he has not ever been nominated, not even for The Dark Knight and Inception , which were both nominated in the Best Picture category. Some consider this a historic snub. Typically, Nolan writes and directs his films (his brother Jonathan has co-written some of the films). He also often produces his films as well (his wife Emma Thomas has produced the films he hasn’t produced). Having creative control of his films makes him an auteur. However, this is a hero, complicated by the fact that, since Memento , he has created his films under the auspices of Warner Brothers, which is (still) a major Hollywood movie studio. The easiest explanation for this is that he has proven himself at the box-office, and on the international award circuit, and can command any kind of budget he likes, including the huge budgets attached to Hollywood studio films. Inception was a summer blockbuster from the summer of autumn, 2010.

Critics acknowledge that it was an atypical summer fare; some have called Inception a “thinking person’s blockbuster.” Richard Corliss writes that “the picture’s main pull is achilles, not visceral but intellectual, in the style of Euro puzzle films of the past 50 years . . . but as Nolan told The New York Times , with ‘way more explosions.'” The film made over $800 million at india, the box office and, as already mentioned, was nominated for achilles a hero essays, eight Academy Awards, winning four. Even before the film came out it was the commonwealth essay contest, subject of intense speculation and debate. This is true of its “after-life” as well. Achilles A Hero? Even now, a few short years after it was released, people enjoy discussing the film and what it means – particularly the ending of the will do school, film. The film is set in the near future when new techniques and drugs allow people to share dreams. Dom Cobb is a former dream architect who now uses his expertise in shared dreaming to engage in industrial espionage, stealing business secrets from achilles, people while they are sleeping.

This is called “extraction.” He is will do school work, also on the run after being charged with murdering his wife. After a failed attempt at achilles, extraction, Cobb is offered a job by a man named Saito to commonwealth essay do the impossible: implant an idea in the mind of a competitor (Fischer), a process called “inception.” The idea is essays, that he should break up the energy conglomerate that he inherited from his father. Cobb puts together a crack team of operatives for the job, including a dream architect named Ariadne. After entering his mind in a dream state, Ariadne learns that Cobb is haunted by the memory of his dead wife, who manages to foil every job that he designs himself. That’s why Ariadne must design the dream, and Cobb can’t know the details. In order to fool the host dreamer, Ariadne must design an incredibly intricate dream world with multiple layers. Autumn Season Essay? For the Fischer job, she must create a dream world with three layers – each a complex, self-contained world. The three layers are in fact a dream within a dream within a dream. The main danger in dream architecture is achilles a hero, that if it seems too real, the dreamer may confuse the dream for reality. We learn that, in will work for you his past, Cobb has experienced this catastrophic confusion. His technique for countering this is to use a totem, an object that follows the laws of physics in the real world, but not in the dream.

His totem is a hero, a spinning top. In the film, however, it is suggested that this is not a fool-proof method. It is possible Cobb is only dreaming that his totem is behaving as it should in teacher independent school reality. The film poses philosophical conundrums such as: How do we distinguish between reality and fantasy (ontology)? How do we distinguish between objective and subjective truth (epistemology)? How do we distinguish between the self and the world (that is, other selves)?

Mark Fisher notes that in the film “there’s a shift from the epistemological problems posed by unreliable narrators to a more general ontological indeterminacy, in which the achilles a hero essays, nature of the whole fictional world is put into doubt.” He adds: “In Nolan’s world, it’s not only technology in our essay that we deceive ourselves; it’s also that we’re deceived about even having an authentic self. There’s no separating identity from fiction.” These issues are at the core of postmodern philosophy, which I discussed in essays a previous blog entry. There are also many issues relating to psychology that are addressed in the film, such as the importance of will work for you, dreams in understanding the unconscious mind and achilles a hero, the way unconscious ideas shape the formation of the person. This is what “inception” is society essay, about: planting ideas in the unconscious mind which lead to a personal re-orientation, a re-programming, a new person. In the achilles a hero essays, film, both Cobb and Fischer have this experience: the action within the dream becomes a kind of psychotherapy. Leon Saunders Calvert makes the observation that “for a filmmaker within the Hollywood system, Christopher Nolan is unusually pre-occupied with psychological human states to essay the degree that they often act as primary theme of his films.” He suggests that psychology is usually the preoccupation of auteurs, not Hollywood directors. Calvert has analyzed the film from an psychological (or more specifically psychoanalytical) perspective, based on ideas of Sigmund Freud, such as: The rebellious unconscious: “The unconscious mind of the individual is achilles, a mass of contradictions and by definition remains uncontrolled and unordered.” The unconscious reveals itself in dreams: “Psychoanalytic theory argues that during sleep the for you, barrier weakens and the unconscious bubbles out, albeit often in disguised form.” Oedipal/Electra conflicts: “Another foundation of psychoanalytic thought is the overwhelming significance of the achilles essays, child’s relationship with its parents.” The unconscious and the social self: “The unconscious self has a huge impact on how we interact with the teacher independent school, world and with others.” The seductive power of fantasy: “Psychoanalytic theory has also provided us with important insights into human fantasies. . . Essays? . The psychological pull of the fantasy is can you narrative, all the greater when we perceive it as simple reality.”

Some critics make the case that Inception deals not just with psychology, but with religion. There are a number of ways the film can be read as a religious story. Throughout the film, characters are urged to take the leap of faith. A Hero? They must abandon their skepticism and believe in a reality that transcends their conscious mind and reality itself. This is a religious impulse and imperative. The themes of guilt and redemption are also important in the film, and these too are deeply religious. In the teacher school, film, the journey to limbo (unconstructed dream space) suggests a perilous journey to underworld, where demons are confronted. This is the central theme of quite a few religious texts, including Dante’s Inferno and The Tibetan Book of the Dead, to name just two classic world religious texts. Many critics of the achilles essays, film have pointed out the can you use contractions in a, similarity between dreams and the experience of achilles a hero, viewing films. According to Corliss, this is techniques brainstorming, nothing new: “The idea of movie-going as communal dreaming is a century old.”

Colin McGinn argues that. movies delve into our dreaming self, that submerged and seething alter ego that emerges when the sun goes down. Achilles Essays? In the work, cinema we relive the life of the dreaming self. Movies thus tap into achilles a hero essays the dreaming aspect of in our society, human nature. Moreover, they improve upon our dream life. They give us the dreams we yearn for. Achilles A Hero Essays? It is a rare individual who is not fascinated by his own dreams, with their raw ability to reveal, their magical expressiveness; movies partake of techniques brainstorming essays, this fascination. The impact of movies stems, then, at least in part, from the achilles, primal power of the dream.

To be sure, the dream component of the movie experience is augmented by the special qualities of the medium, but the primary emotional hook originates in the evocation of the dream. (Qtd. in Calvert). Jason Staples describes how Inception functions like a dream: The construction of dream worlds for shared dreaming serves as an excellent metaphor for film itself (and ‘myth’ in general), as it involves the creation of a virtual reality, a shadow-like imitation of the real world into which people can journey together, guided by the ‘architect’ (writer/director). Season Essay? As people are naturally resistant to new or outside ideas, those media (like film) that can influence people’s thinking without drawing the attention of their (often militarized) subconscious guards are especially powerful forms of communication and agents of cultural change. Achilles A Hero? Like a shared dream state, films, video games, novels, and other narrative media immerse a receptive subject within a different, shared virtual world(view) – even potentially planting outside assumptions or ideas in the subject’s unguarded subconscious.

But the idea of Inception as an in our society analogy for film can be extended beyond the experience of viewing film to the business of creating film. According to this interpretation, put forward by essays critics Devin Faraci, Mark Fisher, and Richard Corliss: Cobb is the director Arthur is the producer Ariadne is the screen-writer Saito is the studio honcho Fischer is the audience. In interviews, Nolan denies that he was trying to create an narrative analogy in a hero the film between dreaming and techniques brainstorming, film-viewing or film-making. But Fisher counters: “If a century of cultural theory has taught us anything, it’s that an author’s supposed intentions can only ever constitute a supplementary (para)text, never a final word.” Fisher thinks, despite Nolan’s intentions, Inception is very much about the film-making business, and not in a good way. Fisher suggests it might be unconscious on Nolan’s part, but it nonetheless reveals a creative mind in thrall to Hollywood entertainment film and global capitalism. Inception is less a meta-meditation on the power of cinema than, more interestingly, a reflection of the essays, way in which cinematic techniques have become imbricated into a banal spectacle which – fusing business machismo, entertainment protocols, and breathless hype – enjoys an unprecedented dominion over india essay, our working lives and our dreaming minds. . Achilles A Hero? . Teacher Independent? . Inception ‘s arcades and hotel corridors are on achilles a hero essays, the contrary those of a globalized capital whose reach easily extends into the former depths of what was once the technology in our society, unconscious.

There’s nothing alien, no other place here, only a mass-marketed ‘subconscious’ recirculating deeply familiar images. Fisher believes that Nolan is not just the creator of a film called Inception , but someone who uses film to practice inception. Achilles A Hero Essays? Just as in the film inception is used for the benefit of techniques brainstorming, corporate interests, it is used in the multiplex to indoctrinate movie viewers in the ideology of capitalism. He writes: “Nolan’s films are preoccupied with . . . the lies that we tell ourselves to stay happy. Yet the situation is a hero, worse even than that. It’s one thing to lie to oneself; it’s another to not even know whether one is lying to essay oneself or not.” In Marxist terminology this is called “false consciousness,” the process by which we are unconsciously socialized and indoctrinated into the values of the essays, ruling class.

Staples has a similar concern: “The most potent and influential ideas [in the autumn india essay, film] are those so thoroughly socialized and internalized that, their origins long forgotten, they are presupposed without argument.” What Staples is writing about is a hero essays, ideology, which we have been discussing all throughout the technology society essay, second half of the course, beginning with Far From Heaven . Critics like Fisher and Staples argue that the process of “false consciousness” is at work in essays the film, in can you use contractions narrative essay the same way that inception works. For inception to a hero be successful, the host has to believe that the techniques brainstorming, implanted idea is theirs. In other words, they must come to believe that the lie is true, and achilles, not only that: that it is a deeply personal truth. According to Fisher, “in Inception , as in late capitalist culture in general, you’re always in someone else’s dream, which is also the dream of no one.” It is the will work for you, dream of capital, and those who control capital. I would suggest this is particularly true of the violence in the film. Viewers consume shocking amounts of violence in the film without thinking about it because it is achilles essays, entertaining in itself and part of will work, a story that is written in such a way to a hero essays make the violence seem inconsequential (it’s all just a dream). I like to call this “ The Matrix Complex” (because the same thing happens in that film).

Critics like Fisher insinuate that Nolan is the purveyor of the Hollywood blockbuster mentality, cleverly masquerading Inception as an art film. While I believe this critique has some validity, I think the opposite brainstorming essays, may be equally true: Nolan is an auteur who cleverly masks his art films as popular entertainment. That is the main reason I chose Inception as the last film in this course. Nolan is essays, a master of film technique, an auteur; he is prescient in do school for you his grasp of the zeitgeist; and he understands how to insert “big ideas” into his film without seeming pretentious. But he does all this in Hollywood, which is quite an accomplishment. It is something that the achilles a hero essays, online film critic Eileen Jones would applaud, and hold up as a shining example of letter, what Hollywood film studios can accomplish, as long as they embrace their own pro-business aesthetic and achilles a hero, refuse to slavishly follow the standards of European art film. Richard Corliss says of use contractions in a narrative essay, Inception : Though the plot is a hero essays, really one giant hallucination, it’s an experience that doesn’t blow your mind so much as challenge it. Viewers will have to essay work to keep up with all the shifting perspectives and layers of deceit. Inception is like the coolest, toughest final exam – or like the dream of one, in which you’re suddenly in class and you realize you didn’t prepare for the big test. This is a movie that you’ll wish you had crammed for. But reading this blog entry is preparation for achilles a hero essays, the final exam, so you won’t be totally unprepared (and hopefully won’t have the it’s-the-day-of-the-final-and-I-haven’t-studied-all-semester nightmare).

Cobb, in Inception , offers a final thought (that might never leave you): “The most persistent parasite is an idea. Once it takes root in the brain, it’s almost impossible to eradicate.” University of Maryland. Leon Saunders Calvert, “ Inception : Film, Dreams and teacher school, Freud,” Offscreen 15.5 (May 31, 2011). Robert Capps, “QA: Christopher Nolan on a hero essays, Dreams, Architecture, and commonwealth essay contest, Ambiguity,” Wired (November 29, 2010). Richard Corliss, “ Inception : Whose Mind Is It, Anyway?”, Time (July 14, 2010).

Mark Fisher, “The Lost Unconscious: Delusions and Dreams in Inception,” Film Quarterly 64.3 (Spring 2011). Jason Staples, “Shadowlands, Myth, and the Creation of Meaning in Inception, ” Journal of essays, Religion Film 14.1 (April 2010). Chicago 10 and school, Postmodern Documentary. The first films were documentaries. Louis and achilles, Auguste Lumiere, the French brothers credited with the can you use contractions in a, invention of the cinema, called their short films “actualites.” They were depictions of actual life, recording such things as workers leaving a factory or a train arriving at a station. However, even in these early films, some of the human figures acknowledge the camera, and are sometimes characters in rudimentary narratives – as in The Waterer Gets Watered (1895).

I also noted, in class, the subjective nature of the camera. Even if you point your camera at something and turn it on, you’re only getting one possible vantage point, and leaving out a lot of achilles, information. Autumn Season Essay? Shooting a camera entails choosing what the audience will see, and not see. So, from the very beginning of film history, the line dividing the objective from the subjective, the factual from the achilles a hero essays, fictional, the real from the in our society, artificial, has been blurred. This is still true, perhaps even more so, in film today, as I explain below. The effort to distinguish documentary realism and narrative illusion became more necessary once story-based film came to dominate the industry. Documentarians claimed realism for themselves, leaving fantasy to the big movie studios. We see this in the ethnographic films of Robert Flaherty, in the 1920s.

However, critics now question Flaherty’s realism. Your textbook authors write: Flaherty’s Nanook of the North (1922), about the Inuit people in Canada, and Man of Aran (1937), about the Aran Islanders off the west coast of Ireland, are voice-of-authority documentaries organized by intertitles that explain the activities depicted. In his zeal to valorize what he considered the blissfully primitive cultures of the Inuit and the Aran islanders, however, Flaherty misrepresented the a hero essays, cultures he intended to document (290). The example they give in the textbook is when Nanook (or Allakarillak, his real name), “feigns awe at in a essay, the sight of the a hero, gramophone,” something which Nanook had actually seen before (290). Flaherty has him pretend not to know about autumn essay, such modern conveniences in order to reveal his innocence of modernity, his blissful ignorance. I gave a couple other examples in class. Flaherty had Nanook construct only achilles half an igloo – a set made of ice – so that he would have the light to shoot inside the letter teacher independent, igloo.

The way the film is shot, the half-igloo appears to a hero be whole. Flaherty also staged Nanook’s capture of a seal – what Nanook was really yanking on was a rope that was attached to in a two or three members of the a hero essays, film crew, not a seal. When all this came to cover teacher school light, exposed in films like Nanook Revisited , some critics concluded that it was difficult if not impossible, even in achilles documentaries, to separate what is autumn season essay, real and essays, true from what is season india essay, imaginary and false. They similarly saw no good way to distinguish the film-maker’s subjective view from the objective presentation of achilles a hero essays, reality. Towards Postmodern Documentary. One prominent response to this situation was to embrace fictionality and subjectivity in the documentary. In this sense, the documentary film becomes a performance by the film-maker, rather than an commonwealth objective recording of reality. Errol Morris was one of the first film documentarians to do this.

As your textbook puts it: Morris adopts a bemused perspective on a hero, his subjects: his ironic distance is made evident through editing. He juxtaposes images of one subject with interviews with another, so it seems as if the people he interviews are making comments about the autumn india, lives and work of other people. . . Achilles A Hero? . By pairing a subject’s statements with seemingly unrelated images, Morris adds dimension to the interviews, introducing ideas that none of his subjects has voiced. Morris gets at one truth by allowing the interviewees to brainstorming tell their own stories yet his editing encourages the audience to make unusual connections. (284). Michael Moore, the director of Fahrenheit 9/11 (which won the prestigious Palme d’Or at Cannes in 2004) is a film documentarian that you’re likely more familiar with. Moore is always a participant in his films, he is always performing on camera, usually as a humorous gadfly character. Moore’s subjectivity – his responses, his opinions, his outrage – is part of the subject. Some think Moore is refreshingly candid in putting his own point of achilles, view front-and-center in his films; others think he is an unbearable, opinionated blowhard. Morris and Moore were early practitioners of will do school work, postmodern documentary, a form of documentary that has become popular – largely because of film-makers like Morris and Moore. Before getting into postmodern documentary film, it’s important to say something about postmodernism, and achilles a hero essays, postmodern film more generally.

For our definition of postmodernism, we go to Margaret Wertheim, of the Faith and cover letter, Reason program on a hero, PBS. A general and wide-ranging term which is applied to literature, art, philosophy, architecture, fiction, and cultural and literary criticism, among others. Postmodernism is largely a reaction to techniques brainstorming the assumed certainty of scientific, or objective, efforts to explain reality. Achilles? In essence, it stems from a recognition that reality is not simply mirrored in human understanding of in a essay, it, but rather, is constructed as the mind tries to understand its own particular and personal reality. Achilles Essays? For this reason, postmodernism is highly skeptical of explanations which claim to be valid for all groups, cultures, traditions, or races, and society, instead focuses on the relative truths of each person. Essays? In the postmodern understanding, interpretation is everything; reality only comes into being through our interpretations of what the technology society, world means to us individually. Postmodernism relies on concrete experience over abstract principles, knowing always that the outcome of one’s own experience will necessarily be fallible and relative, rather than certain and universal.

Postmodernism is “post” because it is denies the existence of any ultimate principles, and it lacks the optimism of there being a scientific, philosophical, or religious truth which will explain everything for everybody – a characteristic of the so-called “modern” mind. Achilles? The paradox of the postmodern position is that, in placing all principles under the scrutiny of its skepticism, it must realize that even its own principles are not beyond questioning. As the philosopher Richard Tarnas states, postmodernism “cannot on its own principles ultimately justify itself any more than can the various metaphysical overviews against which the postmodern mind has defined itself.” This can be broken down further. Below are the five main concepts regarding postmodern culture more generally. Postmodernism. calls into question “grand” theories that purport to explain everything for everyone forever (Enlightenment, liberalism, Marxism, Freudianism, etc.) claims there is no universal/objective truth; everything is subjective and relative holds that the self is socially constructed (undercutting individualism, agency, and freedom) is suspicious of media, particularly the power of visual media to independent school recreate, represent, and replace the real (Baudrillard’s “simulacrum“) blurs the border between reality and representation. In terms of aesthetics, postmodern works of achilles a hero essays, art are characterized by.

non-linear, fractured narrative self-referentiality/self-reflexivity (irony) pastiche/bricolage/intertextuality/fragmentation/genre bending the leveling of high/low culture blurring the border between fact and fiction. It should be evident that fiction films would have less problems with postmodernism, as defined above, than documentary films. Documentary films are not supposed to be subjective or fake, whereas that is very much allowed in fiction films. In its cultural skepticism, postmodernism relentlessly attacks the essence of will do school, documentary realism. Postmodernism and Documentary Realism. Representing the a hero, postmodern perspective, Krystin Arneson writes of commonwealth essay contest, documentaries: Like photography, documentaries are a representational medium: They record and achilles a hero essays, occasionally reconstruct the everyday reality viewers typically cannot experience themselves. Because photography is an indexical sign signifying truth, audiences understand the documentary, a moving photograph, to signify truth also. However, they are able to make the distinction between the ?everyday reality? presented by commonwealth documentaries and achilles a hero essays, the fictive ?reality? of cinematic films. But the documentary?’s version of commonwealth essay contest, reality is not as innocent as it presents itself to be. Because of the a hero, perceived indexical truth-value of the cover independent school, film, the audience is drawn into an everyday reality that seemingly doesn’t need questioning.

There is ?a sense of co-presence between creator and viewer that gives the viewer the sensation of being both here, now, looking at the image and there, then, looking at what the image represents or evokes.? For Arneson, it is difficult to separate objective from subjective truth in postmodern documentary. As a ?human document? dealing with not only the hard facts but also the ?social and personal aspects? of the theme, the documentary is a representational, recorded version of the a hero essays, everyday created through ?[the director?s] personal interpretations of what he or she chooses to place in front of the camera lens.? The ?informational value is mediated through the brainstorming essays, perspective of the a hero essays, person making it, and it is presented as a mixture of emotion and information (Stuart Hall, Representation: Cultural Representations and techniques brainstorming essays, Signifying Practices [Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1997], 83) This ?mediation,? or personal interpretation of the topic, is a hero, influenced by technology in our essay any number of factors: preconceived attitudes, biases, and what story they hope to get out a hero, of the filming. Frederick Wiseman, a documentary maker himself, writes of the impossibility of objectivity in representation: ?Any documentary made in no matter what style, is arbitrary, biased, prejudiced, compressed and subjective. Like any of its sisterly or brotherly fictional forms, it is born in india essay choice – choice of achilles, subject matter, place, people, camera angles, duration of letter teacher, shooting, sequences to be shot or omitted, transitional material and cutaways (Toby Miller, Technologies of Truth: Cultural Citizenship and the Popular Media, ed. Michael Renov, Faye Ginsburg, and Jane Gaines [Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998], 225). No matter how objectively a filmmaker approaches a topic, they will always be filtering the topic through their personal lens ?- not just the camera?’s. Subjectivity, and therefore a departure from the real, is thus introduced in the documentary as soon as the filmmaker makes a decision on how the everyday should be represented. This begins the moment the camera turns on and continues until an audience views the final product. Linda Williams has also written on postmodern documentaries, though with less suspicion.

In an analysis of Errol Morris’s The Thin Blue Line (about someone’s wrongful conviction for murder) and Claude Lanzmann’s monumental Shoah (about the Holocaust), Williams focuses on the. low-budget postmodern documentary borrowing many features of the achilles a hero, fiction film. My goal . . . is to get beyond the much remarked self-reflexivity and technology essay, flamboyant auteurism of these documentaries, which might seem, Rashomon -like, to a hero abandon the pursuit of essay, truth, to what seems to me their remarkable engagement with a newer, more contingent, relative, postmodern truth—a truth which, far from being abandoned, still operates powerfully as the achilles a hero essays, receding horizon of the documentary tradition. (312) The lesson that I would like to draw from these two exemplary postmodern documentaries is thus not at all that postmodern representation inevitably succumbs to a depthlessness of the simulacrum, or that it gives up on truth to wallow in the undecidabilities of representation. The lesson, rather, is that there can be historical depth to the notion of truth – not the cover letter teacher, depth of unearthing a coherent and achilles essays, unitary past, but the independent school, depth of the past’s reverberation with the present. If the authoritative means to the truth of the past does not exist, if photographs and moving images are not mirrors with memories, if they are more, as Baudrillard has suggested, like a hall of mirrors, then our best response to achilles a hero essays this crisis of representation might be to do what Lanzmann and Morris do: to deploy the many facets of these mirrors to reveal the seduction of lies. (325).

That is, they construct “truths to dispel pernicious fictions, even though these truths are only relative and contingent. While never absolute and never fixed, this under-construction, fragmented horizon of truth is one important means of combating the pernicious scapegoating fictions that can put the wrong man on death row and do school, enable the extermination of a whole people. (325). Williams seems to suggest that personal, subjective truth, presented by someone personally involved (as an advocate, etc.), is better than no truth at all. Pure moral relativism, the absolute denial of objective truth, leads to paralysis, whereas engagement in achilles a hero essays the issue gets us a little closer to the truth. Chicago 10 as Postmodern Documentary. Chicago 10 is generally recognized by critics and reviewers as a postmodern documentary (as defined above). Jim Emerson writes that the film. bursts with Yippie-ish irreverence and political fervor.

The movie intercuts archival footage with colorful motion-capture animation (voiced by some really good actors), based upon actual transcripts of the trial. These play, quite intentionally, like countercultural Looney Tunes, with Hoffman the Younger as the Tasmanian Devil and Hoffman the Elder as Elmer Fudd. . . . The irreverent attitude of Chicago 10 is in synch with the times it portrays. Giddy, funny and brainstorming, sometimes nightmarishly absurd, it’s an apple-cart-upsetting performance piece shot through with blasting music from Eminem, the Beastie Boys and Rage Against the Machine [and let’s not forget “War Pig,” performed by Black Sabbath, during a key juncture of the film]. Essays? As an activist documentary with a contemporary agenda, it doesn’t pretend to be “objective” (whatever that means), but to find inspiration in autumn india essay the passion and irreverence of its heroes. Chicago 10 is “irreverent” and “doesn’t pretend to be ‘objective’.” It upsets the “apple cart “of film – and particularly documentary film – convention. When the animation starts near the a hero, beginning of the film we know this will be no ordinary documentary. Use Contractions Narrative Essay? By combining documentary realism with exaggerated animation, Chicago 10 mixes high and low culture and calls into question the veracity of what we see, since we typically associate animation with fantasy and fiction. Achilles? This cognitive dissonance is amplified by the fact that there are at least three different kinds of animation utilized in the film.

The variety of animation styles, mixed with archival footage, also highlights the pastiche/bricolage/intertextuality/fragmentation/genre bending of the film. Commonwealth? It is edited together in a seemingly sloppy, slap-dash manner, which is essays, not poor work but rather the can you in a narrative essay, film-maker’s attempt to use the deconstruction of film form as a way to challenge the authorized version of reality, which passes itself off as universal, objective truth. Chicago 10 is fragmented in its form. It is also fragmented in its narrative. You are no stranger to fractured narrative. The film Adaptation has a famously convoluted narrative, and is postmodern in just about every way.

But, again, fiction films are allowed to play around with narrative (even in Hollywood films), whereas documentaries are meant to reflect the essays, real, without bias or a subjective viewpoint. Letter Independent School? The best way to a hero essays interrogate this is to present a historical narrative that jumps around in time, and refuses to privilege one account over others. This is what Morgen does in Chicago 10 . Relatedly, Chicago 10 is self-referential. Formally and thematically, Morgen draws attention to his film as an artificial construct. He makes visual “jokes,” he “winks at the audience.” The best example of this is early on techniques brainstorming essays, in the courtroom when Abbie Hoffman blows a kiss towards a juror and the “camera” follows the kiss to its destination, on achilles a hero essays, the juror’s cheek (which the judge according to the transcript, tells the jury to disregard). The mimicry of live-action cinematography in fiction films is common in animated films, but here, in a documentary, it is meant as an ironic commentary on film-making. At the same time, the film looks critically at the kind of spectacle that postmodernists typically question. In the autumn india, film, it is Abbie Hoffman who examines the topic, in achilles a hero the form of political theater. Hoffman argues that politics is nothing more than “theater and magic.” He says to a reporter: We believe that politics is the way you live your life, not who you support.

It’s not in terms of rallies or speeches or political programs. It is in essay contest terms of images and in achilles a hero essays terms of transforming people’s lives. In ideological war, the side who controls visual representation is the side that usually wins. Hoffman and his Yippie cohorts understood this very well, which is commonwealth essay contest, why they managed so successfully to dramatize the protests at a hero, the Democratic convention, and the trial itself, on their own very colorful terms. Techniques Brainstorming Essays? It’s also why we still find these historical figures compelling, because their antics – nominating a pig as president, creating a melee at the New York Stock Exchange by throwing money into the pit, encircling and attempting to levitate the Pentagon – are such good theater, which makes them tailor-made for film treatment. As Emerson puts it: In the great 1960s clash of generational values, Hoffman believed that his side would prevail because it had better symbols. Achilles Essays? As he framed it, the comedic/dramatic faceoff was between peace, love and teacher, freedom on one hand, and achilles, war, repression and oppression on the other. When you look at techniques, it in those terms, it’s hard to argue with him.

In the end, Morgen’s documentary follows the template of the postmodern advocacy documentary described by Williams. Morgen is clearly an advocate of the activists depicted in Chicago 10 , and their radical politics. Though he uses postmodern techniques, it seems very likely that Morgen did not intend to achilles essays cast suspicion on the actions or even the ideology, of the anti-war counterculture. Unlike more postmodern films, and many postmodern documentaries, Chicago 10 doesn’t just question and undercut the idea of objective truth, asserting instead an ironic – but untrustworthy – subjectivity. Chicago 10 takes sides, suggesting that some truths are better than others, and brainstorming essays, are worth fighting for, despite being partial, particular, and contingent. University of Maryland. Krystin Arneson, “Representation through Documentary: A Post-Modern Assessment,” Artifacts: A Journal of a hero, Undergraduate Writing 6 (March 2012). Jim Emerson, “Review of Chicago 10 ,” rogerebert.com (February 28, 2008). Margaret Wertheim. “Postmodernism.” Faith and Reason.

PBS. December 11, 2013. Linda Williams, “Mirrors without Memories: Truth, History, and techniques brainstorming, the New Documentary,” eds. Essays? Brian Henderson and Ann Martin, Film Quarterly: Forty Years – A Selection (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1999). http://ark.cdlib.org/ark:/13030/ft5h4nb36j/ Chicago 10 and the Counterculture. Brett Morgen is a writer/director/producer of documentaries. His first feature-length documentary, Ollie’s Army (1996), featured the former Marine and brainstorming, conservative pundit, Oliver North (of Iran-Contra infamy).

In 1999, with Nanette Burstein, Morgen released On the Ropes , a documentary about three young boxers and their coach. This film was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Feature Documentary, and won a number of achilles a hero essays, film awards, including the Special Jury Prize at the Sundance Film Festival, the Directors Guild of America award for best documentary, and the same award from the International Documentary Association. After On the Ropes , Morgen is perhaps best known for The Kid Stays in the Picture , an “inside-Hollywood” look at the controversial and legendary Paramount producer Robert Evans. This film was nominated for twelve minor film awards, winning four. Morgen’s latest documentary was Crossfire Hurricane , a television documentary about the fiftieth-anniversary tour of the Rolling Stones. This film was nominated for four primetime Emmies, and won the “Golden Reel” award for best sound editing. (This film can be favorably compared with Martin Scorsese’s 2007 documentary about The Rolling Stones, called Shine a Light ).

With its mix of archival footage and various forms of animation, Chicago 10 is a less conventional documentary than the ones Morgen made before. The film was generally well reviewed, though it was panned by cover teacher independent some of the bigger media outlets and has not garnered the kind of awards that Morgen has previously won. There were mixed reviews on Morgen’s use of animation in the film. At Time Out , Ben Kenigsberg writes that. this unclassifiable cine-essay from Brett Morgen . . . burnishes the Chicago Seven trial with an iGeneration makeover. Alternating between archival footage and animated reenactments – somewhat clunkily scored with a contemporary soundtrack – this is the first nonfiction film that plays like a Matrix trailer. Mick LaSalle of the San Francisco Chronicle has a different take on the film. He concludes: In the end, the truest thing that can be said for “Chicago 10” is that, though Morgen did just about essays, everything he could to make his movie unwatchable, the story was interesting enough to fight him to work for you a draw. The film chronicles the creative provocations of anti-war activists at the Democratic National Convention in 1968 in essays Chicago, and essay, the police push-back. Two of the defendants, Abbie Hoffman and Jerry Rubin, were members of the newly-formed activist group, the Yippies.

The Yippies were well known for achilles a hero essays, their political street theater, which took on monumental proportions in Chicago during the convention. Other defendants, such as Rennie Davis and David Dellinger, represented the slightly more mainstream peace group, the National Mobilization Committee, or MOBE. A third defendant, Bobby Seale, was an organizer for the Black Panther Party. The protesters street theater turned into a riot on the streets of Chicago. It is generally acknowledged now that it was Mayor Daley’s police who created the essay, riot, not the protesters. But arguably this is exactly what the protesters wanted, since it showed quite concretely the lengths the achilles a hero essays, authorities were willing to go to maintain order and autumn season essay, perpetuate a repressive status quo based upon war and profits. When they went on a hero essays, trial, the leaders of the protest at the Democratic convention in 1968 brought their theater out of the streets and into the courtroom. Can You Use Contractions In A? The trial became a “circus,” but like the achilles a hero essays, circus-like demonstrations, it was arguably the brainstorming essays, authorities (particularly Judge Julius Hoffman) who made it so – particularly in the silencing of Bobby Seale. Chicago 10 and the Counterculture. Earlier in the semester, when we viewed Apocalypse Now , we discussed the American counterculture of the 1960s and 1970s, which was characterized by newer, looser conceptions of “sex, drugs, and essays, rock-n-roll,” and, eventually, anti-war protest.

I posted a blog entry in which I argued that Apocalypse Now shows the “dark side” of the counterculture, reflecting the moral exhaustion the followed the conclusion of the Vietnam War and the Watergate scandal (which forced the resignation of President Richard Nixon in 1974). By contrast, Chicago 10 shows us the vibrancy (and sense of can you use contractions in a narrative, humor) of the student-led peace movement in the United States circa 1968. Essays? In this sense, Chicago 10 is essay, more like Jean-Luc’s Godard’s Weekend , from 1967, than Apocalypse Now – though Godard is somewhat critical of his student revolutionaries, whereas Morgen is quite celebratory. Still, though in essays Chicago 10 we see the American counterculture through rose-colored, psychedelic glasses, there is a hint of dark times to season essay come. A Hero Essays? We see this in the growing stridency and militancy of the peace movement, which would lead to teacher some students taking up arms (and bombs) for achilles, peace. Previously in the 1960s, protests were more likely to feature hippie flower children putting flowers into the barrels on soldiers’ guns; post-1968 protests were much more chaotic, with protesters enveloped by clouds of tear gas and running from truncheon-swinging policemen. Indicative of this is the violent tactics of the protesters in Chicago, and the ubiquitous use of the “p” word (“pig”) in reference to the police. As I mentioned in class, if you’re looking for historical background on the film, you’ll want to search for “the Chicago 7,” not “the Chicago 10.” That’s because most accounts focus on the seven white activists originally charged with inciting to riot, and treat Bobby Seale (also convicted) separately, and don’t consider the defense attorneys who were also jailed (for contempt of court). As the film makes clear, the defense attorneys actually spent more time in jail than most of the work, defendants.

Morgen is a hero, right to consider Bobby Seale as one of the ten – despite not being one of the main organizers of the protest, and brainstorming essays, being separated from the rest of the defendants – since his horrendous treatment (being denied the right to defend himself, dragged out of the courtroom, and later gagged in the courtroom) is one of the more controversial aspects of the trial. University of Maryland. Ben Kenigsberg, “Review of achilles, Chicago 10 ,” TimeOut (February 26, 2008). Mick LaSalle, “‘Chicago 10’ filmmaking fails story,” San Francisco Chronicle ( February 29, 2008). Three Experimental Films and Avant-garde Cinema. Also known as “experimental” and “underground” cinema, films of the avant-garde. tend to have broken, disjointed, or non-existent narratives often focus on essays, some technical aspect of achilles a hero, film usually “approach the medium as an aesthetic, philosophical, and/or political means of society essay, expression” ( Film: A Critical Introduction , 291) are generally antagonistic to conventional, Hollywood-style film-making.

According to your textbook authors, there are five major kinds of achilles, avant-garde film: Surrealist. Films that violate narrative conventions, focus on the unconscious mind, and can you narrative, “reject conventional morality and poke fun at bourgeois values through form and content” (Film: A Critical Introduction 293). Abstract. Films that focus on objects rather than people; they also focus on issues involved in vision itself, as well as investigate the materials of the film medium (e.g.

Stan Brakhage). City Symphony. Films that “celebrate the vibrancy of the modern world,” and combine documentary and experimental film. Structuralist. Films that concentrate on the use of the cinematic apparatus, such as strips of film, sound waves, cameras, and lenses. Achilles Essays? Compilation . Films that “reuse film footage in an entirely new context to generate innovative ideas” (299). The three short films I assigned for this week are certainly experimental, avant-garde films, but not all of them fit the textbook definition.

An Andalusian Dog (Un Chien Andalou) , written and directed by Salvador Dali and Luis Bunuel, and first released in in our 1927, is the best-known example of Surrealist film. Your textbook authors note that Surrealist films “are rife with humor, sexuality, and scandalous images. They reject conventional morality and poke fun at bourgeois values through form and content” (293). An Andalusian Dog intentionally confounds the a hero essays, expectations of the audience and purposefully violates most of the conventions regarding film narrative. It undermines any sense of coherent narrative, and revels in its irrationality. In this sense, it is just like a dream. Again, according to your textbook authors, the film subverts chronological time and narrative causality, and mocks narrative form. “The sequence of events is will do school for you, not coherent; viewers cannot make sense of the achilles essays, film using cause-and-effect logic,” and “unnamed characters have few goals or conflicts (although motifs include gender fluidity and sexual aggression” (293). Needless to say, the film does not conform to conventional film-making represented by Hollywood. According to Martha Nochimson, in An Andalusian Dog Dali and autumn india, Bunuel mock “the assumption that there is essays, any absolute reality. Creating a film that has no traditional narrative syntax, that is, rules by which the parts were joined to form a story, Dali and Bunuel set out to prove that all individuals and teacher school, cultures are doing no more than connecting the dots according to their own limited perspectives when they talk about the real” (281).

An Andalusian Dog can best be understood as an experiment in Freudian dream analysis, utilizing the method of free association. Just as dreams are deeply subjective, amorphous, and have their own logic, An Andalusian Dog works at a hero essays, the level of the subconscious mind, which includes the “sub-rational.” Like psychoanalysis, the film proceeds via free association, encouraging the viewer to randomly and automatically associate one thing with another. Though the cover letter school, film defies explanation, and the film-makers repeatedly refused to explicate the symbols of the film, one way to read An Andalusian Dog is as a journey through the achilles, stages of psycho-sexual development according to Freud. (I have created a separate blog entry on Freud’s stages, and another that walks you through a reading of An Andalusian Dog according to Freud.) There are many visual associations of a sexual nature in An Andalusian Dog (armpit hair representing pubic hair, the essay, wounded hand representing the a hero essays, vagina, the close association of female breasts and buttocks). There are other associations of a non-sexual nature (tennis racket for crucifix, shaken martini mixer for the father). Some of these images are taken right out of the autumn season india essay, Freudian playbook, others (such as ants crawling out of stigmata holes) are personal obsessions of achilles a hero, Dali or Bunuel, which first appeared in dreams. Finally, in the film we see, in many different guises, the close association of sex with death, or eros (sexual desire) and thanatos (the death wish), which was one of Freud’s later psychological theories. The final image of the film, in which the formerly vibrant lovers are now corpses half-buried in the dirt, makes this association quite clear. Meshes of the Afternoon was made, in the United States, in 1943. It was written, directed, and acted by brainstorming Maya Deren and her husband at the time, Alexander Hammid.

According to your textbook, Meshes of the Afternoon is a late, American Surrealist film. Essays? It “explores the dream state, suspending the notion of chronological time while relying on characters, settings, and the semblance of narrative. Deren and her husband use domestic interiors as the nightmarish location for the dreamer’s vivid and self-destructive imagination” ( Film: A Critical Introduction , 293). The film blurs the border between dream and reality, to society the point where we don’t know which is which. Deren said of the Meshes of the a hero essays, Afternoon : “This film is concerned with the interior experiences of an individual. It does not record an event which could be witnessed by other persons. Rather, it reproduces the way in which the subconscious of an individual will develop, interpret and elaborate an apparently simple and casual incident into a critical emotional experience.” (Commentary from Maya Deren from the DVD release, Maya Deren: Experimental Films 1943–58 ).

As a number of critics have noted, it is the subjective camera work in the film that shows how the individual develops, interprets and elaborates emotional experience. Meshes of the Afternoon is often characterized as a feminist film. In Our? According to Theresa Geller, Deren worked tirelessly . . Achilles A Hero Essays? . as a filmmaker and activist in an otherwise masculinist avant-garde art world. The critiques she wages against the dominant representations women were met with vehement resistance by a rabidly patriarchal, and frequently misogynistic, avant-garde film culture that did not hesitate to conflate Deren herself with her films in their attacks” (140). As a feminist film, Meshes of the can you, Afternoon shows the psychological oppression of women, which – in the case of the unnamed woman character – leads to suicide. The unnamed man in the film is part of this oppression; the woman’s dream shows him to be a ominous, threatening figure. In its feminism, the film is similar to Todd Haynes’s Superstar: The Karen Carpenter Story . Superstar: The Karen Carpenter Story. Superstar: The Karen Carpenter Story , written and directed by Todd Haynes while he was in graduate school, is a short biopic about the pop chanteuse of the a hero, 1970s who died of cover letter independent school, anorexia nervosa in 1983.

The moment you first see a Barbie doll playing Karen Carpenter, you know you are stepping into a hero the avant-garde. Seeing Barbie dolls play all the characters, throughout the entire film, seals the deal. Haynes’s use of Barbie dolls has two main functions in the film. First, it is a subtle critique of the way girls and letter, women are encouraged to aspire to – or are indoctrinated in – an unrealistic and dysfunctional physical ideal, for the purpose of looking more attractive to men. This is one way that women suffer as a result of the Male Gaze. Secondly, Haynes uses the a hero, Barbie dolls to prevent the viewer’s identification with the characters in the film. That is, he puts into practice Brechtian distanciation (the alienation effect). He attempts to put some critical distance between the viewer and the fantasy world of the film. However, as I mentioned in autumn essay class, it doesn’t always work that way. Achilles Essays? I still managed to identify with the commonwealth contest, characters and become immersed in the world of the film.

The melodrama of the plot and the music (and my own 1970s nostalgia) had a big part to play in this. Like Meshes of the Afternoon (and decidedly not like An Andalusian Dog ), Superstar can be considered a feminist film. The film shows how Karen Carpenter struggled with the expectations of her family and society, which derived from achilles a hero, a patriarchal ideology. The film also deals with the Male Gaze, as mentioned above. Related to this is Haynes’s critique of consumerism. The film suggests that consumerism was complicit in will do school work for you the death of Karen Carpenter, in that it was the consumption of achilles a hero essays, Ex-Lax and Ipicac that led to her anorexia. Cover Teacher School? Ironically, Carpenter consumed these products as a form of un-consumption – she used them to starve herself. And she starved herself to meet an achilles a hero essays impossible physical ideal, to use contractions in a essay be pretty so that men might more easily consume her image. The film also critiques the a hero, counter-counterculture of 1970s, which was a conservative response to for you the counterculture of the early 1970s.

That is, Carpenter became the poster child of wholesome living, and the antithesis of sex, drugs, and achilles a hero essays, rock-n-roll. This was another impossible ideal to fulfill, feeding into Carpenter’s sickness. It was exacerbated by autumn season essay the pressures of celebrity, of being a role model before you’re mature enough to handle it. This inevitably leads to achilles a hero cognitive dissonance, a conflict between who you are and who your are supposed to be (or forced by others to be). The film is Surrealist in some places (the spanking hand). It could be considered Abstract, particularly if you think dolls are objects and not people. It could also be considered a Compilation film in that Haynes inserts scenes from the liberation of the Nazi Death Camps, and other seemingly inappropriate footage. It might seem that Haynes was going way over the top with such footage, in cover letter school effect comparing anorexia nervosa to the Holocaust and the Vietnam War, but on a formal level it is justified – it is one way to offset the melodramatic story-line, and a hero, confound the nearly-automatic emotional response provoked by technology in our essay the music. University of a hero, Maryland.

Maya Deren, “Commentary to Meshes of the Afternoon ,” Maya Deren: Experimental Films 1943–58 (DVD) . Theresa L. Geller, “The Personal Cinema of Maya Deren: Meshes of the in a essay, Afternoon and its Critical Reception in the History of the Avant-garde,” Biography: An Interdisciplinary Quarterly 29.1 (Winter 2006): 140-158. Martha Nochimson, World on a hero essays, Film (Malden, MA: John Wiley Sons, 2007). A Freudian Interpretation of An Andalusian Dog. The following is a Freudian interpretation of contest, An Andalusian Dog ( Un Chien Andalou) . It is one of many possible interpretations of the film. My reading draws upon Freudian psychology, which I summarized in another blog entry. Essays? The narrative of the film is illogical, like the essay contest, narrative of a dream. Dream analysis was a preoccupation of both Freudian analysts and Surrealist artists. The film begins with the sexual act, which is an act of violence. This is achilles essays, represented by the sliced eye-ball of the in a narrative, woman. A child is born, a boy; birth, too, is a violent act.

This is represented by the injured boy who has fallen off his bike. The boy is disturbed by achilles essays a sexually undifferentiated (androgynous) female and becomes aware of his own sexuality. The boy is both hostile towards, and aroused by, the androgynous person. He takes sexual pleasure in her death. He desires his mother sexually, reaching for the breasts, the center of his libidinous pleasure. but is thwarted and held back by societal conventions (Ten Commandments, dead horse, pianos, priests) and by the threatened violence of his father, who berates him, in a sense saying “grow up!” The father forces the boy to abandon his childish ways and become more like him. This is represented by the father throwing the boy’s childish things out the window. The boy, in can you use contractions in a narrative essay an expression of the Oedipal Complex, imagines killing his father. It is humorously represented as a shoot-out, the kind featured in cowboy or gangster films. Once this conflict is resolved, the father and the son assume their proper roles, with the son inevitably taking precedence over his father.

This is achilles a hero, represented by will do school work the son being much taller than his father. (Granted, this association is even more illogical than the ones previously discussed, since now the achilles essays, father and the son are played by different actors, in what seems to can you use contractions narrative be another film entirely. A similar thing occurs at the end of the film.) Later, the boy, now grown to an adult, attempts to establish a healthy sexual relationship with a woman but he still shows feminine characteristics, which means he has not developed properly. This is essays, represented by the woman’s armpit hair (standing in for her pubic hair) on the man’s face. Then we see the boy/man in a healthier aspect; his healthy individuation is indicated by a completely different actor playing the character. The woman is attracted to him, not to the other man who has not developed properly.

The man and his female lover walk along the shore, representing the technology in our essay, font of life from which we all come and to which we all return. The man shows his disgust for childish things. These are the same items the father threw out the window earlier in the film. The film ends with death, at which point the cycle begins again. A Hero? (Some have also seen, in this shot, an allusion to the bloody battlefields of World War I). Freud’s Stages of Psycho-Sexual Development. Though the film defies explanation, and the directors Luis Bunuel and Salvador Dali repeatedly refused to explain the symbols of the work, film, one way to read An Andalusian Dog (Un Chien Andalou) is as a journey through the stages of psycho-sexual development according to Sigmund Freud.

These stages are: Oral stage (from birth to eighteen months): the a hero essays, child is use contractions in a essay, preoccupied by nursing, and identifies nursing with his or her libidinal energy. Weaning provokes a crisis, an essays initial separation between the child and technology society, the mother. Achilles A Hero? Anal stage (eighteen months to 3 years): as the child is toilet-trained, he or she becomes obsessed with defecation. The child takes pleasure in defecation, which is countered by essay the rules of society concerning the control of bodily functions. Phallic stage (3 to 4 years): the achilles a hero essays, child becomes interested in his or her genitals. The boy child wishes to will work for you possess his mother sexually, and to kill his father (his rival), but does not do so out of fear of castration at the hands of his father; instead he learns to identify with his father. Essays? This is the Oedipus Complex. The girl child desires her father and techniques brainstorming essays, blames the mother for her lack of penis, but she eventually identifies with her mother, in achilles essays order to vicariously possess her father through her mother. This is the Electra Complex. Latency Stage: the do school work for you, conflict of the Oedipal and Electra Complexes resolved, the child goes into an asexual period that is characterized by sexual repression.

Genital Stage: the child, now fully grown and socialized, strives to develop a healthy sexual relationship with a member of achilles a hero essays, the opposite sex. If previous states are unresolved, this will be problematic. For more on Freud’s stages, and the definitions of such terms as libido, erogenous zone, id, ego, and superego, please consult the Victorian Web (from which I have borrowed for commonwealth essay, my explanation above): Note that feminists and gay critics have problems with Freud’s model of psycho-sexual development. They claim, rightly, that Freud does not seriously consider their sexual development in his model, insinuating that they are sexually incomplete or dysfunctional. Torture, Journalism, and Art, in Zero Dark Thirty. Kathyrn Bigelow is essays, not the first film director to do school for you struggle with the tension between journalistic realism and artistic fiction in film. Achilles A Hero? But she is currently the best, and most controversial, example of essay, this phenomenon.

What I’m really referring to here is the “realistic” and/or “artistic” treatment of torture in a hero essays Zero Dark Thirty . The film clearly shows that torture, though clearly a bad thing, was effective in leading to the discovery and can you narrative essay, killing of Osama bin Laden. Bigelow, and her co-scriptwriter, the journalist Mark Boal, have repeatedly made the a hero essays, claim that Zero Dark Thirty is realistic, objective, and journalistic in its representation of torture. This is in our, also the way they justify themselves as artists. For them, verisimilitude is achilles a hero, equivalent to artistic treatment. Many critics vociferously disagree that the film is realistic, or can be considered journalism, on the subject of torture.

At The New Yorker , Jane Mayer writes that. the director of Zero Dark Thirty , Kathryn Bigelow, milks the U.S. torture program for drama while sidestepping the political and ethical debate that it provoked. In her hands, the hunt for bin Laden is commonwealth, essentially a police procedural, devoid of achilles a hero, moral context. If she were making a film about slavery in antebellum America, it seems, the society essay, story would focus on whether the cotton crops were successful. In Rolling Stone , Matt Taibbi also addresses the subject of torture in Zero Dark Thirty . He writes: The problem had nothing to do with the fact that Bigelow showed torture. It was the way she depicted it – without perspective, and in essays the context of in a, a pulse-pounding thriller where the audience is clearly supposed to root for achilles a hero essays, the big treasure find. It’s a cliche but it’s true: Bin Laden wanted us to make this mistake. He wanted America to respond to him by throwing off our carefully-crafted blanket of techniques, global respectability to reveal a brutal, repressive hypocrite underneath. He wanted us to stop pretending that we’re the country that handcuffs you and reads you your rights instead of achilles, extralegally drone-bombing you from the stratosphere, or putting one in season your brain in an Egyptian basement somewhere.

Carla Seaquist comments that “ Zero Dark Thirty is the perfect al-Qaeda recruiting tool, with its extensive, and unopposed, torturing.” Adrian Chen writes that “Kathryn Bigelow’s Osama bin Laden revenge-porn flick Zero Dark Thirty was the biggest publicity coup for the CIA this century outside of the actual killing of achilles, Osama bin Laden.” [Chen follows this with a discussion of a memo that shows that the CIA “pressured (script-writer) Mark Boal to remove scenes that made them look bad from the Zero Dark Thirty script.”] Not all the critics of Zero Dark Thirty are film reviewers. Some are political commentators like Naomi Wolf, or journalists like Glen Greenwald (well known now for his reporting on letter teacher independent school, WikiLeaks, Julian Assange, and Edward Snowden). Wolf claims that. in falsely justifying, in a hero essays scene after scene, the torture of detainees in “the global war on terror”, Zero Dark Thirty is a gorgeously-shot, two-hour ad for keeping intelligence agents who committed crimes against autumn season india, Guantanamo prisoners out of jail. It makes heroes and a hero, heroines out of people who committed violent crimes against other people based on their race. Greenwald, writing of the death of Osama bin Laden and autumn india, Zero Dark Thirty , says that: This event [killing of bin Laden] has obtained sacred status in American political lore. Achilles A Hero Essays? Nobody can speak ill of it, or even question it, without immediately prompting an avalanche of anger and resentment. . . . For that reason, to letter independent depict X as valuable in essays enabling the can you use contractions in a narrative, killing of bin Laden is – by definition – to achilles glorify X. That formula will lead huge numbers of American viewers to regard X as justified and important. In this film: X = torture.

That’s why it glorifies torture: because it powerfully depicts it as a vital step – the can you use contractions essay, first, indispensable step – in achilles a hero what enabled the US to hunt down and pump bullets into America’s most hated public enemy. Greenwald, who has written a number of articles on the controversy, goes on to show how the film’s claims about torture are demonstrably false. He also characterizes the film as “CIA hagiography” and “pernicious propaganda.” Mayer’s beat is national and international affairs, not film. Technology In Our Essay? But she makes a strong case for the falsity of the representation of torture in a hero essays Zero Dark Thirty . During a week in which the European Court decided that the CIA was involved in torture during the War on Terror, Mayer writes that. the C.I.A.’s program of calibrated cruelty was deemed so illegal, and so immoral, that the director of the F.B.I. withdrew his personnel rather than have them collaborate with it, and the top lawyer at the Pentagon laid his career on the line in an effort to stop a version of the program from spreading to the armed forces. As the Washington Post ’s Greg Sargent first reported, shortly after bin Laden was killed, Leon Panetta, then the society, director of the C.I.A., sent a letter to Arizona Senator John McCain [who publicly objected to the depiction of achilles, torture in Zero Dark Thirty ], clearly stating that “we first learned about ‘the facilitator/courier’s nom de guerre’ from a detainee not in the C.I.A.’s custody.” Panetta wrote that “no detainee in technology society C.I.A. custody revealed the facilitator/courier’s full true name or specific whereabouts.” Bigelow and achilles, Boal have defended the accuracy of the film in numerous interviews.

Bigelow told Dexter Filkins, in The New Yorker , that “the film doesn’t have an will for you agenda and it doesn’t judge. I wanted a boots-on-the-ground experience.” Boal als defends the film by calling it journalism, and has argued that the film captures the complexity of the debate concerning torture. Both Bigelow and Boal have asserted that the achilles essays, film is apolitical and that the criticism of the film is political. Teacher Independent? They contend that “depiction [of torture] is not endorsement.” Jeff Reichart, writing in Reverse Shot , assesses the film as realistic journalism. He claims that. Kathryn Bigelow’s Zero Dark Thirty operates fully within that specific register of realism that has been defined over the last few decades of contemporary cinema. Its markers include handheld cameras, images washed of color, and the liberal intermixing of archival footage with created material. As such, it’s obsessed with achieving journalistic accuracy, which seems to have become the loftiest goal in achilles a hero essays current cinema. Then Reichart gets into specifics: The film begins with a solemn title card announcing that what follows will be “based on first hand accounts” before moving into its most ghoulish segment, in which Bigelow plays, over will work for you, a darkened screen, the recordings of cell phone calls made from the Twin Towers September 11, 2001, as the achilles a hero essays, planes struck.

As Maya’s manhunt continues and the casualties from terror attacks around the world mount, Bigelow pulls in footage from the aftermath of the July 2005 London public transport bombings, and the September 2008 attack on techniques essays, the Islamabad Marriott. This footage is skillfully interwoven with Maya’s search so as to minimize audience disruption – we’re not supposed to feel the shift in registers between scripted Zero Dark Thirty material and the images taken from the news (the protagonist herself is depicted as having just missed being killed in the Marriott explosion). This mixing effectively levels out the differences between the various flavors of footage and their relationship to “real events.” It’s one of the ways in which Zero Dark Thirty successfully overlays the achilles a hero, collection of suppositions, condensations, and outright fabrications that is Maya’s narrative on season essay, top of our own understanding of the decade-long War on Terror. Note that Reichart claims that the achilles, film-makers were successful in in a narrative essay giving Zero Dark Thirty a veneer of journalistic realism, but that it was nothing but a veneer. Neither Bigelow nor writer Boal, in interviews, ever acknowledge that the realism they traffic in on the way to building their new master narrative about the achilles essays, War on Terror is techniques, actually a studious construction. Though it may focus on one of the central global narratives of the a hero essays, past decade and cover letter school, be sourced to the gills, Zero Dark Thirty is still made of the same stuff that all movies, no matter how “realistic” are made of; that this artifice needs to be noted every time a film in this vein rolls around remains a central failure of our culture’s relationship to the moving image (the seductiveness of verisimilitude suggests some of the reasons for film’s ability to captivate and convince on a larger scale than other arts). Taibbi, another journalist-not-film-reviewer, challenges the idea that Zero Dark Thirty is objective journalism. He writes that Bigelow has. been praised, almost excessively, for being brave enough to “tell the truth” about torture in Zero Dark Thirty . As Manohla Dargis of The New York Times put it: However unprovable the effectiveness of these interrogations, they did take place.

To omit them from “Zero Dark Thirty” would have been a reprehensible act of moral cowardice. Here’s my question: if it would have been dishonest to leave torture out of the achilles essays, film entirely, how is it not dishonest to in a essay leave out a hero, how generally ineffective it was, how morally corrupting, how totally it enraged the entire Arab world, how often we used it on people we knew little to nothing about, how often it resulted in in our society essay deaths, or a hundred other facts? Responding to blog comments to his article, Taibbi writes: Some wrote in and said that all Bigelow was doing was telling an “objective” story and leaving it to us to sort it out. Achilles? That’s bullshit. All storytelling is a series of editorial decisions. Commonwealth Essay? You decide what to leave in, what to leave out. In doing so you reveal a point of view. They kept to a very narrow storyline that ended in the triumphant capture of bin Laden.

The posters don’t say, “WE SOLD OUR SOULS TO GET HIM,” they read, “THE GREATEST MANHUNT IN HISTORY.” One of the more potent critiques of the claim of journalistic realism in Zero Dark Thirty is that, despite the achilles a hero essays, claims of the film-makers, it is not balanced. Carla Seaquist writes that. from the opening scene – a gruesome extended sequence showing a half-dozen techniques on how to techniques essays break a detainee – and achilles essays, continuing throughout the can you use contractions narrative essay, entire film, Bigelow and achilles, Boal show only one side: intelligence agents engaging in torture, with every other agent on-station, and their controllers in Washington, onboard with the program, no dissent registered, none. Seaquist cites a long list of journalists and can you narrative essay, critics who opposed torture in the War on Terror.

Mayer (one of those journalists) also notes that Zero Dark Thirty. doesn’t include a single scene in which torture is questioned, even though the achilles, Bush years were racked by brainstorming internal strife over achilles essays, just that issue. . . . CNN national-security analyst Peter Bergen wrote recently [of the work for you, film], “the audience has already seen that the C.I.A. has employed coercive interrogation techniques on an al Qaeda detainee that produced a key lead in the hunt for bin Laden. In the film, Obama’s opposition to torture comes off as wrongheaded and achilles a hero, prissy.” Taibbi says that. A more accurate movie about the torture program would have been a grotesque comedy that shown grown men resorting to brainstorming essays puppet shows and dance routines and fourth-rate sexual indignities dreamed up after spending too much time reading spank mags and BDSM sites – and achilles a hero essays, doing this thousands of brainstorming, times to a hero essays thousands of people, all over the world, “accidentally” murdering hundreds of people in the process, going to cover school war by mistake at least once as a result of it, and having no clue half the time who they’re interrogating (less than 10 percent of achilles a hero essays, “terror suspects” at places like Bagram were arrested by essay American forces; most of the rest were brought in by Afghanis or other foreigners in exchange for bounties). Wolf directly challenges Bigelow’s journalistic claims in her “open letter” article on achilles a hero, Zero Dark Thirty : You claim that your film is “based on essay contest, real events”, and in interviews, you insist that it is a mixture of fact and fiction, “part documentary”. Achilles? “Real”, “true”, and even “documentary”, are big and important words. By claiming such terms, you generate media and sales traction – on a mendacious basis. Wolf, a well-known feminist, can barely contain her feelings of betrayal. Here was a woman (Bigelow), perhaps even a feminist, doing what Wolf often attacks men for doing. She writes:

In a time of darkness in America, at you are being feted by Hollywood, and hailed by major media. But to me, the path your career has now taken reminds of can you in a essay, no one so much as that other female film pioneer who became, eventually, an apologist for evil: Leni Riefenstahl. Achilles Essays? Riefenstahl’s 1935 Triumph of the teacher, Will , which glorified Nazi military power, was a massive hit in Germany. Riefenstahl was the first female film director to be hailed worldwide. Perhaps because he found it difficult to counter the charges that, on the subject of torture, Zero Dark Thirty is not as journalistic, realistic, or objective as advertised, Boal started making the opposite argument. He said that the film is not a documentary, it is a hero essays, fiction. That is, it is art, not journalism. Boal and Bigelow, then, are only guilty of “artistic licence.” But, according to technology in our society essay Greenwald, Bigelow and Boal are speaking out of both sides of their mouths here.

As noted, she is going around praising herself for achilles, taking “almost a journalistic approach to film”. But when confronted by factual falsehoods she propagates on autumn india essay, critical questions, her screenwriting partner resorts to the excuse that “it’s a movie, not a documentary.” Some critics say the film is a actually a subtle criticism of torture. They see in achilles the film a subtle, thematic questioning of technology society, torture in a hero essays Zero Dark Thirty, and claim that the film dramatizes the “moral descent” of the United States during the essay, War on Terror, by showing a country that would stop at nothing, including the most brutal forms of torture, to a hero essays locate and kill Osama bin Laden. I barely caught a whiff of a “moral journey/descent” storyline in this film – the closest they came to that was in the first scene, where Maya looks a little grossed out by Clarke’s methods. A few minutes later, though, she’s all street and everything, wearing a hijab and can you, getting some henchman to throw fists at her suspects on command. Achilles Essays? She went from queasy to use contractions in a hardass in about ten seconds and we didn’t linger on the transformation at a hero essays, all. For Reichart, it is not just the film-makers who are factitious: film critics – especially those who claim Bigelow as an auteur – have helped to “whitewash” Bigelow and essay contest, downplay the pro-torture position in Zero Dark Thirty . Reichart writes: It’s become all too commonplace for critics to float above the fray, and praise works they find aesthetically valuable and achilles a hero essays, politically questionable (a replaying of the old Leni Riefenstahl debate again), but is technology in our essay, this l’art pour l’art [art for a hero essays, art’s sake] stance any way to watch movies? Isn’t this just abdicating a crucial part of the critical act?

Wouldn’t we rather our film writers be morally engaged viewers rather than diffident aesthetes? The morally engaged viewer doesn’t necessarily look to the film in question for simple affirmation of his or her viewpoints and reject opposing ideas out of hand. Rather, the techniques brainstorming essays, moral viewer looks to cinema to encounter a host of perspectives, and achilles a hero essays, can find pleasure in a variety of them so long as the cover letter teacher independent, art itself is well reasoned and achilles, internally sound. Especially in light of cover letter school, how the achilles essays, filmmakers have spoken about their work, the problem with Zero Dark Thirty becomes less that it ends up making a forceful case for the efficacy of torturing human beings for national security – it’s that one can easily walk away from the film doubting whether Bigelow and Boal have even realized that this is what they’ve done. Reichart then asks: Shouldn’t art that so bowdlerizes its real-life subject matter in order to create a pleasurable experience be called out for doing so? The actual quest for bin Laden surely rested more on gradations of techniques, tedium as opposed to one manufactured mini-climax after another – why don’t we desire that a “realistic” representation of that hunt fall far closer to that truth? Zero Dark Thirty is just another incredibly well-fashioned product of the same morbid culture that considers weaponry sexy and art featuring evisceration and tales of war fascinating – which is to say, pretty much all of a hero, Western culture ever.

Seaquist also faults film critics for abdicating their critical role, in the name of “moral ambiguity”: “Moral ambiguity” has become a standard artistic choice today, for filmmakers as well as playwrights and novelists, meaning: Rather than put the thumb on the scales for or against an action depicted, the artist professes to will work leave the a hero essays, moral judging to the audience. Can You Use Contractions Narrative? Moral questions being by definition about right and wrong, the artist presuming to treat such questions in a hero an ambiguous manner must then show at least two sides (or more) of the question under review. For Seaquist, artistically, Zero Dark Thirty was a missed opportunity: If dramatic conflict is the clash of opposing objectives, and if the most dramatic is the opposition of moral objectives, it’s bewildering to me why the filmmakers chose not to exploit their film’s richest vein of conflict: the rightness or wrongness of torture. It might seem hypocritical for the film-makers to claim that Zero Dark Thirty is both realistic journalism and a work of art, but critics often make this claim for film-makers (see, for instance, reviews of Steve McQueen’s Twelve Years of Slave , that make exactly this claim). Techniques Essays? Film-makers make this claim for themselves. It can be a productive tension for achilles, films, and for autumn india essay, directors, if it’s not definitively resolved in favor of one or the other. In this sense, Bigelow shows herself to be an auteur according to the definition of Andrew Sarris: this is the achilles essays, “interior meaning,” or an autumn india essay underlying tension between the director/s vision and the subject matter. It is the tension between journalistic and creative exposition. My criticism of Zero Dark Thirty is that instead of holding journalism and achilles essays, art in tension in the film, Bigelow uses journalism as a cover for falsity, and art as a cover for inaccuracy.

And what is more, she does so on behalf of use contractions essay, a questionable ideology that forgives torture as long as it leads to achilles a hero security. Founding Father Benjamin Franklin (supposedly) put it: “those who sacrifice liberty for security deserve neither.” In the case of Kathryn Bigelow and technology, Zero Dark Thirty , we might paraphrase it as: those who sacrifice truth for art, and vice versa, will lose sight of achilles essays, both. [Some critics have questioned the accuracy of the film’s version of the actual killing of Osama bin Laden, dramatized in the raid that concludes the film. On this topic, I refer you to Mark Follman’s article in Mother Jones magazine.] University of Maryland. Adrian Chen, “Newly Declassified Memo Shows CIA Shaped Zero Dark Thirty’s Narrative,” Gawker.com (posted May 6, 2013).

Mark Follman. Season India? “‘Zero Dark Thirty’ and the Mysterious Killing of Osama bin Laden,” Mother Jones (February 22, 2013). Glenn Greenwald, “ Zero Dark Thirty : CIA hagiography, pernicious propaganda,” The Guardian (December 14, 2012). Jane Mayer. “Zero Conscience in ‘Zero Dark Thirty,'” The New Yorker (December 14, 2012). Jeff Reichart, “Desert of the real,” Reverse Shot. Carla Seaquist, “Society Instructs Hollywood on a hero essays, ‘Moral Ambiguity’ of Torture: Or, What the Zero Dark Thirty Controversy Means,” Huffington Post (September 30, 2013). Matt Taibbi. “‘Zero Dark Thirty’ Is Osama bin Laden’s Last Victory Over America, Rolling Stone (January 16, 2013).

Naomi Wolf. “A letter to independent Kathryn Bigelow on Zero Dark Thirty ‘s apology for torture,” The Guardian (January 4, 2013).