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How to Write a Basic Five-Paragraph Opinion Essay
baudrillard essay A Very Short Introduction. Jean Baudrillard (1929-2007) was a French philosopher and cultural analyst who started his academic life as a Marxist sociologist interested in short essay, consumer society (he completed his Ph.D. thesis in 1966). Education In India Of It Essay! He concluded that what was formerly a society of production had now (after World War II) become one of consumption. Becoming slowly dissatisfied with Marxism, he went on to incorporate structuralism and semiology into his analysis, seeing the short opinion essay, objects we consume as a system of signs that had to be decoded, this system being embedded in structures of consumption and of gre questions leisure that he felt could be analysed sociologically. He laid out his semiotic analysis of consumer society in his books The System of Objects (1968), The Consumer Society (1970), and The Mirror of Production (1975). His most important earlier work is For a Critique of the Political Economy of the Sign (1972), in which he rejected Marxism as the only valid way of analysing consumer society. Marx said that objects all have a use value: for example, a hammer is useful for short essay, hammering nails into a board. But under capitalism, all objects are reduced to their exchange value, their value or price in help, the marketplace (the hammer might cost $10 in the local hardware store). Baudrillard said, so far, so good; but he added that, at essay, least in advanced capitalist counties, consumer goods also have a sign exchange value: they are signs of distinction, taste, and social status. Official Essay! A BMW or a gold watch can certainly have both use and exchange value (we can drive the BMW to work, or sell the opinion essay, watch to a used jewellery dealer); but, says Baudrillard, we also have to understand their status as signs in the code of consumer values - they signify social distinction. As you drive your BMW down the main street, you're saying to the unwashed masses I'm no longer one of you - I'm distinct, a member of the wealthy and discriminating classes.
It's the BMW's symbolic value, it's cachet, that makes it so irresistible to these classes. Lastly, Baudrillard imagined a utopian realm where we all engage in symbolic exchange, where the gifts we give cease to be consumer objects with exchange or sign values, becoming instead symbols of friendship, love, or community. In the 1980s and rutger van haasteren 90s, Baudrillard turned away in a large degree from Marxism and short essay structuralism to post-structuralism. Buy A Essay Uk! He became the high priest of postmodern culture, turning toward an extreme version of McLuhan's communications theory - he was fascinated by how media affect our perception of reality and short the world. He concluded that in official essay, the postmodern media-laden condition, we experience something called the death of the real: we live our lives in the realm of hyperreality, connecting more and more deeply to things like television sitcoms, music videos, virtual reality games, or Disneyland, things that merely simulate reality. Early in this new phase of his work, Baudrillard reflected on love. In his book On Seduction (1980), he claims that there are two modes of love.
The seductive female mode, which is artificial and opinion symbolic, involves flirtations, double entendres, sly looks, whispered promises, but a putting off of the actual sexual act. It involves the of gre essay questions, manipulation of short essay, signs like makeup, fashion, and titillating gestures to achieve control over international, a symbolic order. On the other side is the male sexual mode, centered on the phallus, which is direct and opinion essay natural, seeking to master a real order - to international humanitarian law essay 2013 complete the sexual act. On top of each of these modes is now layered the cool seduction of media images pumped out by television, radio and film. He continues this theme of cool seduction in his book The Ecstasy of Communication (1988 in translation). Here Baudrillard discusses how we surrender ourselves in an ecstasy of communication, to essay the seductive power of the mass media - television, ads, films, magazines, and newspapers (though Baudrillard is an beowulf hero, avid film fan). The luminous eyes of television and computer screens penetrate into our privates spaces in an ecstatic and obscene way - our secrets disappear, and the images we consume become more and more pornographic.
In the middle of the eighties Baudrillard hit the road. His travelogue America (1986 in French) creates a simulacrum of the America he travelled across. He talks about the violence of the Wild West, jazz, the empty deserts of the opinion, South-West, the neon lights of buy a essay uk, motels at night, tribal warfare between gangs in New York City, and essay much more. Baudrillard saw America as a glittering emptiness, a savage, empty non-culture, in short, as the pool questions, purest symbol of the hyperreal culture of the short opinion essay, postmodern age. In his lecture on film given in Sydney, Australia in 1987, The Evil Demon of Images, Baudrillard claims that although the US lost the van haasteren thesis, Vietnam war on the ground, they won it in the hyperreal realm through films like Apocalypse Now and Platoon, which fantastically replay the war not as the story of defeat by a determined enemy, but as that of internal division. Cinematographically, the Americans defeat themselves. Before the Gulf War of 1991, Baudrillard wrote an article in Libération in which he claimed that the war wouldn't take place.
Afterwards, he claimed that it hadn't taken place, for the Western audience was aware of it only as a series of hyperreal images on our TV screens. There was no real enemy - Saddam Hussein was a former US ally in the Middle East - and the outcome was entirely predictable. So despite the short opinion essay, horrible loss of life (mostly on education in india lack of it, the Iraqi side), the war was at short opinion, best a hyperreal war. Baudrillard's work in the 1990s continued to focus on official pool of gre, this theme of the hyperreality of postmodern culture, his writing becoming more disjointed and aphoristic (perhaps echoing Nietzsche's style). He reverses course somewhat in his short work The Spirit of Terrorism (2003 revised edition), calling the attack on short, the Twin Towers the mother of all events that the disenfranchised of the world secretly fantasized about. Yet the American military response to 9/11 was yet another pseudo-event, yet another voyage into the (Afghan) desert of the real.
Going back to the beginning of his postmodern phase, Baudrillard starts his important essay The Precession of the Simulacra by recounting the feat of imperial map-makers in an story by Jorge Luis Borges who make a map so large and detailed that it covers the whole empire, existing in a one-to-one relationship with the territory underlying it. It is a perfect replica of the humanitarian law essay, empire. After a while the map begins to fray and tatter, the short, citizens of the thesis help, empire mourning its loss (having long taken the map - the simulacrum of the empire - for the real empire). Under the map the short essay, real territory has turned into a desert, a desert of the international law essay, real. In its place, a simulacrum of reality - the frayed mega-map - is all that's left. The term simulacrum goes all the way back to Plato, who used it to describe a false copy of something. Baudrillard has built his whole post-1970s theory of media effects and culture around his own notion of the simulacrum. He argues that in a postmodern culture dominated by short opinion TV, films, news media, and the Internet, the whole idea of a true or a false copy of something has been destroyed: all we have now are simulations of hero, reality, which aren't any more or less real than the reality they simulate. In our culture, claims Baudrillard, we take maps of reality like television, film, etc. as more real than our actual lives - these simulacra (hyperreal copies) precede our lives.
Our television friends (e.g. sit-com characters) might seem more alive to us than their flesh-and-blood equivalents (did you see what Jerry/Rachel/Frasier did last night?). We communicate by e-mail, and short opinion relate to video game characters like Lara Croft better than our own friends and family. We drive on help, freeways to shopping malls full of essay, identical chain stores and products, watch television shows about film directors and in india or the of it essay actors, go to films about short television production, vote for ex-Hollywood actors for buy a essay uk, president (is he really an actor? Or a politician? It doesn't matter). In fact, we get nervous and edgy if we're away too long from our computers, our e-mail accounts, our cell phones. Now the real empire lays in tatters, the hyerreal map still quite intact. We have entered an era where third-order simulacra dominate our lives, where the image has lost any connection to real things. Baudrillard's later philosophy of essay, culture can be mapped in terms of three things: (1) the orders of simulacra, (2) the phases of the buy a essay uk, image - the four levels at which art represents reality, and short opinion (3) the three phases of beowulf essays, utopian and science-fiction writing he saw corresponding to these orders and phases. We see how these three sets of short essay, distinctions parallel each other in the chart below (I've added what I think are some appropriate examples from statistics thesis help popular culture that fit each category):
Baudrillard's writing is difficult, and for starting philosophers and social and cultural theorists is best taken in short opinion essay, small doses. If you read his work, remember that his central claim about postmodern culture (thought he claims that he himself is official pool, not a postmodernist) is quite simple - that we live in short opinion, a desert of the real, a cultural space where television, film, and computer images are more real to us than the non-media physical reality that surrounds us. This loss of reality isn't so hard to understand, even if it's difficult for lack of it essay, some of us to swallow.
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How to Write a Basic Five-Paragraph Opinion Essay
Arts, crafts and culture wisdom of Madura. Introduction of research. This research aims to provide an overview of the arts which are include crafts and essay, culture wisdom of Madura, one of the ethnic that include in sub race of statistics thesis, Malayan Mongoloid in Indonesia. The researcher conducted a qualitative study with a research focus on scene depicting local wisdom of Madurese arts, craft, and culture. In addition, the local knowledge of Madurese arts and culture has its own persuasive power such as cattle races, traditional costumes of Madurese, as well as their language and dialect. Madura Island in East Java island region known as the island of salt, exotic, so well known nationally and essay, internationally. The researcher use two method of research which are primary and education in india or the of it essay, secondary data. The primary data that the researcher use is by interviewing the Madurese people in Kuala Lumpur as well as the makers of Madura’s batik. Besides that, the researcher is observing the material and essay, types of Madura’s batik by herself.
Then, the secondary data that researcher use is by journal in education in india or the, Google scholar, and book at UITM and UM library. There are a lot of information of Madurese that are provided. So, hope this research will provide some more information for you to opinion, observe about the arts, culture and crafts in rutger thesis, Madura Island. Objective of short, research. The objective for this research and study is to: i) To observe about the art, culture and craft in the sub race which is Malayan Mongoloid of or the lack of it essay, Madurese in Indonesia. ii) To understand in more detail about the Mongoloid race from Deutro Malay people that are derived from the Javanese, Madurese, Bali and Bugis ethnic tribe.
iii) To study about the geographical boundaries of Mongoloid race and Madurese in Indonesia. v) To study about their unique traditional costumes, customs and culture. Significance of study. This study will be beneficial to the students and community to short opinion essay, understand much better about the Mongoloid sub race of Maduraneses and their culture in Indonesia. Official Pool Essay Questions. This is because the researcher sure, there is a lot of people that don’t understand about this race. By understand about their culture, race and customs, we get to know them very well.
In addition, there are a lot of Mongoloid race in short opinion, different place. But, in this study, the student will just concentrate to rutger van haasteren thesis, the Mongoloid race from Indonesia. The student and community will able to classify the Mongoloid race that are divided into two people which are Proto and Deutro. In addition, the student are able to understand about the Indonesian people that are from Mongoloid race from Deutro people such as Suku Bugis, Madura, Jawa Bali. This is because this study will only concentrate to Deutro people of Malayan Mongoloid in opinion, Indonesia. The researcher use two method of research which are primary and secondary data.
The primary data that the researcher use is by interviewing the Madurese people in Kuala Lumpur as well as the makers of Madura’s batik. Besides that, the researcher is observing the material and types of Madura’s batik by herself. Then, the secondary data that researcher use is by journal in google scholar, and book at UITM and UM library. There are a lot of information of Madurese that are provided. The primary data that have collected by researcher is by interviewing the person who made batik Madura from Indonesia. Batik Madura is one of the traditional costume from Mongoloid sub race which is from Suku Madura. So, from this observation, the researcher get the rutger, experience to opinion, touch and see batik Madura by herself. Figure 1: observation of Madurese batik.
Figure 2: observation on statistics help, Madurese batik. 4.2 Secondary Data. The secondary data that researcher has collected are from jurnal, all collection books of Madurese and Indonesia from UITM and UM library, internet, youtube and essay, others. a) Introduction of Malay. In the rutger van haasteren thesis, year 1972, UNESCO has defined the term “Malay” as a tribe in Peninsular Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, Filipina and Madagascar. On the other hand, there was a report about two types of definition in terms of law and anthropology regarding the “Malay”. Short Essay. According to constitution in case 160(2), Malays have been defined as a person who is Islam, speaks the Malay language, practices the Malay culture and tradition, born before independence day whether in official Malay Federation grounds or in Singapore or on the day of independence and he or she is a resident in the federation or in Singapore. According to Wilkinson (1957), Winstedt (1920 and 1961), Noriah (1999), the Malay community build their culture gradually step by step, beginning from the earlier stone age (Paleolithic), the middle stone age (Mesolithic), the final stone (Neolithic), the agrarian, the metal, the construction of the government with the religion of Hinduism and Buddhism, age Islam and the modern era with the arrival of the Western powers. Besides that, Burhanuddin al-Helmi said that, Malay race is a race of its own among the buy a essay uk, few great nation in the world that there are areas of the country. Their behavior, temperament and short opinion essay, culture and the way of life of solitude and isolation annals of distinguishing with other people since thousands of beowulf hero, years until today.
b) Division of Malays. (Geographical Boundaries of Malays) There are about 3 division of Malay such as Melanesia, Polynesia and Micronesia. The division of Melanesia, Polynesia and Micronesia became scientific knowledge invented by a famous French navigator and as early as 1840, they became common knowledge which went into French school textbooks. Common knowledge is supposedly innocuous. Polynesian were seen as relatively recent arrivals from Island Southeast Asia who had largely bypassed western Melanesia and short opinion, spread to the three points of the Polynesia triangle such as Hawai’I , Easter Island (Rapa Nui) and New Zealand and all the island within.
According to Cowman Bellywood, 2013, regardless of where the exact boundaries are drawn, there is wide agreement that this region as the epicenter of marine biodiversity, and herein we refer to buy a essay uk, it as the Indo-Malay-Philippine biodiversity hotspot. Though not geographically correct to include any part of a continent in an archipelago, it is necessary for our purpose to consider the Malay Peninsula as not only almost but quite an Island, since it cannot be physically separated from the region of which we are new treating. Here are the essay, location that are involved: a) WEST – state of Surinam and Madagascar Island. – Java Islands is the place where the thesis, state of Surinam is located. This islands are forced by short, Dutch Government. – Malay, Indonesia, and French are language that is use in the state of Surinam. – Sulawesi Island is the place where the Madagascar Islands located. The people are voluntary migrate and was built by buy a essay uk, Malay government Zafy Ramania Dynasty. Then it is destroy by French government. Short Opinion. Marina Malays (rural/hill) and Malagasy Malay (coastal) are 2 groups of Madagascar.
b) EAST – Philippines Island. – There are a number of difference ethnic that is beowulf, inhabited in the east of Philippines islands. – There are about 2 groups which are Maras and Tousung who practice Islam and Malay culture in Mindance. – The Austronesia group is about the short opinion, group that are speaking Malay. – In addition, there are 3 others ethnic which are Visayan, Tagalog, and Bicadana. c) NORTH – South Vietnam Indochina.
– There are about 5 country or place that are came to lack of it, North Indochina and short, South Vietnam which are Kelantan, Thailand, Cambodia, Indonesia Malay Peninsular. Some of rutger, them ran from Dutch to survive their life. d) SOUTH – Western Australia. – There are about four place in Australia that is related to the South which are Port Healand, Broome, Cocos Islands and Perth. Malaysia, English,and Australia are using the Ausie Malay language and they are going to Islamic study class to learn about Malay. i) Malay Archipelago.
The meaning of the archipelago is a group of islands. Extent of the Archipelago and Islands, the Malay Archipelago extends for more than 4,000 miles in length from east to west, and is about short opinion 1,300 in breadth from north to south. According to Alfred Russel Wallace, it would stretch over an expanse equal to that of all Europe from the extreme west far into help Central Asia or would cover the widest parts of South America, and short essay, extend far beyond the land into the pacific and Atlantic oceans. Of Gre. It includes three islands larger than Great Britain and in short essay, one of them, Borneo the whole of the British Isles might be set down and would surrounded by sea of forest. The absolute extent of hero, land in the archipelago is not greater than that contained by Western Europe from opinion essay Hungary to Spain, but owing to the manner in which the lands is broken up divided, the variety of its productions is buy a essay uk, rather in proportion to the immense surface over which the islands are spread, than to the quantity of land which they contain. ii) Polynesian Malay. Polynesia is in eastern Oceania. Short Opinion Essay. The Polynesian are groups who lived and still life on buy a essay uk, the islands in the central Pacific Ocean. People of Hawaii, Samoa, Tahiti, Tonga, and the Maori of New Zealand is the short opinion essay, largest group of hero, Polynesian society. Short Essay. French in Polynesia consists of several islands namely, Australoid or Tubuai Islands, Gambier Island, Genootschapseilanden, Marguesase Island, Tahiti, and Tuamotu Island.
Tahiti is the largest country in French Polynesia that is located in the southern part of the Pacific Ocean. Its capital is Papeete that is located on the northeast coast. Tahiti itself flanked by several continents, namely Asia, Australia, and America, that is official pool essay questions, located between Hawaii, USA, Chile, New Zealand, and Papua New Guinea. iii) Malay Diaspora. Malay diaspora began to emerge from the sixteenth century. The tracing of a Malay diaspora back to the traders who left Melaka after the opinion, conquest is beowulf essays, a provocative thesis possessing wide implications, and will send other historians back to the source materials. Generally, Diasporas and their media use and representation within Southeast Asia and within the periphery has been a neglected field of study. In fact, the notion “diaspora” has hardly been deployed by local researchers to describe the opinion essay, three major ethnic communities such as Malays, Chinese, Indians in peninsula Malaysia.
It is thesis help, commonly assumed that peninsula Indians and Chinese, unlike the Malays are the colonial migrants this appears a banalised discourse. According to S.Hall (1990:235) notes that diaspora identities are those which are constantly producing reproducing themselves anew, through transformation difference. According to A.Brah (1996:196) expands on this idea by his explanation that diaspora identities are at once local global. They are networks of trans-national identifications encompassing “imagined” “encountered. In addition, diaspora is distinguished from, if not in opposition to, the old localizing strategies by bounded community, by organic culture, by region, by center periphery said Clifford (1994:303). While, in Greek, the term “Diasporas” stems from “speiro” which means “to sow” and “dia” which means “over”. Short Opinion. Thus, it is essays hero, widely believed that the first usage of the term appeared in the Greek translation of Deutronomy in the Old Testament, which refer to opinion, the situation of the Jewish people, (Deut, 28, 25). c) Definition of Malay. According to Timothy P.Barnard and education in india or the lack of it, Hendrik M.J.Maier, “Malays” live in Malaysia, where they are the opinion, major population group. “Malays” are found in statistics, Indonesia, in Sumatra and along the coast of Indonesian Borneo. At first glance, it all seems very straightforward, but for centuries definitions, boundaries and origin of short, this word in the world of Southeast Asia have proved elusive, and it seems unlikely that the word will acquire any greater precision in the future. This question lies at education essay the core of the present collection, and while the reader will emerge knowing a great deal more about the term and the problems it generates, the authors are wise enough not to try to resolve the opinion, conundrum.
The word “Melayu” appears in seventh-century Chinese sources with reference to Sumatra, and as it has been wandering around Southeast Asia ever since, carrying with it notions of a culture, a people and a location. The term may have first been used in Kalimantan, or possibly around the Melayu River on Sumatra. But then origins are often vague in a world that is constantly undergoing transformation. The words “Malay” and “Maleis” begin to appear in British and Dutch writings in beowulf essays hero, the seventeenth century, reflecting both local usage and tales by the Portuguese, Spanish and others who arrived earlier. These three words-Melayu,Malay,Maleis, have been used with reference to a confusing variety of configuration of human beings, locations, languages, customs, states and objects between Patani and Timor, Manila and Banda Aceh. Short Opinion. Makassar and Bangkok, Pagarruyung and Batavia. As well as along the Melaka straits. In one way or another, “Melayu” , “Malay” and “Maleis” refer to a loosely configured world. Official discussions about the meaning of the word have led to definitions that are embedded in various forms of nationalism and regionalism, and have been elaborated into awkward. Origin of Malayness.
According to Anthony Reid in “Understanding Melayu (Malay) as a source of Divers Modern identities”, the term “Melayu” is very ancient, in a sense which appears to essays, apply to a place in Sumatra or possibly the Straits of Melaka region more generally. Ptolemy, the essay, second-century (CE) Egyptian geographer, inserted the toponym “Melayu Kulon” (west Melayu, in Javanese) on the west coast of his Golden Chersonese, thus somewhere near the beowulf essays hero, southern border of Burma today. The twelfth-century Arab geographer Edrisi also reported “Malai” as a large island off southern Asia full of gold, spices, elephants and rhinoceros. In Chinsese records, beginning with Yijing in the sevent century, “Malayu” appears as a more specific kingdom to the north of Srivijaya, absorbed into essay the latter in the 680s. The Malays belong to the broader Malayo – Polynesian which are the group of races, and the origin of which have been traced to Yunnan in China. In addition, the Proto- Malays and essays hero, Deutro-Malays is opinion, related to this group too. Orang Asli (meaning original or indigenous people) are the early aboriginal groups that now collectively and consisting of some eighteen groups, but officially classified into Senoi, Proto Malay and Negrito, as well as Proto – Malay, the people who first reached the essays hero, Peninsular around 2000 B.C. Sub – groups of the opinion essay, Malayo – Polynesian race live in essays hero, modern – day Southeast Asia and in the Polynesian Islands, linked by opinion essay, a common base language manifested in many sub – languages and dialects, as well as certain basic beliefs and ritual practices. Both the languages and the beliefs are shared with those of the aboriginal people of the region.
From earliest times diverse conditions in beowulf, different localities as well as influences from the Indian sub – continent, the Middle East, China and the West have served to considerably shape and reshape their cultures, so that each group has developed its own religious and social identity. The Malays now constitute the largest group of people in the Malay Peninsula and in certain neighboring territories on and off the Island of Sumatera. Groups, such as Buginese, the Achehnese, the Javanese or the Minangkabau are identified as Malays and it is essay, same as Malays in Malaysia. Alternatively the Malays are the product of a mixture of Malays and one or more of these sub groups, many of which still maintain their racial identities as well as customs. The most prominent of these are the Minangkabau in Negeri Sembilan and the Javanese in education in india lack essay, Johore. In conclusion, the term of Malay in such situations is no more than a convenient label to refer to such communities, and is not always acceptable to the communities themselves.
Apart from the ethnic links the religion of Islam is essay, a major qualifying factor for one to rutger thesis, be considered a Malay. e) The Malays in Malaysia and short essay, Indonesia : a conceptual mapping. Definition of hero, race and ethnicity. The term “race” in a Latin word which generally refers to a group of common origin. In 1795 the German scientist Johann Friedrich Blumenbach suggested that the concept of bangsa Melayu (or a Malay race) should constitute a subcategory of the Mongoloid race. In further defining the Malays, the Malaysian government used Blumenbach’s concept of the Malay race. Historical sources suggest that groups of people who eventually became “Malays” migrated from Taiwan or eastern China in short, 4000-3000 BC to buy a essay uk, Luzon or other Philippine islands, prior to moving further afield in 2500-1500 BC to Borneo, Sulawesi and Java. Finally, in 1500 to 500 BC, they moved to Sumatera, Peninsular Malaysian and southern Vietnam (Andaya, 2001, p.2, Andaya 2004, p 57). The view of the Malays which was held by Stamford Raffles, the founder of modern day Singapore, had a profound influence on the Westerners. Stamford Raffles and Dr. Short Essay. John Leyden, a learned Scottish surgeon who became a good friend of Raffles when the latter was an Assistant Secretary to the Governor of Penang in 1805, were probably the most influential voices in the promotion of the rutger thesis, idea of “Malay race” or “nation”, which they argued was not limited to the Malay ethic group, but embraced all the peoples of the Malay World (Reid, 2004, pp.10-11)
Ethnicity can generally be defined as constituting the essay, common consciousness of being from the official pool, same origin and traditions. The English term “ethnic” is opinion essay, derived from the Greek word ethniKos meaning tribe or nation. An ethnic acquired its distinctive cultural characteristics from interaction with outsiders, rather than in isolation (Ali, 1984, p. 13). In this chapter, when “ethnic group” is mentioned, it means, ……. Those who conceive of thesis, themselves as being alike by virtue of their common ancestry, real or fictitious, and opinion essay, who are so regarded by beowulf hero, others and that members of short opinion, each group are often…united by buy a essay uk, emotional bonds and concerned with preservation of their type..they speak the same language…(and) share common cultural heritage (Ali,1984, p.13) In terms of the opinion, relationship between ethnicity and race, just like the ethnic Serbs and Croats are from the same Slavic race, in humanitarian 2013, Malaysia and Indonesia the ethnic just like Acehnese, Bugis, Javanese, Madurese, Minangkabau and Sundanese stem are from the Malay racial group. A broad understanding of ethnicity would suggest that “ethnicity is opinion, culture”. Rutger Van Haasteren. In the post-Cold War Era, Huntington (1993, p 22) has warned that the great divisions among humankind and short opinion, the dominating source of conflict will be culture.
Most scholars of International relations agree that Huntington has succeeded in opening the debate centred on cultural explanations of coorperation and conflict which has been neglected by the political philosophies of thesis, neo-realism and essay, neo-liberalism (Shulman 1998, pp. 304-306). The concern about culture is also echoed by the constructivists, who believe that in the study of international relations, a greater emphasis should be given to the aspects of culture and ethnicity. With this in mind, this chapter endeavors to understand the complexity of culture and ethnicity in Malaysia and Indonesia through an analysis of Serumpun relations. f) Geographical of Malay World. Malay Archipelago – Indonesian. In the researcher reading, she have found the fact that, as an archipelago country (world) with a cluster of education in india of it essay, more than 17,000 islands either big or small, Indonesia has cultural diversity from different ethnic groups with different regional languages that is spread over Indonesia which is characteristic of nature pluralistic Indonesia society.
Figure 3 : Map of Pulau Madura. Madura Island is located in the northeast of the Island of essay, Jawa, approximately 7 south of the equator between 112’ and 114’ east longitude. Rutger. This island is short essay, separated from Java by Madura Strait, which is synchronize the Java Sea with the Sea of Bali. According to Huub de Jonge, (1989:17), most of the Madurese is an agrarian society. Approximately ninety percent of the population lives scattered in education essay, remote areas, in villages, hamlets and groups of farmers housing. Besides that, Madura is a densely populated islands even land in the area is not fertile. g) History of opinion, Malayan Mongoloid. According to S.L. International Humanitarian. Kroeber, distribution and opinion, dissemination of the nations of the world largely as proposed by S.L. Kroeber (Horton, 1987), in rutger, this world there are races of the Caucasoid, Mongoloid, Negroid, Austroloid and other special races. But, here, I just want to focus on the Mongoloid race.
There are about three “subras” to the Mongoloid race. Firstly is Asiatic Mongoloid that are located in North Africa, Central Asia, and East Asia. Secondly is about the short opinion essay, Malayan Mongoloid that are located in Southeast Asia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, and a native of Taiwan. Buy A Essay Uk. Last but not least is about the American Mongoloid that are located in American Indian but, in this study, I just want to concentrate about the Malayan Mongoloid in Indonesia. Based on the division race in the world according to short essay, Kroeber, the nation of Indonesia, including the Mongoloid race and Malayan Mongoloid “subras”, those who live in the area or areas that have many physical similarities, but from the social reality, they are different. Those who live in Malaysia and Indonesia are often put in Malay “rumpun”. h) Introduction of Malayan Mongoloid. The Javanese are the buy a essay uk, major ethnic group living in Java, Indonesia, and are considered to be the short opinion essay, descendants of the southern branch of the Mongoloid group. In Indonesia, there are Mongoloid race and Caucasoid Europe race where these racial differences shows that Indonesia has a diverse racial traits although traits bordering racial differences dividing itself are blurred and indistinct again for their assimilation process that has been lasted centuries. Besides that, there are about 4 different races in Indonesia.
The first race is the Malayan Mongoloid race which is the largest owned by the Indonesian nation. This race is usually derived from the Javanese, Toraja, Dayak, Madurese and Banjar ethnic tribe, etc. Apart from statistics thesis that, this Malayan Mongoloid racial groups divided into two categories which are firstly is about proto Malays including Suku Batak, Suku Toraja Suku Dayak and secondly is about Deutro Malays including Suku Bugis, Madura, Jawa Bali. Opinion Essay. This is the most important issues that I want to study. This is because I am more interested to study about their culture. The second race is about the Wedoid race which is a race coming from Kubu that are living in Jambi, Sakai people who live in Siak as well as people living on the Islands and Enggaro Mentawa. Thirdly is about the Negroid race. Rutger. This race is about the people who live in the Malay Peninsula and the Andaman Islands. Last but not least is about the Papua Melanesoid race which is a race that came from people that are living in Papua, including those in opinion, the Kai and Aru Islands.
According to Geertz (1981), the concept of plurality existing in buy a essay uk, the Indonesia nation, that was actually illustrates the opinion, differences in the terms of humanitarian competition 2013, relations kinship, race, and place of origin, religion and short essay, language. Furthermore, Geertz (1967), also states that the race is rutger van haasteren thesis, one factor of pluralistic nation in which the race is physical characteristics such as skin color, hair color, body posture and short, so forth, owned by a person who sets it apart from others. Other thing which is characteristic of the area of origin where diversity is someone was born. i) Division of Mongoloid. There are three division of Mongoloid which are classical Mongoloid or Central Mongoloid, the Artic or Eskimoid, and lastly is Indonesian-Malay Mongoloid. The representative groups are Buriat, Koryak, Goldi, Gilyak, etc.
The Tibetans and some other Northen Chinese also present this racial element. In addition, the physical features of this people is statistics help, their skin colour is yellow or yellowish brown, their hair is the straight, texture is coarse and colour is opinion essay, black. The hair is sparsely distributed on the body and face. Their head is usually brachycephalic with a cephalic index of 85, but mesocephalic and dolichocephalic heads are not uncommon. All forms show a projected occiput region.
Their face is very broad with square jaws. Forehead is rounded and medium is heigh. The cheek bones are strongly developed and van haasteren, they are projected laterally as well as forwadly. Image source: https://sites.google.com/site/thecatholicchurchonrace/_/rsrc/1461214147264/home/on-the-origins-of-the-mongoloid-race/Mongoloid%20raced%20people%20with%20blonde%20and%20red%20hair.PNG?height=236width=400. In Northen Asia we can found the Arctic or Eskimoid people, the Arctic coast of North America, Greenland, Labrador and Western Alaska.
There are about five country that representative populations which are Chukchis, Kamtchadales, Samoyedes, Yakuts and last but not least is Eskimos. Their physical features is opinion essay, different with Classical Mongoloid because their skin colour is dark yellow to brownish. Their head form is variable, ranging from brachycephalic to mesocephalic. Rutger Van Haasteren Thesis. Then their face is large, broad and flat with prominent cheek bones. The population is comprised of a large number of opinion essay, Mongoloid peoples who show a considerable admixture of buy a essay uk, Caucasoid and Negroid elements. Image Source: http://www.pidipedia.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/12/ras-mongoloid.jpg. There are about eight country that have this Malay type which are Japan, Malay Peninsula, Dutch East Indies, Philippines, Indo-China, Southern China, Thailand and Burma.
The Japanese mostly belong to this Malayan type of short opinion, racial sub group (the Mongoloid features appear to rutger van haasteren, be stronger in opinion, the Malay than in law essay competition, the Indonesian type). Their skin color and opinion essay, face is light yellow brown to dark yellow brown. The head form is brachycephalic with a cephalic index of 85. Their face is short and broad with prominent cheek bones. Their eye color usually ranges from medium brown to beowulf essays, dark brown, and it is occasionally black. Then, Indonesian type which is called as Nesiot is found in Southern China, Indo-China, Burma, Thailand, etc. Short. The physical features are as follows. Buy A Essay Uk. Their skin colour is varies from light red brown to medium brown. Their head is short opinion essay, mesocephalic, the cephalic index is 78.5. Dolichocephals are not totally absent. Then their eye color is black with occasional reddish tint.
The internal epicanthic fold is less frequent. Their lips are thick. j) Definition and rutger van haasteren thesis, history of Madurese. Madurese, as other Indonesian ethic groups, that can be found in the various regions of the country. Not too many people in Indonesia who love to short, travel to others country. There are three example of ethnic that love to travel to others country such as Minangkabau, Batak, and Java especially those people in Wonogiri and Gunung Kidul. The pangeran of Madura which is Chakra Deningrat, a man of law essay competition, selfish and haughty character, consider himself, in consequence of the part he had taken, so far exalted above the other chiefs that he neglected to make his annual appearance at court. Short Opinion Essay. Of this the Sus’unan complained to the Dutch, who interfered, but without effect. Thesis. The Pangeran who as before stated, had taken possession of the provinces of Sidayu Tuban, Jipang and Lamung’an, now refused to restore them either to the Sus’unan or the Dutch, to whom they had been ceded, claiming them, as well as all the plunder he had obtained at Ke’rta S’ura, as conquered property.
Determined to keep them by opinion, force, he engaged in his service a number of men from essays hero Bali, and fortified the island Mendri, so as to command under the harbor of Surabaya. He now commenced open hostilities by short essay, attacking a Dutch vessel and putting to death several European seamen. Two thousand Madurese entered the district of Surabaya, burnt some villages, and laid the country waste, and five thousand Balians were posted on the frontiers of Pamakasan. After having been twice or thrice defeated, the Pangeran made a sudden attack upon S’umenap and Pamakasan and gained a complete victory over the natives fighting under a Dutch commander, who lost six thousand men on the occasion, the chief being obliged to fly the country. It was not long before the Dutch regained possesian of Su’menap and Pamakasan, on which occasion a brother in law of the Pang’eran, with two chiefs, submitted to them, but the Dutch troops were no sooner withdrawn, then those provinces again fell under the authority of the Pangeran, who laid them waste with fire and sword. The Dutch tried in vain to disloage him. R’embang was now besieged by an army of five thousand Mad’urese and Javanese.L’asem, Pa’jang-kungfung, and official pool of gre, all the villages as far as parade’sa, were in possession of the Pange’ran, who made himself master also of the fort of R’embang, and of the building-yard established there, but his fortune suddenly changed. The prince was in his turns , defeated in several engagements, and at length compelled to fly from Java, and short opinion essay, the Dutch forces landing on Madura, took the humanitarian competition 2013, capital, Sdmpang, by storm, and in a short time made themselves masters of the whole island.
Last but not least, in this extremity, the prince of Madura still refused to come to terms, and went with his sons, Sa’sra and R’ana Deningrat , to Banjermasin on Borneo, where he engaged his passage on board an English ship bound to Bencoolen, to which place he had previously ,on his affair taking an unfavorable turn, sent his son, R’aden Tumu’ng’gung Wira Deningrat, to request assistance from the English, and procure men and warlike stores. k) Language of Madurese. Literature and Dialect. Indonesia’s population is made up of a variety of ethnic groups with different cultures, between one tribe and another tribe. Short Opinion Essay. Culture of each tribe as a feature of the thesis help, race is concerned, especially its social features such as language, social structure, political system and other.
Figure 6 : The comparison of genetic linguistic trees (originally in Cavalli-Sforza et al. 1988:6002-6) Indonesia is interesting not only in that its national territory is home to short essay, such a large number of languages, but also because these languages come from not one, but two of the seventeen major world language families. While the majority of the 726 languages are classified in the SIL (2001) data as “non-Austronesian”. Madura language is the statistics, language used as a means of communication for daily life by short, Madura ethnic communities. Both residing on the island of Madura and the surrounding small islands and overseas. In addition according to (Alan M.Stevens, 1965), the language of Madurese is like some of its neighboring languages which are Sundanese, Javanese, Balinese and Sasak, that has socially determined choices of beowulf hero, words depending on the relations between speaker and addresses. Opinion. .Then according to Lauder which is in india or the, Akhmad Sofyan, 2010:207), Madura language occupies the fourth position of the thirteen major regional languages in Indonesia with the largest number of short, speakers about 13,7 soul.
Based on statistics thesis help, linguistic standpoint, Madura grouped into four main dialects which are Sumenep, Pamekasan, Bangkalan, and essay, Kangean dialects as well as two additional dialects which are Pinggirmas and Bawean dialects. From the standpoint of the language of Madura sociolinguistic that grouped into two dialects or language which are the language of Madura from east and west. While Bawean and Kangean regarded as different of Madura language. Madura language is same language as Indonesia language. In India Or The Of It. This language is short opinion, belong to the Austronesian west family. l) The Influence of rutger, Islam. According to Huub de Jonge, (1989), all of the short opinion essay, the villagers’s religion from Madura are Muslims. The spread of Islam took place in line with the expansion of trade.
In addition, the first spreader is van haasteren thesis, Muslim traders from India (Gujarat), Malacca, and Sumatra (Palembang). Then, according to De Graaf and Pigeaud, (1989), it is short opinion, followed by followers of Sunan Ampel and Sunan Giri, one of the guardian of the Islamic holy that is located near the state-government small trade in Surabaya and Gresik. Islamisation has long been part of the history of Sumenep. With a majority of population Muslim, Sumenep is known as a town of santri that has pesantren among the prominent social institutions, (de Jonge, 1989, Kuntowijoya, 2002, Mansoornoor, 1990, Rozaki 2004, Van Dijk 1995, Wiyata, 2002). In light of social and political influence, pesantren in buy a essay uk, Sumenep can be categorized in three clusters based on territorialities : the Guluk-Guluk cluster, the Kota cluster, and the smaller Ambunten cluster. By looking at the map, one can see that these territorial cluster form an imaginary triangle. Some main issues in the political recruitment relate to essay, how this triangle takes and changes its shape in an ongoing trade-off amongst the clusters. Essays Hero. Guluk-guluk cluster is the biggest group, centred on the biggest and one of the oldest pesantren in opinion, Sumenep, An Nuqayah, which is located in a village called Guluk-guluk. The pesantren was founded in 1887 by Kiai Syarqawi, and is now run by the third and fourth generation of the founder (Arsyi et al 2000, Effendy 1990, Hasan 1995).Both Syarqawi’s descendants and santris of An Nuqayah have spread and found their own pesantren, creating a strong network of pesantrens and kiais.
m) Madurese’s Poem. i) Abantal omba’ assapo’ angen. In Malay, Abantal omba’ assapo’ angen mean “berbantal ombak berselimut angin. This expression reflects the ambition, strength and unyielding attitude to how hard the waves of the sea raging. If we look at a map of Indonesia, the Island will be seen at the bottom like a hen who followed not less than 70 cubs are small islands which includes the official pool of gre essay questions, island of Madura. Since time immemorial appear many animals who are willing to wade across the sea to the sea in the archipelago. Essay. To help them cross the sea, they took the initiative to make a boat. In addition, to show that the Madurese have marine ethos, Sulaiman was around to all the islands including the island of Madura. ii) Abantal syahadat asapo’ iman.
In Malay, Abantal syahadat asapo’ iman mean “berbantal syahadat berselimut iman”. This expression reflects about the Madurese who are fanatical about their religion which is Islam. Thesis Help. This can be seen in general that, in Madura traditional home appliances are placed in a building with a courtyard which is short opinion, facing west to east is official essay questions, called a hit, as a place for prayer. Their children were handed over to the religious teacher or “kiai” to study about the religion from the age of 5 years. Kian has emerged as the driver values are usually more appreciated than the formal leaders in rural society. Kiai not only opinion as a teacher of religion, but more than that is, as a consultant to solve the problems of life.
Besides that, during the colonial period, there are many scholars that are purposely avoid living in the city with some even in rural and remote in the mountains because they generally refused to cooperate with the Dutch government. So it is not impossible that at beowulf essays that time many scholars banning the wearing of neckties, pants, and do not pay taxes as a sign of not happy to the colonizers. Madurese with the religious ties are so strong, a Madura who daily does not implement the tenets of religion, would be angry if called them as non-religious people of short, Islam. The attitude to love the buy a essay uk, religion just like that could actually be a step towards the short, capital for the practice of religion from its original source as a manifestation of belief in God. iii) Pote mata pote tolang, ango’ poteya tolang. In Malay, Pote mata pote tolang, ango’ poteya tolang mean putih mata putih tulang, lebih baik putih tulang”. This expression reflects about, the Madurese are willingly to die rather than bear the thesis, shame.
The phrase described the importance of maintaining the dignity of the Madurese. But is often misunderstood that it could trigger carok. (Alfred Russel Wallace) The Malay Archipelago attracted many reviews, with interest from essay scientific, geographic, and general periodicals. Reviewers noted and sometimes disagreed with several of his (Alfred Russel Wallace) theories, especially the division of fauna and flora along what soon became known as Wallace line, natural selection and law essay 2013, uniformitarianism. According to Alfred Russel Wallace, the Malay Archipelago is the vast chain of islands stretching eastward from Sumatra for more than 6,000 kilometers. 1.0) Malay in Indonesia (West Javanese)
Java is the short essay, cultural core of the world’s largest archipelago, Indonesia. There is very little that is accurately known of its ancient history and even its legends antedate the first century A.D. Thus, history for buy a essay uk, most Indonesia scholars begins with the opinion, introduction of the beowulf, Hindu culture to their lands by Adji Saka. Adji Saka is a Brahman teacher, came from India to deliver the short opinion, Javanese from the cannibalistic King Mendang Kamulan whose daily habit it was to feast on one of his subjects chosen at random. Rutger. Adji Saka rid the opinion, country of the monstrous ruler, the grateful Javanese urged him to stay and rule as king. Buy A Essay Uk. Then Adji accepted it, but first had to obtain his holy sword which he had to left back in India in the safekeeping of short essay, a trusted retainer. Adji dispatched another retainer to fetch the wonderful sword, but in buy a essay uk, a quarrel between the two retainers over short the matter of releading the sword, both were slain. The retainer holding the holy blade that had been ordered by Adji not to deliver it to law essay, anyone but his master, which is the retainer that was sent to bring the sword to Adji. Adji Saka is a symbol of short opinion essay, cultural advancement in terms of Hindu standards. International Humanitarian. Some of the world’s oldest human remains have been identified on the Island of Java. In addition, David Sopher has shown that the Riouw-Lingga Archipelago, which nestles in the straits between mainlain Asia (Malay Peninsula) and the northeastern coast of Sumatra, was a collection point for short opinion, forest primitives, river-bank dwellers and strand collectors.
Later, with the soutward movement of Mongoloid proto-Malays, great mixing of official pool of gre, strand folk and opinion, the newly arrived immigrants took place, especially in Sumatra. Van Haasteren. The Riouw-Lingga Archipelago’s importance to opinion, Indonesian combatives is of the highest order. Image Source: https://mochamadrizal19.files.wordpress.com/2013/02/jatim.jpg. The contribution of the buy a essay uk, so-called sea-nomads, the racially heterogeneous, wandering maritime primitives, to the combative culture of Indonesia is indefinable. These nomads, with their great mobility, had at one time or another come in contact with many different cultures such as Chinese, Burmese, Thai, Malay, Bugis, Madurese, Dayak, Sulu, Semang, Sakai, Toradja, Alefuru, Moluccan and others. Opinion. Their wanderings were distinct from the movements of the coastal Malays who also undertook great dispersions. The area in education in india or the essay, which the sea-nomads plied their crafts extends for more than two thousand miles in a west-east direction. From Tenasserim to short, the Moluccas. It also extend some sixteen hundred miles in a south-north direction from the northern shores of the Lesser Sunda Islands into the Philippine area.
Image Source: https://2.bp.blogspot.com/-je5bLoI1LaI/V47NQRBIClI/AAAAAAAAA8A/NOO-P0lN6uEzzEm_bOwVWVEMIrXYYCkOQCLcB/s640/Baju%2Badat%2BJawa%2BTimur.JPG. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Photography and arts essay, dissertation or piece of coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is qualified to a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to in india or the of it essay, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Photography and arts work in your email box, in as little as 3 hours.
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23 Rules of Thumb for Resume Writing and its Length. Writing a resume is a process which involves a lot of intelligence and skill. Essay. Resume writing is considered to law essay competition, be an art of short opinion, selling yourself in an effective way. Hero. Writing a resume is one of the most important steps if you are in search of a job. A resume creates an impression about the person who has applied for a job in the mind of the employer and helps him or her to grab the job easily beating all others. What are the Key Resume Components: A typical resume consists of various components which give all the necessary details about you.
The components of essay, a perfect resume are mentioned below: Contact details Job objectives Education information Employment history Skills and talents Awards and accolades References. A resume can only be considered to be complete and appealing when all these required fields have the required info. International Competition 2013. By providing all the correct and relevant info and presenting them in a unique way, you can make your resume stand out of the crowd thus capturing the essay, attention of the job-giver right at the first glance. The ‘Rule of Thumb’ means that when you take a resume and place your thumb on that page, the space above your thumb should include the details which are more important and the space below the thumb can contain lesser important details. Following this rule, you can make your resume really precise and to-the-point so that your employer will be able to see all your details at a glance without going through your complete resume in case of urgency. So, it increases your chances to essays hero, get hired by a great extent as your resume will not be thrown in the heaps of opinion, unwanted, long and boring resumes whose turn never comes. Rule of Thumb for hero Resume Writing and Resume Length: Since resume writing is considered to be an art, you should keep in mind a number of rules also known as the “Rule of Thumb” while preparing an impressive resume, some of which are detailed below: This is one of the most important rules of thumb while writing a resume.
You should include a cover letter while sending a resume as this is the short, first step which will help your resume get through. This process is extremely important to grab the attention of the prospective employer immediately. Thesis. 2. Short Opinion. Include a summary of skills section: A section with a short summary of your skills will help in making your resume look more attractive to the employers. Law Essay Competition 2013. By going through this section, it will be easier for the employers to decide the reasons why you should be chosen. Students, who have just stepped out of college, just avoid this section because they feel that they do not have any skills to opinion, mention, but, they can fill the section with any skills that they have. In India Or The Lack. This is a vital and most important rule of thumb that needs to be finished. One of the most important facts which you should keep in mind before starting to write a resume is that it should be prepared in such a way that it suits the short opinion, job requirements of the post which you have applied for. You should change your resume according to the job type because each job requires different set of talents and skills.
In case you do not have much experience that is required for a particular job, you can get creative and can mention ways in which the hero, skills and experience that you have can be used for the job that you have applied for. Opinion Essay. 4. International Humanitarian Competition. Include a section about education qualifications: This section is considered to be extremely important in a resume. It provides all the necessary details regarding your education and your qualifications. In this section, you can write about the degrees that you have achieved and short essay the courses that you have completed successfully. Help. Make sure that you only write about an education program that you have completed because this will prove that you have the determination to complete things. A perfect resume will have a section which provides details regarding your work experience, with the short opinion essay, latest job on top and the oldest one at the last.
Keep it short and simple by describing each job in just one line. You can also use bullets to mention your achievements in each job. Rutger Van Haasteren. This is another major aspect of the rule of short essay, thumb for resume writing. Don’t give too much space between sentences and buy a essay uk paragraphs, neither make them too congested and stick together. Short. The trick is reasonable and statistics thesis sensible use of space to short, make your points clear and attractive. You should ensure that you write points which are only relevant for the job and should avoid providing irrelevant information as it just frustrates the employer. This is considered to be an beowulf essays important rule of thumb.
The employer is an extremely busy man, so, they take very less time to go through a resume. So, you should get to the point quickly to opinion essay, attract the attention of employer. 8. Use Keywords to attract prospective employers: Using keywords in your resume which are taken from the job description of the post that you have applied for essay is an short extremely effective rule of thumb to attract the attention of the prospective employers. Some employers make use of search engines to find suitable candidates and statistics thesis help they do so by using keywords. Short Essay. In such cases, mentioning keywords will be very effective. Not only this, when you submit a resume directly also, a prospective employer will first look for the keywords from the essay, job description. 9. Use active verbs and complete sentences: Make sure that you write your resume using complete sentences as this will help you to opinion, be more descriptive in your approach. Using effective action verbs to beowulf essays, describe your skills and talents is an excellent way to impress the employers. Short. Boring descriptions of your skills and abilities will put off the employers. Remember that you should not overdo or exaggerate about your skills. Make sure you choose action verbs which are suitable for the job that you have applied for.
10. Use numbers to attract attention: Quantifying your resume is an excellent way to make your resume more effective. If you add numbers to describe your experience, it will attract the attention of the beowulf essays hero, employer. Describing your work in short opinion, numbers helps in essays hero, making your resume more specific and also helps you in showcasing your abilities and achievements. Professionalism is considered to be one of the short opinion, key features of writing a resume. This factor is related to the contact details section.
Make sure you use an e-mail id which has a professional touch and not one which sounds immature. Always please be thoroughly sure that the van haasteren, contact details that you have submitted are correct. The language that you use in the resume should also be extremely professional as language matters a lot. The resume should be prepared in an aesthetic way so that it pleases the employer and more importantly, the resume should be legible because if the employer is unable to read the resume, they will just toss it out of the window. Make sure you use a font size which can be read easily and including images in your resume is short not recommended.
Use enough spaces in the matter and international humanitarian 2013 making use of bullet points will help the employer easily get an idea about short opinion essay your achievements and other details. Another rule of thumb is that whenever you write a resume, you should always mention the latest work experience at the top and the earlier work experiences at the last. After framing it this way, make sure that you do not repeat any fact again because this makes the thesis, resume look repetitive, this can be a turn off for the employer. If you lie in your resume and get caught, the short opinion essay, reputation will follow you wherever you apply for a job. It will spoil your entire career. Thesis Help. People often get tempted to exaggerate about short essay their skills and in india or the lack of it essay experiences in order to get jobs which have a higher pay scale. Essay. Later on, if you are employed in the job, your employer will get to know the lack, real truth and this can be a bad reputation for you. 15. Avoid grammar and spelling mistakes: Before submitting your resume, you should always thoroughly check for any grammar mistakes and spelling mistakes because if there is any spelling or grammar mistake, it will spoil the entire resume.
It creates a bad impression about you in short opinion essay, the mind of the employer because they think that if you can’t even correct small mistakes, you will not be an buy a essay uk efficient worker. Short Essay. Do a spell check after writing the resume and also show it to some of your family members or closed ones so that they can review the resume. If you have longs gaps in between your earlier jobs, make sure that you do not reveal them. This can be done by choosing the correct resume format. A functional resume will be perfect in such situations because in this type of resume, you do not have to mention any dates, which will help in hiding the employment gaps.
Employment gaps will make the employer sceptical as to pool of gre essay questions, why you left the job. 17. Do not include hobbies and short interests: If you are new to writing a resume, make sure that you do not add any section which gives details regarding your hobbies and beowulf hero interests because the employer is interested in your skills, which you can use for the betterment of the company. In case any of your skills are helpful for short opinion the company, you can mention them in the additional skills section. Before sending a resume, make sure you send it in PDF format because this will ensure that the employer can see the entire resume exactly like you had designed it, no matter whichever program you had used to prepare this resume. Thesis. Using an attractive template for your resume will make you stand out from the rest of the applicants. There are various websites online which provide you with various options of templates.
The resume should be formatted in such a way that it is extremely eye friendly. Use enough spaces so that your resume does not have a clustered look. A clustered resume can discourage an employer from essay, even starting to read the law essay, resume. Another major rule is to include details about any of your achievements in your previous jobs. This will help in short opinion essay, proving your capabilities to the employer.
If you go through a few resume samples before preparing your resume, it will give you an idea about how you should write one. Rutger. You might also come across some unique ways to present your resume. 23. Do not keep bragging about yourself: Do not keep bragging about yourself because this does not create a good impression about you. You need to highlight your qualities, but, do not overdo it.
Keeping all these rules of thumb in mind, you can come up with an extremely impressive resume that will attract the prospective buyers at opinion essay the first look itself. Ensure that your resume is crafted perfectly to provide an accurate reflection of help, your personality.
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essays edith stein An evolution which was sensed in advance by some, wanted and worked for by few, and one which surprised most people entirely, has torn women out of the well enclosed realm of the short essay, home and out of a matter-of-course kind of life and has suddenly plunged them into the most manifold alien situations and undreamt of problems. We have been thrown into the river, and we must swim. Buy A Essay Uk. But when our strength threatens to give out, we try to reach at least the shore for safety. We would like to think through the short essay, question of whether we should go on; and if we should go on, what we should do so that we will not drown. We would like to education in india essay scrutinize the direction of the current by taking into account, one against the other, its strength and our own powers and possibilities of movement.
It would now be feasible to take under consideration the following. We are trying to attain insight into the innermost recesses of our being; we see that it is not a completed being but rather a being in the state of becoming, and we are trying to opinion achieve clarity relative to that process. Buy A Essay Uk. Our being, our becoming, does not remain enclosed within its own confines; but rather in extending itself, fulfills itself. However, all of our being and becoming and acting in time is ordered from eternity, has a meaning for eternity, and only becomes clear to us if and insofar as we put it in the light of eternity. Can we speak in general terms of the soul of woman?
Every human soul is unique, no one soul is the same as any other. Short Opinion Essay. How can we then speak of the soul in lack of it essay, general? But speculation concerning the soul usually considers the soul of the short opinion, human being in general, not this one or that one. It establishes universal traits and laws; and, even when, as in buy a essay uk, Differential Psychology, it aims at differences, it is general types which it depicts rather than individual ones: the soul of the child, of the adolescent, of the adult, the short opinion, soul of the worker, the artist, etc.; so it is with the soul of man and of woman. International 2013. And to those who have reflected on short the potentiality of hero, science, the understanding of the individual appears ever more problematic than that of the general species. But even if we intend to disregard individualities, is there then one type of woman?
Is there something in common to be discovered in the prototype of woman as seen in short essay, Schiller's Glocke or Chamisso's Frauenliebe und-leben, and in the images which Zola, Strindberg and Wedekind paint for us? Can the complete multiplicity which we meet with in buy a essay uk, life be reduced to a single unity, and short, can this unity be distinguished from man's soul? This is thesis, not the place to provide philosophical proof that there is something in the range of the existent which we can denote as species, woman's soul, and that there is a specific cognitive function which is essay, able to perceive it. Therefore, it will perhaps be more intelligible if we do not begin by outlining this general image of the species but rather sketch a series of in india or the of it essay, types as different as possible one from the other, and then attempt to discover if we can find a general species in them. Opinion Essay. Since it is through poetry that the soul is most adequately described, I shall now analyze types taken from essays literary works to which I ascribe a particular symbolic value. Take for example the character Ingunn Steinfinnstochter from Sigrid Undset's Olaf Audunssohn. The novel leads us into a far remote past and into opinion, a distant country, a completely alien civilization. Official Of Gre Essay Questions. Ingunn grows up free and unshackled in a medieval Nordic manor. She has been betrothed since childhood to Olaf, who is practically her foster brother. She roams freely with him and his comrades; she has no regulated activity, no exterior or interior discipline of the will. The children look to each other for support because they have no other.
Cravings awaken in them when they are fifteen and sixteen years old; they succumb to temptation at the first opportunity. From that time on, Ingunn's entire life is one of short, insatiable longing. She and Olaf consider themselves insolubly bound to each other according to ecclesiastical law. But the family opposes the marriage, and they become separated for years. The life of the young man is filled with battles, various experiences, and aspirations in distant lands. The girl seeks compensation for her lost happiness in dreams; at times, crises of hysteria compel her to halt all exterior activity. She yields to a seducer although she yearns only for Olaf. However, realization of her fall breaks into this somber psychic existence like a supernatural light; and she rouses herself with astounding strength and severs the sinful relationship. Statistics Help. Olaf, returned home, is unwilling to break the sacred bond which unites them simply because of her confessed guilt. He takes her as wife to his manor and rears her illegitimate son as his heir.
But the opinion essay, desired happiness does not come as yet. Ingunn is depressed through the consciousness of her guilt, and she gives birth to one dead child after another. But the more she considers herself to be a source of misfortune for her husband, the more she clings to him; and the more vehemently does she crave further proofs of his love. And although she wastes away in this life, consuming his strength as well, Olaf yields as he has always yielded to her. For years she endures uncomplainingly her ill health; she silently accepts it as expiation.
Olaf realizes only at the immediate end that the soul of Ingunn possesses something other than the somber, animal-like dependence. He realizes that it possesses a divine spark which lacked only support and a conception of a higher world; this world had not attained sufficient clarity to hero be of influence on her life. All too literally he has complied with the word of the Apostle: Husbands must love their wives as they love their own bodies (Eph. 5:28). And because of this, two lives have been ruined. As in other works of Sigrid Undset, the two worlds, or actually prehistoric worlds, stand in firm opposition: the gloomy, instinctive world of primordial chaos, and that of God's spirit hovering over creation.
The soul of Ingunn, this child of nature, is like land untouched by the plough. There are potent seeds of germinating power therein, and life in them is stirred into tremulous motion through the ray of light which comes from the other side of the clouds. But it would be necessary that the opinion, gross clods be cultivated in order for the light to penetrate to the seeds. Ibsen's Nora is no child of nature; she has grown up rather in the milieu of modern culture. Her mind is alert even if it is just as little trained methodically as is her will. She was the darling doll of her father, and now she is her husband's darling doll just as her children are her dolls. With cutting criticism, she says this herself when her eyes have been opened.
The spoiled child is faced with decisions for which she is in no way prepared. Her husband becomes severely ill, and means are lacking for the trip which can save him. She cannot ask her father for humanitarian law essay competition, help because he is also ill. Short. So she endorses a note herself with his name as co-signer. Her conscience is not troubled by this—actually, she is proud of the deed to which her husband owes his convalescence.
She hides her action from the scrupulous lawyer, knowing well that he would not sanction it. But when the buy a essay uk, creditor is driven to extremes by his own need and threatens exposure, it is not fear of her husband's censure which causes her despairing decision to flee. She both fears and short opinion essay, hopes that now the miracle will occur—her husband will take her guilt upon himself in his great love. But it happens quite differently. Robert Helmer has only condemnation for his wife; he considers that she is of gre questions, no longer worthy of raising his children. Nora recognizes herself and him for what they are in the disillusionment of short, this moment, that the hollowness of their life together does not deserve the name of marriage. Of Gre Essay Questions. And when the short, danger of social scandal is removed, when he graciously would like to forgive everything and re-establish their life again, she cannot accept his pardon. She knows that before she is able to try again to be wife and mother, she must first become a person. Certainly, Robert Helmer would also have to develop from the buy a essay uk, social figure into short, a human being in order that their joint life might become a marriage.
In Goethe's Iphigenie, a bizarre decree tore Iphigenie in early youth from the circle of her beloved family and led her to a strange, barbarian people. The hand of the gods delivered her from certain death for holy service in the quiet of the essays hero, temple. The mysterious priestess is honored like a saint. But she is unhappy here. She yearns always for return to her home. She firmly declines the king's courtship in order not to cut herself off from this return. The country has had a custom whose force has been formally rescinded by her exertions; now, in accordance with this old custom, she must as punishment sacrifice two strangers who have just been found on the shore. They are Greeks, one of them her brother.
Her longing to see one of her own once again is opinion essay, fulfilled. But he is beowulf, defiled by matricide, agonized by opinion remorse to thesis help the point of madness. He is short opinion, destined for death at her hand. The old curse of her house, from which she appeared until now to official pool questions be free, threatens to short opinion be fulfilled in her also. Faced with the choice whether to save her brother, his friend, and herself through lies and deceit or to abandon all of them to ruin, she first believes that she must choose the lesser evil. But her pure soul is not able to bear untruthfulness and breach of trust; she defends herself against these as does a healthy nature against germs of beowulf, fatal disease. Trusting in opinion essay, the veracity of the gods and the nobility of the king, she reveals her plan of flight to him and receives as reward the lives of those endangered and her return home. Her brother is beowulf hero, already healed through her prayer. Opinion. Now she will carry joy and reconciliation with the gods into the ancient noble house. Before we proceed to look for a common species in all three different types of women, it might be useful to discuss briefly the relation of these types to reality. Are we not dealing here with pure creatures of poetic imagination?
With what right, then, are we able to use them to gain insight into real psychic existence? For a solution of this difficulty, we will first try to clarify what the poetic spirit has intended to convey in each of these types. Hardly anyone could conceive of Sigrid Undset's work as I'art pour l'art. Rutger Van Haasteren. Her creativity is reckless confession. Essay. Indeed, one has the impression that she is compelled to express that which presses upon rutger van haasteren her as brutal reality. And I believe that whoever gazes into life as sincerely and short, soberly as she did will not be able to deny that the types she represents are real, even if they are chosen with a certain bias. There is obviously a method in beowulf, this one-sidedness: she wishes to emphasize the animal-instinct to better reveal the inadequacies of short essay, a mendacious idealism or an buy a essay uk, exaggerated intellectualism in dealing with earthy reality. The figure of Nora was created by a man who wishes to adopt entirely the woman's perspective, a man who has made the cause of woman and the feminist movement his own. His heroine is chosen from this point of view—but she is precisely chosen and depicted with keenest analysis; she is not invented arbitrarily nor constructed rationalistically. The strength and consequence of short opinion, her thought and humanitarian, action may be surprising in opinion essay, contrast to essays hero what has previously transpired; she may be unusual, yet her action is not an improbable or a completely impossible one. The classical lineaments, the simple grandeur and exalted simplicity of Goethe's most noble female character may appear at first glance to the modern person as most nearly removed from reality.
And idealism is certainly under consideration here; but again, this is no construction of fantasy but rather an idealized image which is envisioned, experienced, and empathized from life itself. From his inner depths and free of all biased perspective, the great artist has presented in almost sculptural form a vision which embraces both reine Menschlichkeit and Ewig-Weibliches. And we are gripped, as only total purity and eternal truth can grip us. So much for the reality of short, these types. Do these three women have anything in common? They come from different worlds in the writings themselves; also, they are the creation of buy a essay uk, very different writers. No traditional discipline shaped the soul of Ingunn, a child of nature; Nora, the short essay, doll of in india or the lack, The Doll's House, inhibited by artificial social conventions, asserts nevertheless her healthy instinct to cast off these fetters in order to take her life into her own hands and short opinion essay, refashion it freely. Iphigenie, the or the, priestess in the sacred temple, has surpassed nature through union with the godhead and has entered into supernatural clarity.
These three women share one common characteristic: a longing to give love and to receive love, and in this respect a yearning to be raised above a narrow, day-to-day existence into the realm of a higher being. Ingunn's dream is to live at Olaf's side in a manor and to have many children. In her torpor, she is unable to imagine any other pattern of existence and consciously to choose another. And when the exterior union with her spouse finally comes as the only fulfillment, it is the physical side of the relationship to which she clings with all her life energy. In so doing, she does not find the longed-for happiness; but she knows no other way to find it or even to look for it, and she remains with what she does have. Nora's real life, concealed behind her doll's existence of which she is at first scarcely aware, consists in waiting for the miraculous, which is nothing else but the end of her puppet existence, the breaking forth of great love which will reveal the opinion essay, true being of her spouse and or the lack essay, of herself. And as there is no response from her husband, as she becomes aware that nothing exists behind his mask of social convention, she is determined to make the effort alone to break through to her true being, to its very core. With Iphigenie, it is no longer a question of the breakthrough to true being; she has already achieved true being, in having reached the highest level of human perfection; she has only to put it to the test and to allow it to have its effect.
She longs that the level of short, being she has reached will serve as an instrument of that redeeming love which is her true destiny. Do these examples suitably illustrate the essence of woman's soul? We could, of course, provide here just as many types of official questions, women as you like; however, I believe, just as long as they are types of women, we will always find fundamentally the short opinion, compulsion to rutger become what the soul should be, the drive to allow the latent humanity, set in her precisely in its individual stamp, to ripen to short opinion essay the greatest possible perfect development. The deepest feminine yearning is to achieve a loving union which, in its development, validates this maturation and simultaneously stimulates and international law essay competition, furthers the desire for perfection in others; this yearning can express itself in the most diverse forms, and some of these forms may appear distorted, even degenerate. Opinion. As we shall show, such yearning is an essential aspect of the eternal destiny of woman.
It is not simply a human longing but is specifically feminine and opposed to the specifically masculine nature. Man's essential desires reveal themselves in pool essay questions, action, work, and objective achievements. He is less concerned with problems of being, whether his own or of others. Certainly being and doing cannot be wholly separated. The human soul is not a complete, static, unchanging, monolithic existence. It is being in the state of becoming and in the process of becoming; the soul must bring to fruition those predispositions with which it was endowed when coming into the world; however, it can develop them only through activation. Thus woman can achieve perfect development of short, her personality only by activating her spiritual powers. So do men, even without envisaging it as a goal, work in the same way when they endeavor to perform anything objectively. In both instances the structure of the soul is fundamentally the official of gre questions, same. The soul is housed in a body on whose vigor and health its own vigor and health depend—even if not exclusively nor simply. On the other hand, the body receives its nature as body—life, motion, form, gestalt, and short opinion, spiritual significance—through the soul.
The world of the spirit is buy a essay uk, founded on sensuousness which is spiritual as much as physical: the short opinion essay, intellect, knowing its activity to be rational, reveals a world; the will intervenes creatively and formatively in this world; the emotion receives this world inwardly and puts it to the test. But the extent and relationship of these powers vary from one individual to another, and particularly from man to woman. I would also like to believe that even the rutger, relationship of soul and opinion essay, body is statistics thesis help, not completely similar in man and woman; with woman, the soul's union with the body is naturally more intimately emphasized. (I would like to underline the term naturally, for short essay, there is—as I have at one time intimated—the possibility of an extensive emancipation of the soul from the of gre essay questions, body, which now, oddly enough, seems to be more easily accomplished normally in the case of woman.) Woman's soul is present and lives more intensely in all parts of the body, and it is opinion, inwardly affected by that which happens to the body; whereas, with men, the body has more pronouncedly the character of an instrument which serves them in their work and which is accompanied by a certain detachment. This is closely related to the vocation of motherhood. The task of assimilating in law essay competition 2013, oneself a living being which is evolving and growing, of containing and nourishing it, signifies a definite end in itself. Short Opinion Essay. Moreover, the mysterious process of the formation of a new creature in rutger thesis, the maternal organism represents such an intimate unity of the physical and spiritual that one is well able to understand that this unity imposes itself on the entire nature of woman. But a certain danger is involved here. If the correct, natural order is to exist between soul and body (i.e., the order as it corresponds to unfallen nature), then the necessary nourishment, care, and exercise must be provided for the healthy organism's smooth function. As soon as more physical satisfaction is given to the body, and it corresponds to its corrupted nature to demand more, then it results in a decline of spiritual existence. Instead of controlling and spiritualizing the body, the soul is controlled by short opinion it; and the body loses accordingly in its character as a human body.
The more intimate the relationship of the soul and body is, just so will the statistics thesis help, danger of the spiritual decline be greater. Short Essay. (On the other hand, certainly, there is also the greater possibility here that the soul will spiritualize the thesis help, body.) Now, after considering the relationship of soul and body, let us turn to the interrelationship of the spiritual faculties. We see that they are in a state of interdependence—one cannot exist without the other. Intellectual cognition of reality is the short opinion essay, necessary point of departure for emotional response. The incitements of the emotions are the mainsprings of the will; on thesis the other hand, the concern of the will is to regulate intellectual activity and emotional life. But the short, faculties are in no manner equally dispensed and developed.
Man's endeavor is exerted to be effective in official pool of gre essay, cognitive and creative action. The strength of woman lies in the emotional life. This is in accord with her attitude toward personal being itself. For the opinion, soul perceives its own being in the stirrings of the statistics help, emotions. Through the emotions, it comes to know what it is and how it is; it also grasps through them the relationship of essay, another being to itself, and then, consequently, the official pool of gre, significance of the inherent value of exterior things; of unfamiliar people and impersonal things. Short Opinion Essay. The emotions, the essential organ for comprehension of the existent in van haasteren thesis, its totality and in its peculiarity, occupy the center of her being. Opinion Essay. They condition that struggle to develop herself to a wholeness and to help others to a corresponding development, which we have found earlier to be characteristic of in india of it essay, woman's soul. Therein, she is better protected by nature against a one-sided activation and development of her faculties than man is. On the other hand, she is less qualified for opinion, outstanding achievements in an objective field, achievements which are always purchased by a one-sided concentration of all spiritual faculties; and this characteristic struggle for competition 2013, development also exposes her more intensely to the danger of fragmentation. Then, too, the short, one-sidedness, to which by nature she inclines, is particularly dangerous: unilateral emotional development. We have attributed much importance to emotion in van haasteren, the total organismus of short opinion, spiritual being.
It has an essential cognitive function: it is the central pivot by which reception of the existent is transmuted into personal opinion and action. Rutger Van Haasteren. But it cannot execute its function without the cooperation of intellect and short opinion, will, nor can it attain cognitive performance without the preparation of the intellect. Intellect is the light which illuminates its path, and without this light, emotion changes back and forth. In fact, if emotion prevails over the intellect, it is able to obscure the education in india or the of it essay, light and distort the picture of the entire world just as of short opinion, individual things and events and drive the will into erroneous practice. Emotional stirrings need the control of reason and the direction of the will. The will does not reach any absolute power for lack essay, invoking or suppressing emotional reactions, but it does adhere to its freedom to permit or to restrict the development of mounting agitations. Where discipline of mind and short, will are lacking, emotional life becomes a compulsion without secure direction. And because it always needs some stimulation for its activity, it becomes addicted to official pool essay sensuality, lacking the guidance of the higher spiritual faculties. Thus given the intimate union of body and soul, it results in the decline of spiritual life to that of the sensuous-animalistic one.
Consequently, only if its faculties are correspondingly trained will the feminine soul be able to mature to that state conformable to its true nature. The concrete feminine types which we have cited represent to us not only diverse natural predispositions but also diverse formative levels of the soul of short, woman. We have seen in beowulf hero, Ingunn a woman's soul which was nearly like unformed matter but which still permitted intuitions of its capacities. Another, Nora, through the short opinion essay, influences of chance and social conventions, had found a certain formation but not that proper to buy a essay uk her. And, finally, Iphigenie was like a perfect creation of the master hand of God. This presents us with the task of investigating what the formative powers are through which woman's soul can be led to the nature for which it is intended and can be protected from the degeneration with which it is threatened. II. Short. Woman's Formation. The particular spiritual disposition of which we have been speaking is the substance which must be formed: the basic faculties which exist originally are unique in degree and in kind to each human soul. It is not inanimate material which must be entirely developed or formed in an exterior way, as is clay by the artist's hand or stone by the weather's elemental forces; it is beowulf hero, rather a living formative root which possesses within itself the driving power (inner form) toward development in opinion, a particular direction; the seed must grow and ripen into the perfect gestalt, perfect creation.
Thus envisaged, formation of the spirit is a developmental process similar to that of the plant. However, the plant's organic growth and development do not come about wholly from within: there are also exterior influences which work together to determine its formation, such as climate, soil, etc.; just so, in the soul's formation, exterior factors as well as interior ones, play a role. We have seen that the soul can be developed only through activation of its faculties; and the faculties depend on material to statistics thesis be activated (and, indeed, on material which is suitable to them): the senses, through impressions which they receive and process, the intellect through mental performance, the will through achievements which are characteristic to it, the emotions through the variety of feelings, moods, and attitudes. Definite motives which place the essay, faculties into rutger thesis, motion are needed for all of short opinion, this. Simple contact with other people and with one's surroundings is often sufficient to stimulate certain responses. Ordinary daily existence conditions the formation of the spirit. However, instruction and guidance are needed for other responses, especially those involving the higher faculties.
Allowance should be made for spontaneity as well as planned work and instruction. Formation requires the creation of buy a essay uk, educational subject matters which will place duties before intellect and will, stir the emotions, and fulfill the soul. But here we enter into short, the realm of values- -the good, the beautiful, the noble, the sacred—the specific values which are unique to each soul and to its individual quality. Cognitive work and achievements of the will are free actions; so, too, surrender to or rejection of original, involuntary, self-governing emotional stimulations is a matter of freedom. Thus, the buy a essay uk, human being awakened to freedom is not simply delivered to exterior formative influences; but, on short opinion essay the contrary, he can yield himself to them or reject them as he searches for official pool of gre essay, or avoids possible formative influences. And so, individual free activity is essay, also a factor in spiritual formation.
All of the exterior educational factors—everyday existence, planned as well as free, self-developmental work—are bound in humanitarian, their efficacy to the first factor, the natural predisposition; they cannot endow the person with qualities which are not in him by nature. All human education can only provide subject matter and render it palatable; it can lead the way and demonstrate in order to short opinion stimulate activity, but it cannot force acceptance or imitation. Nature sets the limits of personal formative work. Nature and the subject's freedom of will impose limits on spiritual formation. But there is one Educator for whom these limits do not exist: God, who has given nature, can transform it in a manner which turns it from its natural course of development (just as He can intervene by His miracles in the normal course of external natural occurrences). Official Pool Of Gre Essay. And even though He has excluded also a mechanically necessary rule of the human will by His gift of freedom, He can bring the will's interior inclination toward a decision to execute that which is presented to it. Thus we have attained a certain insight into essay, the nature of beowulf essays, education: the process of shaping the natural spiritual predisposition. In customary usage, the term education also signifies the result of these processes— the gestalt which the soul assumes thereby, perhaps also the short essay, soul thus formed, and even the spiritual matters which it receives. In trying to formulate a proper educational program for women, the stress is often laid on questions of method.
Whoever is education or the lack of it essay, concerned with the short, spiritual formation of education in india or the of it essay, woman must first of all be aware of the material with which he is dealing, that is, the predisposition of the human being whom he is supposed to educate. He must especially understand the unique quality of feminine spirituality and the individual nature of opinion essay, his pupils. He must also be aware of earlier influences, such as home environment, which have already affected and still affect his students. He must know whether they are in harmony or not with his own aims and purposes or whether, if they are not, an effort should be made to eliminate them. Essays Hero. The educator must be fully conscious of the objectives he has set for opinion essay, himself and for others, which, of course, depend on his total vision of the world. And there must be a continued effort to differentiate between goals common to all human beings, the educational goals which are specifically feminine, and individual goals.
These cannot be set up arbitrarily but are determined by God Himself. Holy Scripture counsels us on the destiny of the human being in general and that of rutger, woman in particular. Church tradition and the teachings of the faith help us to interpret this scriptural teaching. The parable of the talents refers to the unique gift given to short opinion essay each individual; the Apostle's word describes the multiplicity of gifts afforded in the Mystical Body of Christ. The individual must discover his own unique gift. God has given each human being a threefold destiny: to grow into the likeness of God through the international law essay, development of his faculties, to short opinion essay procreate descendants, and to hold dominion over the earth.
In addition, it is promised that a life of faith and personal union with the Redeemer will be rewarded by eternal contemplation of God. These destinies, natural and supernatural, are identical for both man and or the lack of it essay, woman. But in the realm of duties, differences determined by sex exist. Lordship over the earth is the primary occupation of short opinion essay, man: for this, the woman is placed at lack essay his side as helpmate. Opinion Essay. The primary calling of woman is the procreation and raising of children; for this, the man is given to her as protector. Thus it is suitable that the same gifts occur in both, but in different proportions and thesis, relation. In the case of the man, gifts for struggle, conquest, and dominion are especially necessary: bodily force for taking possession of short opinion essay, that exterior to him, intellect for a cognitive type of penetration of the buy a essay uk, world, the powers of will and action for works of creative nature. With the woman there are capabilities of caring, protecting, and promoting that which is becoming and short opinion essay, growing. Humanitarian 2013. She has the gift thereby to live in an intimately bound physical compass and to collect her forces in silence; on opinion essay the other hand, she is created to endure pain, to adapt and abnegate herself. She is psychically directed to the concrete, the pool of gre essay questions, individual, and the personal: she has the opinion, ability to buy a essay uk grasp the concrete in its individuality and to adapt herself to it, and she has the longing to essay help this peculiarity to its development. Lack Of It. An equipment equal to the man's is included in the adaptive ability, as well as the short, possibility of performing the same work as he does, either in common with him or in his place.
In the Old Testament, those testimonies from the Fall on, i.e., those which reckon with fallen nature, marriage and maternity are presented with a certain exclusiveness as the thesis, destiny of opinion, woman. These are even the means for fulfilling her supernatural goal: she is to bear children and raise them in faith in help, the Redeemer so that one day she will behold her salvation in them. (This interpretation is also voiced from short time to time in the Pauline epistles.) Next to this, the New Testament places the rutger van haasteren thesis, ideal of virginity. In place of the opinion essay, marriage bond, there is offered the most intimate, personal communion with the Savior, the development of all faculties in His service, and spiritual maternity—i.e., the winning of thesis, souls and their formation for God. One should not interpret this differentiation of vocation as if in one case it were only the short opinion, natural goal being considered, and, in the other case, only the statistics thesis help, supernatural one. The woman who fulfills her natural destiny as wife and mother also has her duties for God's kingdom—initially, the propagation of short opinion essay, human beings destined for this kingdom, but then, also works for the salvation of souls; only for her, this lies first within the family circle. On the other hand, even in the life which is wholly consecrated to God, there is also need for the development of natural forces, except that now they can be more exclusively dedicated to problems pertaining to the kingdom of beowulf essays hero, God and can thereby even benefit for a wider circle of people. These works for God's kingdom are not foreign to feminine nature but, on the contrary, are its highest fulfillment and also the short opinion essay, highest conceivable enhancement of the human being. This is true as long as the action of rutger, personal relationship is opinion essay, born out of statistics thesis help, love for God and neighbor, works through love of God and neighbor, and leads to love of God and neighbor.
Thus the education of the opinion, Christian woman has a dual goal: to lead her to that which makes her capable of either fulfilling her duties as wife and mother in the natural and supernatural sense or of consecrating all her powers to the kingdom of God in a God- dedicated virginity. Rutger. (Marriage and short opinion, the religious life should not be set up as alternatives. Signs indicate that our time needs people who will lead a God dedicated life in the world; this is rutger, certainly not to say, however, that conventual life is outmoded.) What can we do to aim towards this goal? We have already indicated that woman was created for short essay, this purpose; in fallen nature, however, there are drives working at official pool questions the same time in opposition to it. So it will be a question of supplying the educational subject matters which are necessary and conducive to the soul's pure development and qualified to impede unwholesome drives. And these matters must be presented in the manner which facilitates their reception in accordance with potentiality. The emotions have been seen as the essay, center of woman's soul. For that reason, emotional formation will have to be centrally placed in woman's formation.
Emotion exists in official of gre essay questions, sentiments such as joy and sorrow, moods such as cheerfulness and gloom, attitudes such as enthusiasm and indignation, and dispositions such as love and hate. Opinion Essay. Such emotional responses demonstrate the conflict of the individual with the world and also with himself. Buy A Essay Uk. It is only the person who is deeply involved with life whose emotions are stirred. Whoever is aiming to arouse emotion must bring it into contact with something which will hasten this involvement. Above all, these are human destinies and human actions as history and literature present them to the young—naturally, this will be contemporary events as well. It is beauty in all its ramifications and short opinion, the rest of the aesthetic categories. It is truth which prompts the searching human spirit into endless pursuit. It is everything which works in hero, this world with the mysterious force and pull of opinion essay, another world. The subjects which are especially affective in emotional training are religion, history, German, and possibly other languages if the student succeeds in overcoming the van haasteren, external linguistic difficulties and is able to penetrate to the spiritual content. But, generally speaking, it is not enough only to stir the emotions. An evaluating factor exists in all emotional response.
What the short, emotions have grasped are viewed as being either positively or negatively significant, either for the concerned individual himself or, independent of him, viewed in the significance of the object in itself. It is thereby possible for the emotional responses themselves to be judged as being right or wrong, appropriate or inappropriate. It is a matter of awakening joyful emotion for education or the lack of it, authentic beauty and goodness and disgust for that which is base and vulgar. Short Opinion Essay. It is important to guide the young person to perceive beauty and goodness, but this is not sufficient. Often the in india or the lack essay, child is first awakened to the value of opinion, things by his awareness of the adult's responses— above all, that of the teacher—enthusiasm inspires enthusiasm. The guidance of attitudes is simultaneously a method of international law essay competition, training the ability to discriminate. One cannot introduce him only to the good and short, the beautiful: life will also bring him into contact with ugliness, and by then the child should have already learned to differentiate between the positive and the negative, the noble and education or the lack essay, the base, and to learn to adapt himself in suitable ways. Short Essay. The most efficacious method thereto is to experience environmental attitudes. The attitude of the developing individual towards the world depends greatly on international competition 2013 environmental influences which are both arbitrary and instinctive. And thus it is opinion, of extraordinary significance that the van haasteren thesis, child's education be placed in opinion essay, the hands of people who themselves have received proper emotional formation.
However, this most essential, even indispensable, method of emotional formation through value judgments is accompanied by a certain danger as well: feelings and emotional attitudes are contagious; they are easily picked up by one person from another. These attitudes are, indeed, but pure predispositions in the affected soul. In the first place, the rutger, mind is not open to the values presented; and these sentiments, moreover, are neither momentarily or generally vital. A real education is thus not attained because illusion is assumed as reality. Hence there is need for education relevant to the authenticity of sentiments, the differentiation of appearance from reality both in the environment and in one's own soul. This is not possible without sufficient intellectual training. Intellect and emotion must cooperate in a particular way in order to transmute the purely emotional attitudes into one cognizant of values. (It is not our concern here to demonstrate this method of cooperation.) Whoever knows exactly why something is good or beautiful will not simply assume the attitudes of another. And then the exercise of this intellectual critique develops the opinion essay, ability to distinguish between spiritual truth and official essay questions, falsehood.
Emotional reactions invoke action. The authentic art lover will gladly sacrifice comfort for the sake of artistic enjoyment. Those who truly love their neighbor will not be unsympathetic and apathetic to their neighbor's need. Words should inspire action; otherwise, words are mere rhetoric camouflaging nothingness, concealing merely empty or illusory feelings and opinions. In earlier decades, the subjects which trained the emotions constituted the principal aim of the short, education of young women. Humanitarian Law Essay. Such formation corresponded to feminine nature. But there was a neglect of the indispensable complement, the short essay, practical training and activation of the international law essay, intellect. Opinion Essay. This kind of buy a essay uk, education produced a type of woman who lives on illusion, a woman who either denies realistic duties or surrenders herself helplessly to fluctuating sentiments and moods, who constantly seeks excitement. Such a woman is but weakly formed for life and does not effect productive works. The modern school seeks to remedy such deficiencies.
It has introduced more subjects designed to train the mind—mathematics, natural sciences, and the classics. Short Opinion. In order that the thematic content be grasped by the intellect, mere memorization is de-emphasized and spontaneity is encouraged. By such means, both intellect and will are trained and prepared for their proper tasks. Modern education also stresses community life and practical participation in it by such means as school clubs, walking tours, celebrations, and team activities. Such activities certainly contain fruitful seeds, despite the many children's diseases which always endanger radical innovations.
The great danger is that the reform may not take sufficiently into account the unique nature of buy a essay uk, woman and short essay, the type of education it needs, while being only too narrowly confined to buy a essay uk the model of educational institutions for males. The changing demands of practical life make this danger obvious. Formerly it was a matter of course that a girl's education would form her to be a spouse, a mother, or a nun. For centuries, hardly any other feminine vocation was known. Girls were expected to be initiated into domestic activity and religious practices either in essay, family or convent life, and thereby prepared for their later vocation. The nineteenth-century Industrial Revolution revolutionized average domestic life so that it ceased to be a realm sufficient to engage all of woman's potentialities. At the same time, the diminishing life of faith excluded convent life as a serious consideration for most people. In passive natures, this climate has led to an immersion into an overly sensual life or empty dreams and flirtations.
In strongly active natures, there has resulted a turning away from the house towards professional activity. So the feminist movement came into being. Vocations other than domestic had been exercised for centuries almost exclusively by men. It was natural, therefore, that these vocations assumed a masculine stamp and that training for them was adapted to the masculine nature. The radical feminist movement demanded that all professions and branches of education be open to women. In the face of severe opposition, the rutger van haasteren thesis, movement was able to short opinion essay advance only education in india or the lack of it, very gradually until, almost suddenly, it obtained nearly all its demands after the revolution. In the beginning of the movement, the women who entered into professional life were predominantly those whose individual aptitude and inclination went in this direction; and they were able, comparatively speaking, to short essay acclimate themselves easily.
The economic crisis of recent years has forced against buy a essay uk their will many women into professional life. Various conflicts have thus emerged, but valuable experiences have also been made. And we have reached the point where we may ask questions which, according to right reason, should have been cleared up before the short essay, movement began. Are there specifically feminine professions? What are they? Do women require education different from that given to men? If so, how should such education be organized? Let us now summarize briefly these various approaches to the education of women which we have been discussing.
The nature and destiny of woman require an education which can inspire works of effective love. Thus, emotional training is the most important factor required in the formation of woman; however, such authentic formation is related to intellectual clarity and energy as well as to practical competence. This education forms a proper disposition of the essays, soul in accordance with objective values, and it enables a practical execution of this disposition. To place supernatural values above all earthly ones complies with an essay, objective hierarchy of values. The initiation of this attitude presents as well an analogy with the beowulf essays hero, future vocation of forming human beings for the kingdom of God.
That is why the essence of all feminine education (as of education in general) must be religious education, one which can forcefully convey the truths of the faith in a manner which appeals to the emotions and essay, inspires actions. Such formation is designed to exercise simultaneously the practical activities by the life of rutger thesis, faith. The individual will be concerned with these activities through his entire life: the development of the short opinion essay, life of faith and of prayer with the of gre essay, Church through the liturgy, as well as with creating a new personal relationship to the Lord, especially through an understanding of the Holy Eucharist and a truly Eucharistic life. Of course, such religious education can only be imparted by those personalities who are themselves filled with the spirit of faith and whose lives are fashioned by it. Along with this religious education, there should go an awareness and response to humanity. Subjects which can contribute to such awareness are history, literature, biology, psychology, and short opinion, pedagogy; of course, these subjects should be presented in official questions, a simplified form to meet the student's potential. But such instruction will be fruitful only with proper guidance and if opportunities are provided to apply it to practical life. Necessary for intellectual development are the predominantly formal educational subjects—mathematics, the natural sciences, linguistics, and grammar. But they should not be overstressed at the expense of the student's capacity or the more essential elements of feminine education. Instructional methods should be free and flexible in short opinion, order to take into account not only the specifically gifted but also to provide opportunity for all to study theoretical subjects and cultivate technical and artistic talents. The individual's later choice of a profession must be kept in statistics, mind.
Obviously, in doing all this, the teachers themselves must be thoroughly trained in their respective fields. And, of course, for women to be shaped in accordance with their authentic nature and destiny, they must be educated by authentic women. But even the best teachers and the best methods cannot necessarily guarantee success since human powers are limited. However, formal education is short opinion, only one part of the integral educational process. Formal education must reckon with the capacities of the student and with the outside influences to which the student is pool questions, subjected; but it has neither the possibility to identify all these factors nor to deal effectively with them. Moreover, formal education ends long before the total educational process is completed. The instructor may even consider the education successful if the pupil has been prepared to continue her education independently in opinion essay, the initiated direction. But the circumstances of daily life often intervene and make it possible for the purely natural drives to prevail. Uncertainty permeates the whole process of human education, and the educator tends to remain modest in calculating his own contribution to the results.
Yet he must not yield to skepticism or despair. Education In India. The educator should be convinced that his efforts are important, even though he cannot always measure the results of his efforts, even though sometimes he can never be aware of short opinion, them at all. He must never forget that, above all, the van haasteren thesis, primary and most essential Educator is not the human being but God Himself. He gives nature as He does life's circumstances under which it comes to development; He also has the power to transform nature from within and to short intervene with His works where human powers fail. If religious education succeeds in thesis, breaking down resistance to short essay divine instruction, then one can be certain about beowulf essays hero, everything else.
We should also be convinced that, in the divine economy of salvation, no sincere effort remains fruitless even when human eyes can perceive nothing but failures. III. Short Opinion. Feminine Vocation s. What formation does woman's soul yearn for? The question is related to another: To what occupations does woman's nature call her? It is not our concern here to compile statistical data to demonstrate the vocations in which contemporary woman is engaged. (She is engaged in nearly all of them.) Rather, our intent is to discover woman's genuine inclinations. In doing so, statistics are of little help. A presentation of numbers involved in particular vocations does grade the inclinations and international humanitarian law essay competition 2013, talents concerned; even so, it can inform only clumsily regarding the short opinion essay, success of the various activities.
Even less could it show how woman adjusts to the occupation, and, on the other hand, how she may transform it. We must here limit ourselves to that which nature and destiny demand in true feminine vocations. But it is law essay 2013, necessary to opinion cite concrete examples. Therefore, we shall attempt to show how woman can function in marriage, in religious life, and in international law essay competition, various professions in conformity with her nature. According to Genesis, woman was placed by man's side so that he would not be alone but would have a helpmate who suits him; she will primarily fulfill her vocation as spouse in making his concerns her own. Normally, we understand his concerns to mean his profession. Opinion. The woman's participation in her husband's profession can be performed in various ways. In the hero, first place, it will be her duty to shape their home life so that it does not hinder, but rather furthers, his professional work. If his work is in the home, she must see to it that disturbances are kept as far away from him as possible; if his work is away from the home, she must be sure that the home affords appropriate relaxation and recovery when he returns to it. There can be immediate participation in the performance of direct help; indeed, this happens frequently in modern marriages between people of similar or related professional training, or at least with those of congenial interests.
In former times this was the case to opinion a large extent, generally in country life but also frequently in business enterprise (especially in those on a small scale), in doctor's households, and also very prominently in buy a essay uk, those of Protestant pastors. Man's concerns, however, does not only refer to the purely objective content of his work but also to the procurement of short opinion essay, his family's livelihood—the battle for existence. In this respect, the wife primarily acts as helpmate in prudent housekeeping; moreover, this is not only pool, a private economic duty in short essay, these times but also a very important national one. But possibly more nowadays than in former times, both husband and wife will work. Therein arises the difficult problem of the double vocation: there is danger that her work outside of the home will so take over international 2013 that finally it can make it impossible for her to be the opinion, heart of the hero, family and the soul of the short, home, which must always remain her essential duty. But the woman who suits man as helpmate does not only participate in his work; she complements him, counteracting the beowulf, dangers of his specifically masculine nature. It is opinion essay, her business to ensure to the best of her ability that he is not totally absorbed in his professional work, that he does not permit his humanity to become stunted, and that he does not neglect his family duties as father. She will be better able to do so the more she herself is mature as a personality; and it is vital here that she does not lose herself in association with her husband but, on buy a essay uk the contrary, cultivates her own gifts and powers. Her mission as mother relates closely to her mission as spouse, only here she must primarily care for the children and bring them to development.
She must guide and short, then gradually withdraw to in india or the lack of it essay attain, in face of the mature human being, the role of opinion, a companion. This demands, on the one hand, an even more refined gift of sympathy because it is necessary to comprehend the dispositions and faculties of which the young people themselves are as yet unaware; she has to feel her way towards that which wishes to become, but which as yet does not exist. On the other hand, the possibility of influence is statistics thesis help, greater. The youthful soul is short opinion essay, still in or the lack essay, the formative stage and declares itself more easily and openly because it does not offer resistance to extraneous influences. However, all this increases the opinion essay, mother's responsibility. In order to rutger thesis develop to the highest level the humanity specific to husband and short opinion essay, children, woman requires the attitude of selfless service. She cannot consider others as her property nor as means for her own purposes; on the contrary, she must consider others as gifts entrusted to her, and she can only do so when she also sees them as God's creatures towards whom she has a holy duty to fulfill. Surely, the development of their God-given nature is a holy task. Of even higher degree is their spiritual development, and we have seen that it is international law essay 2013, woman's supernatural vocation to short opinion essay enkindle, in of gre questions, the hearts of husband and children, the sparks of love for God or, once enkindled, to fan them into greater brightness. This will come about only if she considers and prepares herself as God's instrument. How this can be will be considered at a later time.
It would not be difficult to mention women in the most diverse professions who have achieved excellence, but this would not prove that their occupations were specifically feminine ones. Opinion. Not every woman is a pure embodiment of feminine nature. Individualities are not simply variations of feminine nature but are often approximations of masculine nature and qualify, thereby, for an occupation not regarded as specifically feminine. International Humanitarian Competition 2013. If the short opinion essay, care and development of human life and humanity are women's specific duty, so the specifically feminine vocations will be those in which such efforts are possible outside of marriage as well. I do not wish to education or the lack essay enter here into opinion essay, the question of domestic service because here it is international law essay, not a question of specifically feminine work, and in many respects it produces tasks other than those which the woman of the house must fulfill. It is more important to clarify the significance of occupations outside of the household, occupations which were denied women for some time and have only become available for short opinion essay, women gradually through the struggles of the feminist movement. The medical profession has turned out to be a rich area of genuine feminine activity, particularly that of the medical practitioner, gynecologist and pediatrician. There have been severe objections to the admission of women into this profession: a young lady may encounter many things in her medical studies which would otherwise be kept away from her; a serious objection has been that the studies make extraordinary demands of bodily strength and nervous energy, and professional practice even more. Indeed, professional practice requires a particular physical and essay questions, spiritual constitution, as well as the professional zeal necessary for the assumption of the difficulties unique to that profession.
Such misgivings are dispelled when these stipulations are respected. Of course, one will always be grateful to encounter the untroubled, innocent beauty which moves us, and which is opinion, completely unaware of the seamy side of human nature. Today it is hardly possible, but in in india of it, former times how many women who were so protected in their innocence until marriage were suddenly robbed of all their ideals, in the cruelest manner, in marriage itself! In this respect, could one not say that the matter-of-fact and objective, scientific approach is opinion essay, still one of the most accepted methods, if not the absolutely best one, to become acquainted with natural data? Since most women are obliged to come to grips with these data, should not individual women who have the buy a essay uk, calling and opportunity make all sacrifices in order to fulfill this calling and stand by their sisters' side? Experience indicates that this has happened in large degree.
It is gratifying to ascertain that after any initial distrust, women generally prefer treatment by a woman doctor rather than by a man. I believe that this is short opinion essay, conditioned not only by the patient's modesty but even more so by the specifically feminine manner of empathy which has beneficial effects. Rutger Van Haasteren. The human being, especially the invalid, needs sympathy in his total condition. The widespread method of modern specialization does not satisfy this need in treating a limb or organ while disregarding the rest of the person, even though the specific treatment is pertinent. (Also, in many cases, specialization is not the best method because most illnesses are illnesses of the total human being even if they are manifested in only one organ; the patient needs treatment in his individual peculiarity as a whole organism.) Counteracting this abstract procedure, the opinion, specifically feminine attitude is oriented towards the essays hero, concrete and whole person. The woman doctor has only to exercise courage in following her natural inspiration and liberating herself whenever necessary from opinion methods learned and practiced according to rule. (Of course, it must not be denied that it often happens as well with masculine specialists, although not generally— in earlier times the house doctor typified this total approach.) It is not only a question of summoning up the international humanitarian competition, patience to listen to opinion essay much which is absolutely irrelevant to the subject. The intent must be to understand correctly the whole human situation, the spiritual need which is often greater than the corporal one, and law essay 2013, perhaps to intervene helpfully not only by medical means but also as a mother or a sister. So conceived, the medical profession is a truly charitable one and belongs together with other social professions.
These professions have been developed for the most part only in recent years, and they are specifically feminine vocations as rightfully as the housewife's. In all such vocations, it is a matter of actions which are truly maternal in the care of a large family: parishioners, the poor or sick of a rural parish or of a municipal precinct, the inmates of a prison, endangered or neglected youth. There is short essay, always the potentiality, and basically the necessity, of understanding and helping the whole person whether one initially encounters these human beings to care for them in bodily sickness or to assist them financially, or to give them legal counsel. Demands here on the power of pool of gre essay questions, love are even greater than in one's own family: the natural bond is lacking, the short opinion, number of people in need is official essay questions, greater, and preponderantly there are people who repel rather than attract by their disposition and frame of mind. In this type of work more than others, it will be shown that normal psychic power does not suffice in carrying out the short, tasks noted above.
It must be sustained by Christ's power and love. And where it is so supported it will never stop at mere attendance to rutger thesis natural humanity; but, on the contrary, it will always aim at the same time towards the supernatural goal of winning these human beings for God. 1. These are two citations from Goethe: reine Menschlichkeit, i.e., pure humanity, and Ewig-Weibliches, i.e., the short opinion, eternal feminine. (Tr.'s note) 2. This Thomistic concept (inner form) connotes the essence of being. (Tr.'s note) 3. See the essay The Separate Vocations of Man and Woman According to of gre questions Nature and short opinion essay, Grace, (Eds.' note)
4. This sentence is an allusion to the economic crisis and lack of it, the emergency ordinances of the 1930s, which were of decisive significance for the total German educational system. See the short opinion, essay on emergency and education in the forthcoming pedagogical volume of Edith Steins Werke. (Eds.' note) Taken from the works of Edith Stein as published by ICS Publications in the book The Collected Works of beowulf essays hero, Edith Stein, Volume Two Essays on Woman, 1987.