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BOD:COD Correlation Provides Operations, Laboratory Benefits. Since the introduction of the closed-reflux micro method in career in creative the early 1980s, COD analysis has become increasingly used at municipal wastewater treatment plants for process monitoring and to aid in process control. Some facilities have taken this one step further - replacing BOD with COD analysis to meet NPDES reporting requirements following long-term validation testing. The 5.71 mgd Lewiston, Idaho, Wastewater Treatment Plant is today striving to do just that. The 5.71 MGD Lewiston, Idaho, Wastewater Treatment Plant has recently begun conducting COD validation testing to demonstrate to cloning essays, the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) a long-term correlation of COD and BOD values at the facility. The plant?s goal is to ultimately replace BOD with COD analysis. Career Writing? Click here to enlarge image. Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) analysis is the test everyone loves to hate - and for compelling reasons. The test has a number of disadvantages: a five-day incubation period, extensive sample preparation and, often, difficulties in uva web assign obtaining consistent repetitive values.

Eliminating BOD analysis will help maximize bench space in the Lewiston lab. Click here to enlarge image. From an operations perspective, time lag is the career in creative, biggest drawback to BOD (also referred to as Biological Oxygen Demand) analysis. It is too slow to provide timely information to the operator for control purposes. This is because BOD of incoming wastewater can vary significantly over days and shopping essay hours, and BOD measurement takes five days to complete. In addition, there is no measure of career in creative writing accuracy with BOD analysis. According to shopping hobby, Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (21st edition), “no measurement exists for establishing bias in the BOD procedure under precision and bias.” The glucose/glumatic acid (GGA) check, often viewed as a BOD quality control, does not indicate the accuracy of the method, but rather demonstrates that the in creative, seed is actually generating the enzymes needed to catalyze the oxidation of any organic material that might be in the sample.

For COD analysis, the Lewiston lab uses the closed reflux micro method using Hach COD digestion vials. The pre-dosed reagents are contained in 16mm glass tubes, or vials, that fit directly into all commercially available COD reactors and spectrophotometers. On Marketing? Click here to career in creative, enlarge image. Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) analysis, on the other hand, is an accurate method that can be validated through a standard (KHP/ potassium hydrogen phthalate). Also, results are available in about two hours. COD analysis has been an easy procedure to perform since the case mix, early 1980s, with the introduction of the Hach Closed-Reflux Micro Method that uses pre-dosed reagents. COD typically correlates to BOD, which is one of the reasons the career in creative, method was initially developed. It has been found to be a very useful tool in essays municipal wastewater treatment process monitoring and modeling, and to aid in in creative process control. To measure oxygen demand, the BOD method relies on enzymes produced by bacteria to catalyze the oxidation of essay organic matter during a five-day incubation period. In Creative Writing? In contrast, COD methods use chemical oxidants to case studies on marketing mix, oxidize organic matter.

BOD simulates the actual treatment plant process by writing, measuring the organic material that can be oxidized with the oxygen in of discipline in human the sample when catalyzed by bacterial enzymes. Although COD is comparable to BOD, COD actually measures chemically oxidizable matter. A ratio can usually be established between the two analytical methods once COD and career writing BOD data has been gathered over time. On Importance Of Discipline? Many municipal laboratories are also finding that parallel COD and BOD testing is beneficial because the COD test can be used to target a specific BOD range, thereby eliminating the need for career in creative writing, multiple BOD dilutions. For plant operations, the benefits of COD testing are often significant. BOD analysis is performed mainly to cousin kate essay, satisfy permit requirements. By the time a plant receives the value, the waste stream it characterizes has left the plant and is down the river. With COD analysis, however, early knowledge of the strength of incoming water allows plant operators to career writing, optimize treatment processes, because the value measured provides a quantitive estimate of everything currently in the waste stream that can be oxidized. Because the COD test can be run in a couple of hours instead of some speech five days, it gives the operator a more timely idea of loadings entering the plant and how the plant is performing, thereby permitting closer operational control of the treatment process.

Technicians are able to in creative writing, quickly respond to changes in oxygen demand and adjust treatment processes accordingly. Although the essay of discipline in human, BOD:COD correlation allows facilities to use COD analysis to career, aid in monitoring and operations, most municipal wastewater treatment plants perform BOD testing to meet their NPDES reporting requirements. Over the uva web assign, years, however, some facilities have taken steps to change this by writing, validating the BOD:COD correlation to allow COD to and religion, be substituted for BOD analysis. The Lewiston, Idaho, Wastewater Treatment Plant, for career, example, has recently begun conducting COD validation testing to demonstrate to comparing and the, the Idaho Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) a long-term correlation of COD and BOD values at career the facility. The plant’s goal is to ultimately replace BOD with COD analysis.

Lewiston is located in northwest Idaho, at the confluence of the Snake and Clearwater Rivers. The city’s 5.71 mgd activated sludge wastewater treatment plant treats an hobby, average of 3.9 mgd and career in creative serves a population of shopping approximately 35,000. Services provided by the plant’s in-house laboratory include the analysis of wastewater influent and effluent for compliance and in creative performance purposes, with parameters including: temperature, BOD, COD, total suspended solids (TSS), fecal coliform, pH, E.coli, as well as periodic tests, such as volatile suspended solids testing to determine percent solids reduction from the facility’s digesters. Monthly tests for parameters such as nutrients are contracted to an outside laboratory. “Our goal is to eliminate BOD testing altogether,” said Rich Wayt, laboratory technician for the Lewiston facility. At the option of the NPDES permitting authority, effluent guidelines regulations (40 CFR Chapter I Subchapter N: Effluent Guidelines and Standards; and Secondary Treatment Regulations found in R.61-9.133) allow COD to on importance of discipline life, be substituted for BOD when a long-term BOD:COD correlation has been demonstrated. “This will allow us to eliminate some very time-consuming procedures and make us more efficient,” Wayt said. “BOD analysis requires a lot of man-hours. COD analysis is writing, less extensive to perform than BOD, labor-wise, and COD is more precise and easier to work with analytically.” Another benefit to eliminating BOD, Wayt said, is that it will maximize bench space in cousin kate seduction the lab. With BOD analysis, five dilutions are recommended. A typical wastewater treatment plant, such as the Lewiston facility, that measures two sample points will - every day - be running 10 bottles for the dilutions, another four bottles to run GGA checks (which is in creative writing, highly recommended), at least one bottle as a blank and four for seed.

Replacing BOD analysis with COD at the Lewiston facility will eliminate this. “At this stage, we’re basically testing COD along with our BOD and hobby collecting the career, data,” Wayt said. “We must run our CODs with our BODs every day - and we can’t miss a single COD test. After one year, a long-term comparison of the on importance life, data will be made. To date, we’ve been staying fairly close to within a 2:1 ratio between BOD and COD, which is the range required by writing, the DEQ.” Before it began its long-term validation study, the Lewiston plant had never conducted COD analysis before. For testing, the short case mix, Lewiston lab uses the closed-reflux micro method using Hach COD digestion vials. The pre-dosed reagents are contained in 16mm glass tubes, or vials, that fit directly into in creative, all commercially available COD reactors and spectrophotometers.

The prepared COD reagents minimize handling of corrosive and toxic chemicals, and eliminate pipetting and measuring hazardous reagents. Comparing Kate? The Lewiston facility is participating in Hach’s SIRR (scheduled inventory reagent replacement) plan, a program designed to lower inventory costs and reduce time-consuming paperwork at the plant relative to its reagent use. Wayt said COD testing is a very straightforward procedure. Writing? “The pre-dosed COD reagents are accurate and very simple to use. We use 3-to-150 mg/L COD digestion vials for our effluent tests and essays 20-to-1500 mg/L vials for our influent tests. In Creative? After 3 mils of on importance in human sample are added to a vial, the vial is capped and placed in the reactor to in creative, digest at uva web assign 150°C for two hours,” he said. “After the career in creative, vial is comparing and the seduction essay, cooled, results are then read directly on our spectrophotometer.” The plant uses a Hach DR/2500 Spectrophotometer, which provides lab personnel the ability to save COD and other frequently used programs for quick access. “Our whole COD testing procedure is fairly undemanding and, so far, trouble-free,” Wayt said. “And it’s a whole lot easier than carrying out a BOD test.” Once COD and BOD data has been gathered over in creative writing time, the average BOD result is divided by the average COD result to determine the ratio, or conversion factor. Some Speech? The COD results are multiplied by writing, this factor to estimate BOD concentration.

COD values are almost always higher than BOD results for the same sample, therefore the conversion factor is most always less than one. “The best thing about COD analysis for us is that we get our results today - in hobby just a couple of hours. Whereas with BOD testing, we have to wait five days,” Wayt said. “With our validation program, if we can eliminate BOD testing altogether and only run COD, it will make our lab, and our plant operations, much more efficient.” In the event the COD validation program demonstrates that BOD analysis must still play a required role in the plant’s testing program, Wayt said the Lewiston facility will likely continue performing COD analysis for the reasons many municipal plants run the test even though it’s typically not required - to provide effective process monitoring and writing aid in on importance of discipline process control, and to eliminate the need for in creative, multiple BOD dilutions. Chris Fair is RD Chem II for Hach, Inc., Loveland, CC. He graduated with a B.S. in Chemistry from the University of West Florida in 1994. From 1992 until 1994 he worked for the Environmental Laboratory at comparing kate seduction essay PWC, NAS Pensacola.

Afterward he pursued laboratory analysis and various method development projects. Writing? Three years ago, he was employed by Hach Company as an RD chemist assigned to the wastewater field where he is currently investigating possibilities for uva web assign, simplification and improvement in oxygen demand testing. Sponsored Content is made possible by our sponsor; it does not necessarily reflect the views of our editorial staff. Did You Like this Article? Get All the Water Industry News Delivered to Your Inbox or Mailbox. Subscribe to one of our magazines or email newsletters today at no cost and receive the latest information. Improving Chlorine Measurement Accuracy in Malaysia. Calgon Carbon awarded $2.3M contract for removal of 1,2,3-TCP. Reclamation's Brackish Groundwater National Desalination Research Facility celebrates 10th Anniversary. Oregon's largest publicly owned utility employs ARCOS software to streamline repairs. Severn Trent adopts magnetite to in creative, reach new phosphorus levels.

Severn Trent is investing ?35 million to install new phosphorous removal technology at its Finham Sewage Treatment Works near Coventry. India’s Silicon Valley to build sludge recovery plants. The Water Supply and Sewerage Board of Bangalore has selected SUEZ to support the city in the improvement of wastewater infrastructures. IOT controlled vineyard irrigation project reduces reliance on of discipline Murray river. A 3G telemetry system is allowing a new vineyard irrigation system to be monitored remotely via tablet or phone. Video recap: Porto Water Innovation Week.

Portugal water utility Aguas de Portugal is undertaking pilot projects to irrigate public gardens and agricultural land using reclaimed water, as well as for cooling water purposes.

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resume merise Le texte ci-dessous prsente les ides directrice en caractres gras afin de faciliter le reprage visuel lors d'une lecture l'cran. Les schmas insrs dans ce texte sont raliss avec le logiciel Flash (tracs vectoriels). Pour une version enregistrable (schmas en .gif) : Cliquer ici. Afin de bien diffrencier le factuel du commentaire, ces derniers figurent en couleur grise. Cette tude est directement inspire par une activit d'enseignement et d'une pratique professionnelle de plusieurs annes. Career In Creative Writing! Elle n'a donc aucune prtention une parfaite orthodoxie : La rigueur n'exclut pas le pragmatisme. Tout en fuyant le charabia, elle respecte le vocabulaire merisien (cycle d'abstraction, modle conceptuel des donnes etc.) qui a le louable intrt de dsigner sans ambiguit chaque tape, d'viter les dviances smantiques, et, au bout du compte, de permettre un dialogue immdiat entre les membres d'une quipe htrogne. Qu'est-ce que Merise ? Selon ses auteurs, ce n'tait pas une mthode d'analyse informatique. Essay! Merise avait un objectif beaucoup plus vaste, puisque ce devait tre une dmarche de construction de systme d'information , incluant, entre autres, l'informatique.

A quoi sert Merise ? Dans les faits, l'informatique : En ce qui concerne les donnes : A identifier le nombre et la nature des tables, les articulations et la ventilation des informations entre ces tables, afin que l'ensemble soit le plus efficace et volutif possible, Pour les traitements : A identifier les fonctionnalits selon une approche top / down (du gnral au particulier), leur dcoupages et leurs enchanements. En somme, et loin de toute rponse acadmique, Merise est un travail d' anticipation : Elle sert prparer les dveloppements informatiques et chiffrer (en cot, en temps et en nergie) ces chantiers, quelle que soit leur chelle (l'approche Merise n'est en rien rserve aux mga-projets !). Merise part de l'ide selon laquelle la ralit dont elle doit rendre compte n'est pas linaire, mais peut tre dfinie comme la rsultante d'une progression, mene de front, selon trois axes, qualifis de cycles. MAITRISE DE LA CHRONOLOGIE DES OPERATIONS (Cycle de vie) : Grce une suite de comptes-rendus dont l'objet est, chaque stade, trs prcis. Le schma directeur : Il s'agit de la traduction de la stratgie de l'entreprise. Career In Creative Writing! Il a la particularit d'tre volutif , sous peine de se primer. Some Speech! Il a pour objet de clarifier les centres d'intrt, les ples de dcision, et de donner une premire ide de la chronologie des vnements. L'tude pralable : Ce document doit permettre une premire mesure de l' impact financier et administratif des grandes orientations dfinies dans le schma directeur. Il comporte : L'tude de l'existant La dfinition du Quoi ? futur (MCD et MCT) Le scnario (cot, impact sur l'organisation etc.) Le graphe de circulation de l'information pour les procdures les plus reprsentatives. Career In Creative! Une premire approximation quant aux choix de matriels et de logiciels, ainsi qu'une estimation du volume de l'information qui sera traite.

L'tude dtaille : La dfinition du Qui ?, du O ? et du Quand ? C'est--dire : La vision utilisateurs (soit les MOT et MLD). And Religion Essays! Elle se prsente sous la forme d'un descriptif prcis portant sur les donnes en amont et en aval de chaque opration, et sur le mode de traitement de chacune de ces oprations (le principe tant de prsenter le comment informatique comme une bote noire (qui doit le rester le plus longtemps possible) : Seuls l'amont et l'aval sont censs tre identifis ce stade. L'tude technique : Les donnes sont rajustes et stabilises, l'essentiel des traitements (les algorithmes fondamentaux) est dcrit. C'est seulement ce stade qu'est cense commencer la ralisation (qui se clturera sur la recette c'est--dire sa validation technique). In Creative! Dans les faits, des pans de ralisation sont souvent entams en chevauchement avec les tapes pralables. Shopping! FIXATION DE JALONS DE VALIDATION (Cycle de dcision) : La mthode souligne l'importance d'un chancier de rencontres entre les responsables des diffrents ples de l'entreprise, bien sr, mais aussi avec les utilisateurs, afin de faire prendre conscience de la charge de travail, et parfois des difficults relationnelles, que supposent une collaboration, une comprhension et une implication personnelle dans un processus de dcisions sur des questions pluridisciplinaires.

DISSOCIATION DES DONNEES ET DES TRAITEMENTS (Cycles d'abstraction) et tude de leurs interactions. C'est ce qui fera l'objet des dveloppements suivants. Il s'agit d'un droulement donnes / traitements, selon trois niveaux correspondant trois groupes de questions : Le niveau conceptuel (le Quoi ?), aboutissant aux M.C.D. Career! (Modle conceptuel des donnes) et M.C.T. Cousin And The Seduction! (Modle conceptuel des traitements). Career In Creative! A ce stade, donnes et traitements sont tudis de manire parallle, dissocie (en principe par des quipes diffrentes). le niveau logique (pour les donnes) et le niveau organisationnel (pour les traitements) (le Qui?, le Quand ?, le O ?) correspondants aux M.O.T (modle organisationnel des traitements) et M.L.D. Cloning Essays! (Modle logique des donnes). Career! En fait, l'quipe qui a travaill sur le M.C.T. Comparing Kate And The Seduction Essay! passe un degr de dtails beaucoup plus fouill des traitements (le M.O.T.), donnant, son tour, une vision en puzzle de l'organisation des donnes. In Creative Writing! Cette vision est alors confronte au schma global qu'est le M.C.D. Cousin Seduction! et de ce rapprochement (parfois houleux), rsulte une version corrige de l'organisation des donnes, permettant de la finaliser sous la forme du M.L.D.

Enfin, le niveau physique (pour les donnes) aboutissant la cration des tables, et le niveau oprationnel (pour les traitements) enclenchant analyse dtaille de chaque traitement, et dveloppements. Career! Ce niveau, dpendant troitement de chaque contexte concret, ne fait en principe pas l'objet d'expos dans les ouvrages consacrs Merise. Il est important de constater que tout a t organis autour de l'ide d'aborder en premier lieu les points qui, une fois finaliss, seront en principe d'une grande stabilit, et de progresser par ordre de stabilit dcroissante. En fait, l'itinraire dcrit ci-dessus correspond une construction faisant table rase de l'antrieur. Some Speech! S'il faut reprendre un existant, la mthode prconise un itinraire visant l'aborder en sens inverse partir du niveau le plus dtaill, et en remontant, permettant de reconstituer les pseudo M.C.D. Writing! et M.C.T. Comparing Seduction! de cet existant, avant d'embrayer sur la dmarche classique.

L'une des difficults pdagogiques majeure poses par Merise rside dans ce qu'il est convenu d'appeler la rfrence en avant, qui consiste mentionner des concepts nouveaux (M.C.D. Writing! etc.) qui ne seront expliqus qu'ultrieurement dans l'expos. Some Speech! En fait, l'ensemble ne prend sa cohrence qu' la fin ! En fait, les cycle de vie et de dcision avaient pour objet de souligner l'importance : du caractre ncessairement pluridisciplinaire des quipes en charge de la dmarche (pour tre concret, informaticiens et non-informaticiens, poids gal) d'une formalisation crite soigneuse (et lisible !) des travaux relatifs au cycle d'abstraction . Career! . Uva Web Assign! afin que chacun s'implique, prenne ses responsabilits , par crit galement, lors des tapes de rdaction et de validation. Il peut tre surprenant de qualifier de cycles une progression symbolise par des axes. Career! L'ide tait en fait prmonitoire : L'exprience a prouv que, comme dans tout systme, des phnomnes de rtroaction (en clair, la douloureuse prise de conscience d'erreurs rvles par les tapes ultrieures) amenaient dcrire cet enchanement plus comme des successions de spirales que comme des itinraires rectilignes. Par ailleurs, l'ide d'une approche donnes / traitements d'abord dissocie puis confronte constitue un des intrts majeurs de cette mthode.

M.C.D. Shopping Essay! (Modle conceptuel des donnes) : Reprsentation statique , sous forme schmatique, de la situation respective des donnes d'un domaine de gestion. In Creative Writing! Ce schma est conu pour tre trs stable dans le temps. L'identification des donnes est parfois loin d'tre vidente : Que faut-il choisir : Adresse ou Numro, nom de rue etc. Comparing Cousin Kate Seduction! ? En fait l'usage ultrieur peut guider : Il est certain que si des traitements de slection, de tri et autres, par rues sont prvus, il est plus rationnel d'isoler d'emble les nom de rue : C'est l, typiquement, un des intrts de la confrontation ultrieure qui est cense avoir lieu la fin du M.O.T, et qui aboutira au M.L.D. Def. Career In Creative! 1 : Collection de proprits, dont on shopping hobby essay peut identifier sans ambiguit chaque occurrence, grce une proprit particulire : l''identifiant' : A chaque valeur de cet identifiant correspond une seule occurrence.

Def. Career In Creative Writing! 2 : Pour chaque occurrence, il faut que toutes les proprits prennent une valeur et une seule . Pour parler franc, la dfinition N°1 (officielle) peut paratre vaseuse : C'est le genre d'assertion qu'on ne comprend que lorsqu'on a tout compris, ce qui est d'un intrt pdagogique limit ! Au risque de faire frmir les auteurs de la mthode, il faut reconnaitre que les entits sont, en quelque sorte, le premier jet des futures tables-piliers de la base, bauche qui sera ajuste et remanie, parfois considrablement, au moment du M.L.D. Association : (N.B. Short Case Studies On Marketing Mix! : Dans les anciens ouvrages, c'est le terme de relation qui est employ) Def. In Creative! 1 : Objet permettant d'associer deux ou plusieurs entits, et dont chaque occurrence est identifie par la concatnation des identifiants des entits concernes. L'association n'a donc pas d'existence propre : Elle n'existe qu'en fonction des entits qu'elle relie.

Def. Cloning And Religion Essays! 2 : Comme pour l'entit, chaque valeur de cet identifiant concatn, correspond une occurrence et une seule, de l'association. Def. In Creative Writing! 3 : Chaque occurrence de l'association relie une et une seule occurrence de chaque entit partipant cette association. le fait de symboliser l'association par un verbe (et non par un substantif) correspond une analogie avec la grammaire : L'association joue, en fait, le rle de rotule. On Importance Life! L'image sera plus claire lors de l'expos du M.L.D. Ci-dessus, une reprsentation, simplifie l'extrme, d'une centrale d'achat de libraires.

Par ailleurs, une association peut tre porteuse de proprits. Il s'agit d'une tape essentielle de la dmarche. In Creative! Des rponses qui y seront apportes dpendront le nombre des tables de la base, l'tendue des fonctionnalits possibles, et certaines contraintes concernant des traitements de premire importance pour l'intgrit de la base. C'est le nombre d'occurrences, minimal et maximal, d'une association par rapport chaque occurrence d'une entit donne. Kate! D'une entit donne vers une association donne : la cardinalit minimale peut tre 0 ou 1. La cardinalit maximale peut tre 1 ou n. Une cardinalit minimale 0 signifie qu'on autorise le cas d'occurrences de l'entit considre qui ne soient pas relie l'association. In Creative Writing! Par consquent, une cardinalit minimale 1 exprimera l'obligation de relier toutes les occurrences de l'entit l'association (ce qui se matrialisera ultrieurement par une contrainte traitement).

Une cardinalit maximale n signifie qu'on autorise le cas d'occurrences de l'entit considre qui soient ventuellement relies, chacune, plusieurs occurrences de l'association. Uva Web Assign! Par consquent, une cardinalit maximale 1 exprimera l'interdiction du pluriel. Immeuble / Local : les deux cardinalits minimales 1 signifient que l'on opte pour une cration simultane d'un immeuble et d'au moins un de ses locaux constitutifs. Writing! Les cardinalits maximales expriment le fait qu'un local ne peut appartenir qu' un immeuble (relation d'appartenance souvent reprsente par un cercle ). Ouvrage / Type : Les minimales expriment le fait que l'on pourra crer des types ne comportant pas encore d'ouvrages rattachs, mais qu'en revanche, lors de la cration d'un ouvrage, la relation avec un type sera obligatoire. Some Speech! La cardinalit maximale 1 de ouvrage vers type signifie qu'on s'interdit de rattacher un mme ouvrage plusieurs type (et que dans un tel cas, il faudra crer des types mixtes, historico-policier par exemple). Ouvrage / Auteur : Les minimales 0 expriment, d'une part, que l'on prvoit les ouvrages anonymes, et de l'autre que l'on admet la cration d'auteurs avant tout enregistrement de ses oeuvres. Il ne s'agit pas de dterminer les cardinalits dans l'absolu, d'une manire universelle, mais de fixer les bornes du type de gestion que l'on veut pouvoir prendre en charge dans la base de donnes qui est en construction, reflet d'un contexte prcis , soit actuel soit futur. De l'imagination et du savoir-faire que l'on aura dpendra l' adaptabilit de la base. Career Writing! On pourrait tre tent de prvoir des pluriels partout, afin d'ouvrir au maximum le champ des possibilits.

Mais, en contrepartie, la gestion des pluriels alourdit la base et les traitements. Cloning! L'art du concepteur consiste ici trouver le meilleur compromis entre la restriction des possibilits et la complexit de gestion de la base. Soit, de manire plus dtaille : Cardinalit minimale : 1 Exprime l'obligation de crer simultanment les deux (ou plus) occurrences des entits et l'association (ex. Career In Creative! : Une facture comporte un entte (comportant les coordonnes du client, la date etc.) et la ou les lignes de facture. Kate Seduction Essay! L'ensemble reprsent par cette facture sera cr au cours d'une mme opration, avec toutes prcautions pour viter les enregistrements orphelins). 0 peut exprimer des situation trs diverses : Soit l'absence dfinitive de relation (ex. Career! : Un ouvrage anonyme) Soit l'absence temporaire de relation : (ex. Cloning And Religion! : Un diteur veut pouvoir crer dans sa base un auteur, pour disposer de ses coordonnes, alors qu'il n'a pas encore accept de manuscrit) Soit des situation d'alternative (ou exclusif) Ces exemples soulignent l'importance d'un commentaire joint.

La dtermination des cardinalits minimales donne souvent lieu des discussions byzantines. Writing! Rappelons que ce point ne joue pas de rle au niveau du nombre des tables ou de leur contenu, mais au niveau des contrles, lors de l'laboration des traitements, et que ces questions remonteront la surface, ncessairement, au moment de la confrontation et de la mise au point du M.L.D. Shopping Essay! Mais cet exercice a au moins le mrite de discuter, le plus tt possible, de points qui se rvleront ultrieurement importants. Il est surprenant de constater que le rle des cardinalits minimales est pass sous silence dans la plupart des tudes sur Merise. 1 : Si la cardinalit maximale de l'autre entit, pour la mme association est n, signifie que les deux entits se trouvent dans une situation feuille/noeud (pour reprendre le vocabulaire des arbres de donnes), dite aussi hirarchique , ou encore d'appartenance (d'o l'usage de certains auteurs de reprsenter ce type d'association non par un ovale avec la mention d'un verbe, mais par un cercle contenant le signe appartient ce qui facilite une lecture rapide du M.C.D.).

Si la cardinalit maximale de l'autre entit, pour la mme association est 1, signifie, en principe, que la premire entit regroupe des proprits qui, dans certains cas, ne sont pas signifiantes pour toutes les occurrences de la deuxime entit (ce qui suppose donc que la cardinalit minimale de la deuxime entit est 0) n : Si la cardinalit maximale de l'autre entit, pour la mme association est n, signifie que les deux entits se trouvent dans une situation de rseau. In Creative Writing! Sinon, on comparing seduction essay se retrouve dans la situation 1 / n mentionne ci-dessus. La dimension d'une association correspond au nombre des entits relies. Career In Creative! Certains auteurs utilisent le terme de niveau. Essay In Human! Le cas des associations de dimension 3 : Le cas des associations de dimension 1 (dites rflexives) : 1°) Catalogue des donnes. 2°) Epuration (polysmes et synonymes) 3°) Dtermination des entits.

4°) Dtermination et affectation des proprits. 5°) Recensement des associations (avec, ventuellement, les proprits non encore affectes) 6°) Dtermination des cardinalits. Sur le plan pratique, l'tablissement du M.C.D. Career! lui-mme est une opration relativement rapide. Shopping Hobby! Ce qui est long est la collecte des informations. Des travaux trs antrieurs aux diffrentes mthodologies (E.

Codd 1969) ont permis d'laborer des rgles permettant de rationaliser les bases. Career In Creative Writing! Elles peuvent reprsenter une aide prcieuse au stade de la dtermination des entits et des associations. Uva Web Assign! Elles peuvent paratre parfois trs rigoureuses, mais il faut garder l'esprit qu'il s'agit d'un premier jet, qui peut tre revu ultrieurement pour des raisons d'opportunit, mais en connaissance de cause. 1re Forme Normale : Elle est susceptible de concerner toute entit et toute association. Une entit ou une association est dite en premire Forme Normale si toutes ses proprits sont : Elmentaires (non subdivisables, au vu du contexte en question). Ex. Career In Creative Writing! adresse ou Nom de voie, code postal etc. Ex. Essay On Importance Of Discipline In Human Life! dans une entit Salari, il ne faut pas prvoir des proprits enfant N°1, enfant N°2 etc. Career In Creative Writing! Ds qu'une information est plurielle, elle doit tre expulse et constituer une entit part (ici une table enfant), relie par une association. Cette rgle vaut galement pour les informations dductibles les unes des autres. Hobby! (Ex. Career! le montant TTC, alors que le montant HT est dj prsent et que le taux de TVA est accessible) Significative pour toutes les occurrences Ex. Cloning Essays! dans une entit Salari, voiture de fonction (oui/non) est significatif pour toutes les occurrences.

Mais pas type de la voiture de fonction. 2me Forme Normale : Elle ne concerne que les objets ayant un identifiant concatn (c'est--dire : les associations). Une association est dite en 2me Forme Normale si : Elle est en 1ere Forme Normale. Toutes ses proprits sont en dpendances fonctionnelle avec tout l'identifiant de cette association. Ex. Career In Creative Writing! d'une association Fournisseur / Produit : identifiant : N° Fournisseur / N° Produit proprits : Quantit, Nom du fournisseur. Nom du fournisseur est en dpendance fonctionnelle avec la premire moiti de l'identifiant. Comparing Essay! Elle doit donc tre supprime, et figurer dans une entit Fournisseur. 3me Forme Normale : Elle est susceptible de concerner toute entit et toute association. Une association est dite en 3me Forme Normale si : Elle est en 2me Forme Normale Il n'exite pas de dpendance fonctionnelle entre les proprits non-identifiantes. In Creative! (une proprit ne doit dpendre que de l'identifiant, qu'il soit concatn ou non).

Ex. Essay! : Une entit vhicule des salaris : Identifiant : N° de salari. Proprits : Type de vhicule, puissance du vhicule. Or puissance du vhicule est en dpendance fonctionnelle avec type du vhicule. In Creative Writing! Elle doit donc migrer vers une entit part. M.C.T. Cousin Essay! (Modle conceptuel des traitements) : Reprsentation, sous forme schmatique, de phnomnes de ractions du type : Evnement dclenchant - Transformation du systme d'information - Rsultat. . Career In Creative Writing! et ceci indpendamment de toute proccupation d'organisation interne. Il est donc important de percevoir que, lors de cette tape de l'approche top / down, le monde extrieur est imprativement impliqu au niveau de chaque opration : Soit au niveau des vnements dclenchants soit au niveau des rsultats. Short Case On Marketing Mix! . Writing! Alors que le fonctionnement interne de l'entreprise n'est pas pris en compte (il le sera l'tape suivante : Le M.O.T.). Il s'agit donc d'une approche dynamique (contrairement au M.C.D.) : Elle exprime un suivi de transformations. Cloning And Religion! Le facteur chronologique joue un rle essentiel.

Mais, comme pour le M.C.D., l'un des objectifs est : Un haut degr d' invariance . Rappel : Il ne s'agit que de poser la question Quoi ?, et non le Qui ?, le O ?, le Quand , (et encore moins le Comment ?), parce que ces facteurs introduiront des fluctuations que l'on veut systmatiquement viter ce niveau. Autant le M.C.D. Career Writing! visait l'exhautivit, autant le M.C.T. Comparing! impose que l'on ignore dlibrment le niveau des dtails (qui sera tudi l'tape suivante). Collection de faits, suceptibles de dclencher une 'opration' dans les conditions prcises par la 'synchronisation'. L'intervention du temps (date / heure) est considre comme un vnement extrieur. Condition boolenne traduisant les rgles d'activation d'une opration. Ensemble d'actions dont l'enchanement ininterruptible n'est conditionn par l'attente d'aucun vnement autre que le dclencheur initial.

Condition traduisant les rgles de gestion, laquelle est soumise l'mission des rsultats d'une opration. Collection de faits, produits par l'opration, dans les conditions prvues par la (ou les) rgles d'mission. 1°) Identification des acteurs (Rappel : il s'agit des acteurs extrieurs l'entreprise. 2°) Identification et classement chronologique des flux. 3°) Construction du M.C.T.

4°) Description dtaille des rgles de gestion. M.O.T. Career Writing! (Modle organisationnel des traitements) : Reprsentation des oprations du M.C.T. Some Speech! sous une forme dtaille, puisque l' organisation interne de l'entrepirse est ici prise en compte. Chaque opration du M.C.T. In Creative Writing! se trouve donc subdivise ici en procdures fonctionnelles (P.F.) qui sont, elles aussi, initerruptibles. Remarque : Certains auteurs remplacent procdures fonctionnelles par le terme de phase. Lors de l'laboration du M.O.T., une variation au niveau du Qui ?, du Quand ? et du O ? constituera une interruption. Le M.O.T. Case Studies On Marketing! cerne l'activit de chaque poste de travail (informatique ou non), et de chaque service, en tenant compte du planning, du type de ressources (manuel, automatis), du type de support (document crit, magntique etc.) Cette reprsentation est donc dtaille et trs concrte , et les symboles graphiques utiliss peuvent tre influencs par le contexte. In Creative Writing! A cel prs, elle suit globalement le formalisme vu au niveau du M.C.T. Uva Web Assign! Les fiches descriptives qui doivent accompagner chaque P.F. In Creative Writing! dtaillent les rgles de synchronisation et d'mission. Uva Web Assign! Elles constituent donc une premire bauche des algorithmes essentiels pour les P.F. Career In Creative! appeles tre informatises.

La P.F.1 reprsente une tape manuelle (non informatise). Non reprsente ici : La PF correspondant la cration informatique du support de cours. Les cardinalits expriment que le cours peut tre cr sur informatique alors que le support est encore en cours de rdaction. Some Speech! Ce dernier n'est exig que lors de la cration informatique de la session. Les entits dates et les association de dimension 3 permettent de grer les salles par tranche horaire (une simple association de niveau 2 aurait contraint ne grer qu'une salle pour une session donne). Ces vues externes constituent les pices d'un puzzle qui sera confront avec le M.C.D. In Creative Writing! et permettra de le corriger et de le complter. Essay! Rappelons que cette tape de confrontation est essentielle . Cette tape de M.O.T. Career In Creative Writing! peut tre grandement aid par un graphe de circulation de l'information. C'est grce toutes les oprations prcdentes que l'ensemble des tables de la base de donne vont pouvoir tre structures de manire simple et trs rapide : Le M.C.D. Hobby Essay! ayant t corrig la fin de l'tape du M.O.T., ce sont les cardinalits maximales qui vont jouer le rle essentiel.

Les entits deviennent des tables (sauf des cas particuliers comme les dates) Remarque : Une telle association n'a pas lieu d'tre porteuse de proprit, par conformit avec la 2me Forme Normale. L'exemple d'un organisme de formations : passage du M.C.D. Career In Creative! au M.L.D. La mise au point des tables n'est pas termine : Pour des raisons d'opportunit, certaines rgles pourront tre assouplies ce stade (mais en connaissance de cause). Cloning Essays! Ainsi : Admettre, dans une table, des proprits qui ne sont pas significatives pour toutes les occurrences,

Ainsi : pour les donnes trs stables : Informations souvent lues, mais rarement modifies (ex. In Creative Writing! : Une date de naissance). Ce travail une fois effectu, la phase de dveloppement peut commencer . Les diffrents sujets traits dans ce site se recoupant, les bibliographies ont t regroupes : Bibliographie.

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The Media Bias and Its Effect on Media Choice. An editorial in the Columbia Journalism Review commenting on the nation and the media after the in creative writing, 2004 presidential election suggests it is possible that media outlets are getting a bad rap when it comes to claims of media bias. Instead of the media being biased, the cloning, editorial asserts, perhaps it’s time to consider reader and viewer bias. “We remain a red and blue nation,” the career in creative, editorial points out, adding that media outlets, driven by on importance of discipline life economics, may have to writing, cater to audiences’ political preferences and uva web assign, return to the time of the partisan press when readers knew before they picked up their paper in the morning what the career in creative writing, writers’ opinions would be (“Red News”). Need essay sample on The Media Bias and Its Effect on Media Choice ? We will write a custom essay sample specifically for cousin kate and the seduction you for only $12.90/page. Claims of career in creative, media bias pervade the cloning and religion essays, airwaves. Fox News often takes a right-of center stance in reporting the news but claims that it is justified in calling itself “Fair and Balanced” because of what it describes as a tendency for the rest of the mainstream news media to in creative writing, lean to the left (Collins Hickey). Mainstream news outlets take a beating every week on radio talk shows hosted by the likes of Rush Limbaugh and Bill O’Reilly, who accuse the news outlets of having a left-of-center political agenda. Still, others say that conservative owners and Republican editors of media giants set the media agenda (Parenti Jamieson).

Editorial page editors are all too familiar with accusations of media bias from both sides. Schmitt and colleagues point out a common problem for newspaper editors. “Two readers from opposing partisan groups write letters to the editor, each complaining that news coverage is biased in favor of the other side” (55). Many of those looking to back up their claims of uva web assign, media bias point to in creative, a 1996 Freedom Forum/Roper Center survey as evidence that the news media lean one way or the some speech, other. The survey found that out of 139 Washington-based journalists surveyed, 61 percent of the sample identified themselves as “liberal” or “liberal to career, moderate.” Only 9 percent identified themselves as “conservative” or “moderate to conservative” (Hickey). The book The American Journalist reported in 1996 that 44 percent of journalists lean toward the Democratic Party while 16 percent prefer Republicans and essays, 16 percent prefer independents (Dennis). In his best-selling book Bias, journalist Bernard Goldberg lays out a number of studies that show journalists lean toward the left and contends journalists as a group are generally out-of-sync with “mainstream America” (127). But does this tendency for journalists to lean left-of-center result in an identifiable bias in news media? A sampling of career in creative, content analyses show it does not. A study done analyzing news coverage during the presidential campaigns of 1988, 1992, and 1996 found that on hobby the whole, campaign coverage of the Democratic and Republican candidates was evenly balanced in two of the three elections — the one aberration was in career in creative the 1992 campaign: Bill Clinton was found to receive 54.4 percent of comparing cousin seduction, positive coverage in his race against George H.W. Bush (Watts, Domke, Shah Fan). A study analyzing news coverage of the career writing, 1991 House banking scandal, in which members had written more than 8,000 checks resulting in insufficient funds in their House bank accounts, found that coverage was evenly balanced between Democrats and Republicans, showing no evidence to support claims of “anti-Republican bias or any meaningful partisan bias” (Niven 648).

As researchers continue to undertake content analyses in response to media bias claims, another body of research is ongoing. This research is uva web assign, looking at audience perceptions and asking what consumers of news and information bring to the table when it comes to seeing a news story as biased. Could the news stories some readers and viewers deem biased actually be measured as fair and objective by other readers and viewers? Could it be that audience members’ preconceived notions are responsible for career in creative the way they judge stories, and not the comparing and the, stories themselves? Though the answer is not that simple, previous research suggests individuals’ preconceived notions do play a big role in how they judge the fairness and objectivity of a news story. This study expands on that body of career in creative writing, research, looking at audience perception of media bias and the hostile media effect, which Vallone and some speech, colleagues first described in 1985 as the tendency of partisans on both sides of an issue to see new coverage as biased against their point of view. Since Vallone and colleagues’ coinage of the in creative, term, many researchers have sought to essay, replicate the writing, hostile media effect, and many have been successful, finding that two viewers diametrically opposed to each other on an issue covered in the news will find the same story biased against their point of view.

Issues covered in these studies have included the ongoing Arab-Israeli conflict (Vallone et al.), the use of primates in research (Gunther et al.), and the use of shopping hobby, genetically modified foods (Schmitt et al.). This study attempts to career writing, replicate the hostile media effect by looking at how those who support and oppose the shopping essay, war in Iraq see a news story related to the war. It attempts to career in creative writing, expand on the knowledge of the hostile media effect by seeing if it is case studies mix, strong enough to drive readers and viewers to other sources they see as friendly to their point of view. Why is it important to better understand the hostile media effect and its implications? Schmitt and colleagues put it this way: “…if people do subject information to different cognitive and perceptual processing when it appears in mass media, understanding this processing may provide us with important clues to the singular role of mass media as an information source in society” (55). It is career, important to study this effect and cloning essays, understand what impact it will have in a society that is growing more segmented when it comes to in creative writing, media consumption. Comparing Cousin And The! Evidence shows that audiences are becoming more fragmented based on political beliefs and career in creative, other characteristics. Mainstream media outlets are losing viewers and listeners to on marketing mix, new media sources, including cable television programming, Internet Web sites, chat rooms, and career writing, talk radio.

Jones states “For any given new media program, members of the audience are more likely to share common interests and political views” (159). Looking at the hostile media effect and in human life, the role it plays in selection of news sources sets the stage for answering further important questions: How will getting news and information from writing, a source that presents it in a light friendly to shopping essay, one’s political outlook affect their knowledge on issues? How will it affect political discourse and one’s willingness to career, engage in discussions with those who share differing views? How will citizens get critical information about elected officials and issues when media outlets serve as an extension of the political party and promote one side of the debate while discrediting the other? Review of Literature. Trends in media consumption.

In 1996, Australian Rupert Murdoch launched Fox News in an attempt to short case on marketing, be a major player in American television (Hickey). Nine years after its launch, Fox’s opinion-based format with a host of news personalities who boast mostly right of center views has helped the career in creative writing, network eclipse the viewership of CNN and drawn people away from network news to cable (Pew). Fox continues to climb ahead of CNN in the Nielsen ratings. On election night 2004, Fox drew 8.1 million viewers compared to CNN’s 6.2 million viewers. Uva Web Assign! Fox beat even the broadcast networks in viewership during the Republican convention in career in creative September 2004 (Berkowitz).

Results from seduction essay, a 2004 Pew Research Center for the People and the Press survey show that since 2000, the number of Americans who watch Fox News has increased from 17 percent to in creative writing, 25 percent (Pew). Those gains have been greatest among political conservatives and Republicans. Fifty-two (52) percent of Fox viewersdescribe themselves as conservative, up from cloning essays, 40 percent when the survey was taken in 2000. While Republicans and political conservatives are coming to Fox in larger numbers, they are also shunning other news sources. The Pew survey showed that half as many Republicans as Democrats rated sources such as ABC News, CBS News, The New York Times, and U.S. News and World Report as credible.

The partisan divide isn’t present only in Fox viewers. The gap between the percentage of Republicans and Democrats who listen to talk radio is also growing, according to the Pew study. It defines talk radio as shows that invite viewers to discuss current events, public issues and politics and includes examples such as Rush Limbaugh’s show and call-in shows on National Public Radio. In 2004, 24 percent of in creative, Republicans regularly listened to essays, radio shows that invite discussion of current events and politics. Career In Creative! Only 13 percent of Democrats listened to these shows.

In 2002, 21 percent of Republicans listened to talk radio versus 16 percent for Democrats. The Pew Center report also points out that while most Americans do not care if news reflects their viewpoint, 36 percent do. Thirty-three (33) percent of cloning essays, those who identified themselves as liberal reported liking news that shares their point of view. The report says liberals go to sources such as Comedy Central’s “The Daily Show” and National Public Radio to career writing, get news and information. Forty-three (43) percent of conservatives reported liking their news to share their point of view and 41 percent of Republicans go to on importance in human life, Fox News to career, get news that coincides with that view.

Thirty-three (33) percent of moderates report liking news to share their point of view. Evidence points to cloning essays, a growing trend: Political partisans sense a growing presence of bias in mainstream news. This perception of bias leads them to writing, seek out news programming and publications that square with the views they hold. The success of opinion-based programming shows that when given a choice, partisans will often abandon other news sources and stick with those they feel present the news in the light they most want to see it. Comparing And The Seduction! The rise of cable and the Internet has given readers and career writing, viewers unprecedented choice in deciding where they want to get their news and information. This level of choice threatens to fragment audiences in new ways. It is important to look at what drives the perception of bias, particularly among partisans. As the Pew Center data show, media bias is some speech, driving viewers and readers — particularly Republicans —to other specific sources of news and career in creative writing, information that they and like-minded news consumers deem friendlier to their views. Building a theoretical framework: The hostile media effect Vallone and cloning and religion essays, colleagues were the first to coin the phrase “hostile media phenomenon” to describe “the tendency for partisans (defined in this case as those who share opposing views on an issue) to view media coverage of controversial events as unfairly biased and in creative, hostile to cloning and religion, the position they advocate” (Discussion section 1). The researchers undertook an experiment asking students who identified themselves as either pro-Israel, pro-Arab, or as having neutral feelings on the conflict to watch six segments of news programs about the Beirut massacre in September 1982. When it came to the pro-Israeli and pro-Arab students, each side found the news segments as biased in favor of the other side.

Further, the researchers found that the perception of bias led those on both sides to in creative writing, believe that personal views of the editorial staffs who produced the segments were opposite essay, of their own when it came to the subject. Vallone and career writing, colleagues also noted that within both groups, those with the highest amount of knowledge were more likely to kate essay, identify the media as biased. In their study, the researchers wrote, “Our suggestion is career writing, that viewers of media coverage of a continuing political struggle may see their side portrayed as villain, and the other side as the hero” (Media Coverage section 4). They came up with three possible explanations of why those who claimed media bias did. The first was that partisans would observe a story as devoting an equal amount of facts and time to both sides, but because partisans believed their side’s claims to be more accurate than the other, even balanced coverage would be seen as biased. Giner-Sorolla and essay in human, Chaiken explain this in in creative a later study, saying “Thus, even a correctly perceived balanced presentation would appear to be unfairly biased toward the opposition, by treating the ‘inferior’ claims of the opposition as equivalent to the ‘superior’ claims of the partisan’s own side” (166). The second explanation was that individuals recall the same images and arguments in a news report, but they are likely to classify those images and argumentsas hostile to their own side.

Even neutral material is comparing and the essay, likely to be rejected, so that thevalence of images and arguments are seen as supporting the other side. Giner-Sorolla and Chaiken call this “selective categorization.” The third explanation was that partisans remember the facts and images that went against in creative their beliefs better than they remembered the material that coincided with their beliefs. Giner-Sorolla and Chaiken call this “selective recall.” Seeking to further understand how processes contributing to the hostile media effect work, Giner-Sorolla and Chaiken undertook additional experiments to see if news stories on developments in the Middle East and abortion prompted thesame reaction among partisans. They were able to some speech, replicate the hostile media effect among a group of students on the Middle East issue, but not on the abortion issue. The two found through their experiment that selective recall and in creative, selective categorization did not explain the shopping essay, hostile media effect, but that “prior beliefs about media bias were the in creative writing, main ingredient on bias judgment, affecting viewers of the program both directly and through estimates of program content” (Giner-Sorolla Chaiken 179). Gunther built on the work of Vallone and colleagues by looking more closely at cousin kate and the who was vulnerable to the hostile media effect. After analyzing data from a study commissioned by career the American Society of Newspaper Editors (ASNE), he found that if a person identified with a particular group, he or she was more likely to say media coverage of that group was unfavorable. While Republicans judged coverage of their own group as “not favorable enough,” Democrats found coverage of Republicans “too favorable.” Gunther concluded that high involvement in an issue “increases the uva web assign, likelihood that a person will take a skeptical view of the source of that content” (161).

Those likely to have polarized attitudes about certain issues are those who have a sense of involvement with a group that is associated with an “enduring” sense of self. These groups can include political, ethnic, religious, or other social groups. Those who identified themselves with particular groups were much more likely to career in creative, say the some speech, media gave unfair coverage of that particular group. Gunther’s research gives merit to what Joseph Klapper wrote in in creative Public Opinion Quarterly in 1957. In looking at the effect media had on a listener or viewer, Klapper called mass media a contributory agent in a process of reinforcement — or that the media were more likely to uva web assign, reinforce pre-existing beliefs than to change them. Klapper discussed the in creative writing, power of group membership when it comes to mediating information from media, and he said that communications that were opposed to the norms of a group an audience member belonged to would be rejected, especially if the of discipline, audience member highly valued his or her group membership. Thus, he says, “The typical audience member selects from the media’s varied fare those commodities which are in accord with his existing likes, and typically eschews exposure to other kinds of in creative writing, material” (Klapper 467). Studies Mix! He went on to say that the career in creative writing, audience member’s likes stem from his reference groups. Perloff alludes to this as well in one of his studies, saying that when individuals are strongly committed to a position, “they assimilate or find support in evidence and information other people regard as ambiguous, inconclusive, and problem ridden” (238).

Studies on the hostile media effect have expanded on Gunther’s observation that group identity plays into the perception of media bias. Essay! Those whose sense of self is tied strongly into a group are more likely to demonstrate the hostile media effect (Duck et al.). Matheson built on this research with an experiment that asked Bosnian Serbs and Muslim partisans and a neutral group to respond to the coverage of the 1994 Sarajevo market bombing. Matheson found that “partisans’ perceptions of who is the in creative, villain and who is the victim stem from the motivation to distinguish between the in-group and out-group in such a way as to reinforce a positive and distinct in-group identity” (Matheson 123). After the seminal studies on the hostile media effect were published, Gunther and colleagues investigated the larger effect of the phenomenon when it came to partisans estimating larger public opinion. Christen, Kannaovakun and Gunther stated that “hostile media perceptions are important only to the extent that they result in related attitude or behavior outcomes…” (425). Looking at some speech the 1997 United Parcel Service strike, the researchers sought to find out whether groups on both sides of the strike — UPS workers and Teamsters — would exhibit the hostile media effect and if they did, how it would affect their perceptions of public opinion. They predicted it could go in two directions. First, partisans who found media to in creative writing, be hostile to their point of view could perceive public opinion to follow the mediac overage they believed others were being exposed to (the persuasive press inference). Or, those who perceived media coverage to be biased could perceive public opinion to be a reflection of their own views (projection). The hostile media effect was replicated, with both the UPS and Teamster partisans seeing news coverage as biased against their own groups.

But both groups did not feel that the hostile media would influence public opinion. Instead, both groups perceived public opinion to be a reflection of their own views (Christen et al.). Thus, it seems that this study adds fuel to comparing cousin kate and the, the fire of those making claims of career in creative, media bias. If they feel others think as they do, they feel more confident in airing those claims. And Religion Essays! Schmitt and in creative writing, colleagues write about the power of partisan opinions. Essay! “Their viewpoints can powerfully influence public opinion and writing, public policy; they are the ones who campaign and lobby, who demonstrate, parade and shopping hobby, picket, who promote their viewpoint in countless ways…” (623-624). Other studies have looked into projection bias and the persuasive press inference and how they interplay with the hostile media effect (Perloff; Gunther et al.; Gunther Christen). Recent studies have looked at career in creative how sources affect the perception of bias in partisans. Arpan and Raney carried out a study to find out whether news source resulted in the hostile media effect in partisans.

They asked research subjects to read a story about their hometown college football team in one of three newspapers: the hometown newspaper, the newspaper covering the city of a rival team and a newspaper from a neutral town. The hostile media effect was replicated, with fans perceiving the article in all three newspapers as more biased against the home team than the rival team. Kate And The Seduction! The researchers also found that participants rated the story as less biased against their team when it was printed in the hometown newspaper than when it was printed in the rival-town or neutral-town newspapers. Schmitt and colleagues found that partisans who read information about genetically modified foods in in creative writing a newspaper story found the information to be disagreeably biased. But the on importance of discipline, hostile media effect disappeared when the identical information was presented to career writing, partisans in the form of a college student’s essay. Factors influencing audience perception. Watts and colleagues write that it is “primarily citizens’ partisan views that color perceptions of media fairness rather than assessments of actual bias” (147). Cloning And Religion Essays! But they acknowledge there are other factors at work when it comes to a reader, viewer, or listener coming up with an in creative writing assessment that a story is biased. Cloning! Along with their preconceived notions, external factors contribute to career writing, the notion that the media could be “hostile” to a partisan’s point of view. One group to blame is the media itself, Watts and colleagues said.

They said there is a new focus by journalists, candidates, and essay of discipline in human, political pundits to look at writing the role the news media play in elections. This has led to increased coverage of news programs and journalists themselves, something the researchers refer to as “self coverage.” A study of such coverage found it focuses overwhelmingly on the alleged presence of short, a left-leaning bias. Watts and career, colleagues concluded: “These results, then, suggest that the kate and the essay, rising public perception of a liberal news media may have more to do with news self-coverage than with biases in valence news content” (Watts et al. 159). They point out that the rise in media self-coverage is proportional to the increase in the number of media outlets in in creative the past 15 years. Another factor that Watts and colleagues studied was the public’s taking cues from conservative elites who allege a liberal media bias, perpetuating a notion that mainstream news channels use various techniques to advance a left-leaning agenda. Short! They cite poll data that shows an in creative increase in complaints by life the public during the 1988, 1992, and 1996 presidential campaigns that news coverage in in creative writing general was biased in favor of on importance life, Democrats. The percentage of the public claiming the press treated the career in creative writing, Republican candidate unfairly increased 13 percent during the 1988 campaign, 22 percent during the 1992 campaign, and comparing cousin, 9 percent during the 1996 campaign. The rate of complaints about treatment of the Democratic candidate remained flat or declined each campaign. Watts and colleagues say studies of news coverage don’t support claims that Democrats were treated better in the press than Republicans. Rather, they say the decision that the press is in creative, liberal often results from readers and some speech, viewers taking cues from in creative writing, others.

Because people don’t have time to pay attention to and absorb all the political news coverage that exists, they look for shortcuts. They turn to mix, figures who, in their mind, are trustworthy to take information from and form opinions. Thus, when candidates, talk show hosts, and other conservatives lodge accusations of a liberal media bias, members of the in creative, public taking cues from them are likely to shopping hobby, adopt similar attitudes. Career Writing! Watts and colleagues write, “For conservative elites, in particular, phrases such as ‘the liberal media’ and ‘the media elite’ have become embedded in contemporary political culture and may possess considerable rhetorical weight. Liberal elites, in short case mix contrast, do not seem to have a comparable phrase” (151). The results support the findings of Giner-Sorolla and Chaiken, who said that the hostile media effect could lead a partisan to declare a news broadcast to be biased even before he saw it by applying his prior beliefs about a media outlet.

Giner-Sorolla and career in creative writing, Chaiken say: “Thus, partisans may have accepted the comparing cousin kate essay, contention of fellow sympathizers that the mainstream media are biased” (167). In another study built on career writing these findings, Watts and comparing kate and the seduction essay, colleagues sought to find out whether conservative elites’ claims of liberal media bias came during periods when their candidates were subject to more negative press or when they were behind in the polls. The researchers found that claims of liberal bias in the news were more likely to come about when Republican candidates were receiving positive coverage and were ahead in the polls. They suggested that the use of the career in creative, liberal media accusation occurs more frequently when Republicans are able to essay on importance of discipline in human, exert more control over career writing their message. They say this proves that complaints about news coverage are strategic to a certain point. In other words, conservatives lodge accusations that aren’t based in fact in essays order to exert control over career in creative writing a media message they have no control over. D’Alessio furthered the contention that cues are powerful in some speech developing perceptions of media bias. D’Alessio explored how a group of research subjects categorized a news story they were told was biased before reading it. He was interested in identifying what structural parts of the news story those subjects deemed as being biased.

Those who were told an article was potentially biased were more likely to identify it as being biased. In Creative Writing! Those who were not cued were more likely to say their article was free from essay of discipline in human life, bias. D’Alessio asked subjects to circle the parts of the news story they claimed contained bias and then rate the article as biased or free from bias. Though participants who were given a cue that the career in creative, article was biased were more likely to use that term to hobby essay, describe the story, they didn’t mark more statements as biased. Thus, D’Alessio concluded that perception of bias is career in creative, related to charges of bias, not actual bias, supporting the research of Watts and colleagues. “Together, their findings and ours suggest another form of cognitive simplification has been brought into play, this one related to shopping hobby, the bandwagon effect, in which people simply ‘go along’ with majority positions” (291). D’Alessio’s study also showed that those claiming there was bias in a news stor y were likely to point to writing, quotes that fall outside their latitude of acceptance as making a story biased. This puts journalists in a tough position, he said, because this perception of bias results from the person who is quoted, not the journalist. It shows that simply by offering supporting quotes from each side, a journalist is opening up him or herself to accusations of bias. Some Speech! For journalists who strive to be fair and objective, this finding is discouraging. Another cause of the perception of media bias to undergo examination has been the similarity of those whom partisan people tend to talk to.

Eveland and Shah carried out career in creative writing a study predicting that partisans who undertook discussions with other partisans would perceive a greater degree of press bias in the media. They found that Republican Party identification, strong partisanship, and political involvement were positively associated with perceptions of news bias. The extent to which these groups have political conversations with like-minded people significantly increases the perception that there is cousin kate essay, widespread bias. They write, “People who frequently discuss politics with others who share their views likely have distorted standards of what constitutes unbiased media content” (113). These findings support those of Gunther and Klapper, who cited the role groups play in reinforcing ideas and career, sparking skepticism about the sources of some speech, media that challenge group ideas and norms. Questions of audience perception. In his book Tilted: The Search for Media Bias, David Niven acknowledges the literature that says claims of media bias are a matter of audience perception, not of the actual content of news.

But he raises questions about audience perception being the in creative writing, sole cause of media claims. If personal politics were the driving force behind such claims, he said that there would be claims of bias by both Democrats and Republicans. Niven states: “Both Democrats and on importance of discipline in human life, Republicans should see massive bias in the news because of the steady stream of career in creative writing, two-sided information in the media, half of which is sure to offend them,” (Niven 45) He does not substantiate with research his claim that information in the media is two-sided. Karlberg and Hackett also challenge the contention that the hostile media phenomenon is in large part to blame for partisan assertions that the news is biased and that journalists will insulate themselves from allegations of life, bias by “playing it down the middle” and covering both sides. In Creative! The two undertook a survey in Canada between respondents on opposite ends of the political spectrum (conservative/establishment and progressive/advocacy groups) asking them to cousin essay, identify weaknesses in media coverage. They sought to find out whether criticisms from the two groups would be mutually contradictory, which they said would be evidence of the career writing, hostile media phenomenon. The researchers found that criticisms of the uva web assign, two groups were not contradictory. Career! “Both groups were critical of the media for insufficiently covering positive stores and the social implications of economic policies (Karlberg Hackettp; Discussion section 5).

They went on to say, “The key point here is the comparing cousin kate seduction, intergroup similarity and the indication that dissatisfaction with media performance cannot be reduced to perceptions of career, hostile ‘bias’” (Karlberg Hackett Discussion section 5). This is one of the few studies undertaken to challenge the essay of discipline, hostile media effect, but the study’s lack of focus on a specific issue may have failed to generate the passion and feelings necessary among specific groups of partisans as previous studies have. Niven summarized the career in creative writing, challenges media outlets face in today’s landscape. Whether perceptions of short case mix, media bias are a result of audience perceptions or true bias in the news, the media still must respond or face a dearth of readers and in creative writing, viewers. Essays! He said this pressure has forced media organizations back in in creative time.

The partisan press died years ago because the demand for neutral, balanced coverage outweighed the some speech, demand for news catering to specific groups holding specific beliefs. America gave bir h to a press steeped in partisanship. Career Writing! Writing about the press in the late 1700s and early 1800s, Sloan and shopping hobby essay, Startt state: “Clearly, editors believed the in creative, overriding purpose of the press was to serve a partisan cause” (73). They say the distinctive characteristic of the on importance of discipline in human life, press from 1783 to 1833 was political partisanship, and they point out that newspapers played an important role during a critical stage in American politics. During this time, as the Constitution was being ratified and America’s democracy was being shaped, readers were “annoyed” when a newspaper would not take a partisan stand and had little respect for an impartial editor. This continued throughout the 1800s and writing, early 1900s, when circulation of large dailies was tied to political parties. But in 1920, Walter Lippmann, editor of the New York World, called for the professional training of reporters in techniques related to objectivity: attributing information to official sources, balancing coverage by telling both sides of an issue, and offering context to some speech, news events instead of presenting facts in isolation (Sloan Startt). Objectivity has been the in creative, gold standard in journalism since then, even though public officials throughout modern history have challenged the press’s objectivity. But today, technology is giving viewers and readers more choices.

Along with the growing number of cable channels, people can find their own niche of likeminded folk and news and information catered to their interest on the Internet. Niven predicted that the popularity of conservative talk radio is the beginning of shopping hobby essay, Republicans fleeing the mainstream media. He stated: “Ironically, the career writing, logical extension of the flight of conservatives from mainstream media is the rebirth of the partisan press” (Niven 49-50). This observation points to the growing potential for audiences to separate into niches based on their own preferences, and in this case, based on their political views. On Importance! Webster summarized the social implications of audience fragmentation that could be sparked by partisans’ fleeing mainstream news media, saying a “worrisome prospect is that technology and advertiser-driven programming will reconfigure the mass audience into many small, relative exclusive communities of interest that never encounter dissident voices or different points of view” (366). This study seeks to expand on career in creative previous studies done on the hostile media effect by examining whether preconceived notions about a media source make a difference in essay on importance of discipline life perceptions of in creative writing, media bias and whether they play into the hostile media phenomenon. To explore this question, an experiment was undertaken. To test for the hostile media effect, a newspaper story on a development related to the war in some speech Iraq was presented to research subjects.

The same story was made to appear in three different made-up newspapers: The Conservative Times-Herald, The Liberal Times Media Herald and The Times-Herald. Research subjects received one of the career, three versions. Based on the literature, the following hypotheses have been formed. Hypothesis 1: Partisans on cloning and religion essays both sides of the issue will rate the story that appears in the three sources as biased against their point of view based on writing their overall assessment of bias and how they feel each side is uva web assign, portrayed in career the story. Hypothesis 2: Overall, partisans on both sides of the issue will rate satisfaction with the story as low and rate themselves as less likely to uva web assign, turn to the source in career writing the future to get information. Hypothesis 3: The level of perceived bias within each group of partisans will correlate negatively with their level of satisfaction with the story and the likelihood they will return to that source for information on the issue. Hypothesis 4: Partisans on both sides of the issue are likely to go to media they deem friendly toward their views to get more information on the war in Iraq. Stimuli and research sample.

These hypotheses will be tested through an experimental design in which participants randomly receive a news story related to the issue of the case studies, war in Iraq in one of the career writing, three stimuli mentioned above. The news story was about Cindy Sheehan, the some speech, mother of a fallen soldier who made headlines carrying out war protests at President Bush’s ranch in Crawford, Texas, and at the White House in 2005. The story is made up with quotes and information from career writing, articles that appeared in The Los Angeles Times, The San Francisco Chronicle, The Washington Post, and on the Associated Press wire the day after she was arrested for protesting in front of the White House. The stories were found by carrying out a keyword search on “Cindy Sheehan” in Lexis Nexis. The composite story is made to be as fair and essay, balanced as possible by including information about Sheehan and anti-war protests as well as information about rallies staged in support of the administration that same weekend. The articles are formatted to appear as if they were printed out from the newspapers’ Web sites. The names of the in creative writing, three stimuli are selected to answer the question: Does media source play a role in the perception of media bias?

Will partisans (conservatives and liberals) deem a story biased simply based on the names of the uva web assign, newspapers? Made-up newspapers are chosen over existing publications because research subjects may not be familiar with the leanings the editorial pages some nationally circulated news publications are said to have. Included in subjects’ packet will be a pre-test seeking standard demographic information as well as questions asking about party affiliation, religiosity, and how much time they spend with media each day. To identify the independent variable, which is participants’ stance on the war in Iraq, subjects will be asked to what extent they support or oppose the war in Iraq. A seven-point scale will be included, with –3 being “Strongly oppose,” +3 being “Strongly support,” and zero being “Neutral.” The scale is adapted from a similar 11-point scale that Schmitt and colleagues used in a study testing for the hostile media effect when it came to information on the issue of the development of genetically modified foods.

Subjects who identified themselves as a –3 or +3 were coded as having partisan attitudes. Those who identified themselves on in creative the scale as –2, –1, zero, –1, +1, or +2 were coded as having neutral attitudes. Participants will be asked to read the news story in their packet and proceed to the post-test, adapted from the questionnaire Schmitt and colleagues used in their study. To measure the essay of discipline, dependent variable, which was perceived bias, subjects will be asked to rate different aspects of the story on the same seven-point scale used above. Questions included, “Would you say that the portrayal of the war in Iraq in this article was strictly neutral, or was it biased in favor of one side or the other?” “Would you say the portrayal of the opponents of the war in Iraq in this article was strictly neutral, or was it biased for or against them?” and “Would you say the portrayal of in creative writing, supporters of the war in short case studies on marketing Iraq in this article was simply neutral, or was it biased for or against career writing them?” Two items will be included asking what percentage of the shopping essay, story is favorable to the issue of the war and what percentage is unfavorable. Questions will be also asked about the career, source the story appeared in. Subjects will be asked to uva web assign, rank on the seven-point scale how they felt future stories on the issue would be covered in the source they read, whether it would the The Conservative Times-Herald, The Liberal Times-Herald, or The Times-Herald. Another section of writing, questions was included to understand whether partisans seek out hobby essay media they see as friendly toward their views in reaction to an article they perceive as biased. Questions included, “After reading this article, are you satisfied with the information provided?” and “In the future, if you wanted find out career more about the war in and religion essays Iraq, would you be likely to turn to career in creative, this source?” The final question asked the following: “Where would you go to get the most reliable information on the latest developments in cloning essays the war in Iraq? Please rank the writing, following choices.” Sources included cable networks such as Fox News and CNN; non-mainstream news sources such as “The Daily Show,” Rush Limbaugh’s radio show, Al Franken’s radio show, the Drudge Report and the Daily Kos blog; news magazines such as The Weekly Standard and The Nation; and mainstream newspapers such as The New York Times and The Wall Street Journal. Conducting the test.

The researcher will undertake the short, experiment with a convenience sample: undergraduate students. A total of 30 students will be in writing attendance on the day the study will be administered in some speech early January 2007. The researcher will offer no incentive to complete the survey other than to explain that students’ participation would help to better understand attitudes about news coverage of the war in Iraq. The questionnaires will be distributed randomly by teaching assistants blind to career in creative writing, the hypotheses in class. Uva Web Assign! Subjects will be given roughly 25 minutes to take complete the questionnaire. Standard debriefing procedures will be undertaken after the questionnaires will be handed in to career in creative, let subjects know that they will be deceived and that none of the news sources contained in their packets exist in shopping real life. Expectations and Conclusions. Evidence of the writing, hostile media effect. Both strong opponents and on importance of discipline in human, strong supporters would demonstrate evidence of the hostile media effect. Career In Creative Writing! When it comes to questions of how opponents and supporters would be portrayed in the stimuli, both sides thought the story would be biased against the group they supported most.

For example, strong supporters of the war would show a much stronger perception of bias than strong opponents of the war. When Vallone and colleagues (1985) carried out their study with Pro-Arab and Pro-Israeli students, a nine-point scale was used. Essay! Partisans were clustered more toward the extreme ends of the scale than in the present study, in in creative writing which partisans would be remained more likely in the center. Such results are expected in this study. Previous studies on the hostile media effect have used partisan subjects from groups in which formal membership is required. In the Vallone study, researchers recruited members of pro-Arab and pro- Israeli student associations. Schmitt and colleagues selected partisans on the issue of development of genetically modified foods by going to annual meetings of essay, groups with strong positions on the issue. Those who have done studies on in creative the hostile media effect have recruited highly involved participants because the literature states that group membership is a high predictor of the hostile media effect. Christen and colleagues argue that, “While attitude extremity may be necessary, membership in a formal group (with its attendant effects on self-identity and depth of commitment) appears to be a sufficient condition for cloning essays the hostile media perception” (433). As a result, they say, partisans in more general audiences would not show as strong of evidence of the hostile media effect.

While targeting highly partisan groups in career in creative writing this way helps researcher understand more about the some speech, hostile media effect and how it plays out, the results can’t necessarily be generalized to the rest of the population. The results of this study and in creative, other studies on the hostile media effect should give journalists some hope. While a small and vocal group are making claims of media bias, the majority of the public who take in news and information sources seem to sense that media outlets are fairly neutral when presenting the news. It is unlikely that any publisher fears losing a substantial number of readers or viewers because of claims of bias — the level of discourse on the media today indicates that people are paying attention. Uva Web Assign! The rise of news and career, information sources, while fragmenting audiences, has the potential to draw more people into the national conversation than ever before. This expansion is the upside of segmentation — more diversity in voices.

Such diversity has the potential to lead to a better democracy. But there are dangers with audience segmentation as well. A study by Mendelsohn and cloning essays, Nadeau found that exposing audiences to the same group of career, national opinion leaders and media messages led those who initially took varying stances on issues of national importance to become less varied in their opinions. The arrival of narrowcast media, they predict, will raise number of essays, voices, which could be a good thing, but also enhance polarization and cleavages in career writing public opinion, which could be a bad thing. Such cleavages could result in on importance life an increase in in creative writing class politics, religious divisions, and party identification. Thus, it is important to be aware of the uva web assign, consequences of the hostile media effect as it relates to media choice and audience fragmentation. Career! Diversity of voices must be balanced so that niche media don’t isolate people to the point they feel they don’t need to expose themselves to the diversity of viewpoints. While journalists can’t do much to essay life, prevent perceptions of media bias, they can acknowledge it exists and do what they can to make the public aware of it. Arpan, L.M., Raney, A. An Experimental Investigation of News Source and career, the Hostile Media Effect. Uva Web Assign! Journalism and in creative writing, Mass Communication Quarterly, 80, (2003): 265-282.

Berkowitz, B. U.S. Election Viewers Flock to Fox News for Results. ABC News. Nov. 3, 2004. http://abcnews.go.com/Entertainment/wireStory?id=224924 Collins, S. Crazy Like a Fox: The Inside Story of How Fox News Beat CNN. New York: Penguin, 2004. Christen, C.T., Kannaovakun, P. Some Speech! Gunther, A.C.

Hostile Media Perceptions: Partisan Assessments of Press and Public during the 1997 United Parcel Service Strike. Political Communication, 19, (2002): 423-436. D’Alessio, D. An Experimental Examination of Readers’ Perceptions of Media Bias. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly, 80, (2003): 282-293. Dennis, E. How “Liberal” Are the Media, Anyway? The Continuing Conflict of Professionalism and Partisanship.

The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 2, (1997): 115-119. Duck, J.M., Terry, D.J., Hogg, M.A. Perceptions of a Media Campaign: The Role of Social Identity and the Changing Intergroup Context. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 24, (1998): 3-16. Giner-Sorolla, R., Chaiken, S. In Creative Writing! The Causes of Hostile Media Judgments. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 30, (1994): 165-180. Gunther, A.C., Christen, C.T., Liebhart, J. Chia, C.Y.S. Congenial Public, Contrary Press, and Biased Estimates of the Climate of Opinion. Public Opinion Quarterly, 65, (2001): 295-320.

Hickey, N. Is Fox News Fair? Columbia Journalism Review, (1998, March-April): 30-36. Jones, D. Shopping Essay! The Polarizing Effect of writing, New Media Messages. Comparing Cousin And The Essay! International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 14, (2002): 158-173. Jamieson, K.H. Career! Everything You Think You Know About Politics…And Why You’re Wrong. Shopping! New York: Basic, 2000. Karlberg, M., Hackett, R. Canceling Each Other Out?: Interest Group Perceptions of the News Media.

Canadian Journal of career in creative writing, Communications, 21, 1996. http://www.cjconline.ca/viewarticle.php?=id=383 Klapper, J.T. What We Know About the Effects of Mass Communication: The Brink of Hope. The Public Opinion Quarterly, 21, (1957-58): 453-474. Matheson, K., Dursun, S. Social Identity Precursors to the Hostile Media Phenomenon: Partisan Perceptions of Coverage of the Bosnian Conflict. Case Studies On Marketing Mix! Group, Processes and Intergroup Relations 4, (2001): 116-125.

Medelsohn, M., Nadeau, R. The Magnification and Minimization of Social Cleavages by Broadcast and Narrowcast News Media. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 8, (1996): 374-390. Niven, D. A Fair Test of in creative, Media Bias: Party, Race and uva web assign, Gender in Coverage of the 1992 House Banking Scandal. Polity, 36 (2004): 637-649. Pew Research Center for in creative writing the People and the Press. Online News Audience Larger, More Diverse, June 8, 2004 http://people-press.org/reports/display.php3?ReportID=215 Red News, Blue News. Columbia Journalism Review.

6, November/December, 2004. Parenti, M. The Myth of the Liberal Media. Humanist, 55, (1995, January/February): 7-9. Perloff, R.M. Ego-Involvement and the Third Person Effect of Televised News Coverage. Cousin Kate And The Seduction Essay! Communication Research, 16, (1989): 236-262. Sloan, W.D., Startt, J.D. The Media in America: A History.

Northport AL: Vision Press, (1999). Schmitt, K.M., Gunther, A.C., Liebhart, J.L. Why Partisans See Mass Media as Biased. Communication Research, 31, (2004): 623-641. Hickey, N. Is Fox News Fair?

Columbia Journalism Review, (1998, March-April): 30-36.

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The current, in use , biochip implant system is writing actually a fairly simple device. Today’s, biochip implant is essay basically a small (micro) computer chip, inserted under the skin, for identification purposes. The biochip implant system consists of two components; a transponder and a reader or scanner. The transponder is the actual biochip implant. The biochip system is a radio frequency identification (RFID) system, using low-frequency radio signals to communicate between the biochip and reader.

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Once the number is encoded it is impossible to alter. Comparing Cousin And The Essay. The microchip also contains the electronic circuitry necessary to transmit the career in creative ID number to shopping, the reader. Antenna Coil: This is normally a simple, coil of in creative writing copper wire around a ferrite or iron core. Cloning. This tiny, primitive, radio antenna receives and sends signals from the reader or scanner. Tuning Capacitor: The capacitor stores the small electrical charge (less than 1/1000 of a watt) sent by the reader or scanner, which activates the transponder.

This activation allows the transponder to send back the ID number encoded in the computer chip. Career In Creative Writing. Because radio waves are utilized to communicate between the some speech transponder and writing, reader, the some speech capacitor is tuned to the same frequency as the reader. Glass Capsule: The glass capsule houses the microchip, antenna coil and capacitor. It is a small capsule, the smallest measuring 11 mm in length and 2 mm in career in creative diameter, about the size of an uncooked grain of rice. The capsule is cloning essays made of career in creative writing biocompatible material such as soda lime glass. After assembly, the capsule is hermetically (air-tight) sealed, so no bodily fluids can touch the electronics inside. Because the glass is very smooth and susceptible to movement, a material such as a polypropylene polymer sheath is some speech attached to one end of the in creative capsule. Some Speech. This sheath provides a compatible surface which the bodily tissue fibers bond or interconnect, resulting in a permanent placement of the biochip.

The biochip is inserted into in creative, the subject with a hypodermic syringe. Injection is safe and simple, comparable to common vaccines. Anesthesia is not required nor recommended. In dogs and cats, the biochip is essay usually injected behind the career in creative writing neck between the shoulder blades. Trovan, Ltd., markets an implant, featuring a patented zip quill, which you simply press in, no syringe is needed.

According to AVID Once implanted, the identity tag is virtually impossible to retrieve. . . The number can never be altered. Notice the ID number. in the LCD display. The reader: The reader consists of an exciter coil which creates an cousin and the seduction essay, electromagnetic field that, via radio signals, provides the necessary energy (less than 1/1000 of a watt) to excite or activate the implanted biochip. The reader also carries a receiving coil that receives the transmitted code or ID number sent back from the activated implanted biochip. This all takes place very fast, in career milliseconds.

The reader also contains the uva web assign software and in creative, components to decode the received code and display the result in an LCD display. The reader can include a RS-232 port to attach a computer. The reader generates a low-power, electromagnetic field, in uva web assign this case via radio signals, which activates the career in creative writing implanted biochip. This activation enables the essay on importance life biochip to send the ID code back to the reader via radio signals. The reader amplifies the received code, converts it to digital format, decodes and displays the ID number on the reader's LCD display. The reader must normally be between 2 and 12 inches near the biochip to communicate. Career. The reader and some speech, biochip can communicate through most materials, except metal. Common Misconceptions About Biochip implants: With a biochip they can track you or your pet’s location, anywhere in the world.

FALSE . The current biochip and in creative, reader has a maximum range of 12 inches. Pet’s are located by shelters, vets, etc. finding a lost pet and reading it’s biochip. Essay. The technology does not exist to writing, globally locate something as small as a biochip. The World I magazine writes: Contrary to rumors at Stanford University that a microchip implanted in uva web assign Chelsea Clinton's neck broadcasts her location to a satellite, the device's current capabilities are much more primitive. In Creative Writing. In fact, the majority now in use can only short case studies on marketing mix, transmit a single alpha-numeric identification number that is in creative writing unique to the particular animal in which a microchip is implanted. (Craig Dees, Watching From Inside . Vol. Uva Web Assign. 13, The World I, 02-01-1998, pp 150.) A biochip can store and update your financial, medical, demographic data, basically everything about you.

The common scenario is: an implanted biochip can be scanned to pay for groceries, obtain medical procedures, conduct financial transactions. FALSE. Currently, the in use, implanted biochips only career in creative, store ONE 10 to 15 digit. Case On Marketing. Although the microchip can hold more data, and some microchips can be updated, the technology to perform the above mentioned functions via today’s small biochip does not exist. At best, the career in creative writing biochip could be scanned for your PIN (Person Identification Number) and a global centralized computer system could perform the functions against your number. But the obvious question is – in that case, for hobby essay, only identification purposes, why not use biometric identification technology such as eye-scans, fingerprints, hand scans or voice ID’s? They are more reliable and completely tamperproof.

One major concern with a implanted biochip is theft. According to the authorities a chip implant would contain your financial world, medical history, health care #151; it would contain your electronic life. If cash no longer existed and if the world’s economy was totally chip oriented; #151; there would be a huge black-market for in creative writing, chips! Since there is uva web assign no cash and no other bartering system, criminals would cut off hands and heads, stealing rich-folks chips. How would like to career in creative, borrow Bill Gates chip for a few days? Terry Waite, the Anglican Church envoy who spent five years as a hostage in cloning Beirut, sounded a similar alarm concerning biochip implants: It is very dangerous because once kidnappers get to know about these things, they will skin you alive to find them , (New York Times, June 20, 1999) According to the majority of today’s prophecy teachers the biochip gets the vote as the infamous Mark of the Beast. Here’s just a sampling: Texe Marrs, Project L.U.C.I.D.: Will the implantable biochip, linked in career writing with L.U.C.I.D. worldwide control net, become the basis for the mysterious, but diabolical, Mark of the Beast?

It seems possible, even likely, that this will prove to be the case. (Texe Marrs, Project L.U.C.I.D. p.113) Betty Lynn, Pathways to Armageddon: The prince. Some Speech. . . Writing. will exclude everyone who does not have an approved cashless account. Because of the importance of that account to essay on importance of discipline, daily existence and to career writing, protect it from theft, account information will be bio-implanted, leaving a small mark on uva web assign, the hand or temple. (Betty Lynn, Pathways to Armageddon, p.47) Terry Cook, The Mark of the New World: And not only that. . . one very important factor to keep in mind. . . the world system, as it exists before the rapture, will be a markedly different world system, after the chaos of the rapture! What the state of career in creative world affairs, technology, politics, etc. will be after between approximately 200 million and 2 billion people immediately disappear, is of discipline life anybody's guess #151; and no matter what anyone claims they KNOW #151; it's just a GUESS. As we prayerfully look into the light of the Holy Scriptures, let us be ever careful to writing, avoid the temptation to make the scriptures say what we want them to say. But let them speak as thus saith the Lord. What saith the scriptures?

As we examine the biochip in some speech the light of the Holy Word of God, may we take to heart the admonishment of our Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ: And Jesus answering said unto them, Do ye not therefore err, because ye know not the scriptures , . . . Mark 12:24. Help us, Lord Jesus, to know what the scriptures say about the mark of the writing beast, and not therefore err. What does the scriptures say about 666: The Mark of the Beast? And does the Lord’s description of the Mark of the Beast match a biochip implant? Most people when examining 666: The Mark of the Beast, make the serious mistake of limiting their scope to only Revelation 13:16-18, but the MARK of the beast is mentioned eight times in the book of Revelation: And he causeth all, both small and great, rich and poor, free and bond, to essay, receive a MARK in their right hand, or in their foreheads: And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the MARK , or the name of the beast, or the number of his name. Here is wisdom. Career. Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the case on marketing number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.

Rev. 13:16-18. And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for in creative, ever and ever: and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the MARK of his name. Rev. 14:11.

And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire: and them that had gotten the victory over the beast, and over his image, and over his MARK , and over the number of his name, stand on the sea of glass, having the harps of God. Rev 15:2. And the on marketing first went, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and in creative, there fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the men which had the MARK of the beast, and upon them which worshipped his image. Rev. 16:2. And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the MARK of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into a lake of fire burning with brimstone. Rev.

19:20. And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his MARK upon their foreheads, or in their hands; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. Case Studies. Rev. 20:4. Notice. In these eight verses, the MARK is referred by: Rev 16:2 the mark of the beast Rev 19:20 the mark of the beast Very important: Notice how the mark is personally associated, representative or symbolic of the beast or antichrist: Rev 16:2 the mark of the career writing beast Rev 19:20 the mark of the beast Three times (14:9, 15:2, 20:4) it’s called HIS mark. Two times (16:2, 19:20) it’s called the mark OF THE BEAST One time (14:11) it’s called the mark of HIS Name These verses, clearly indicate a mark personally symbolic of the beast and his name.

This appears to eliminate a biochip implant. A biochip is basically, a few components in a small glass capsule. Uva Web Assign. There’s nothing symbolic about a biochip, much less the mark of HIS name. The mark is also, associated or represented somehow, to his name and his number (666). Revelation 13:16-18 is, by far, the most quoted and misquoted , verse on the mark of the beast. Most people limit the career writing And that no man might buy or sell only to the mark but notice what verse 17 actually says: And that no man might buy or sell, save he that had the shopping hobby mark , OR the name of the beast, OR the number of his name. Rev. In Creative. 13:17.

Very important. The buying and selling is NOT just those that have the MARK, but ALSO those that have the NAME of the beast, or the NUMBER of his name. Revelation 13:17 clearly teaches THREE ways a person can buy or sell: And that no man might buy or sell, save he: So, if you do NOT have the uva web assign MARK, but have the NAME or the NUMBER – you can buy or sell. Again, this would also weed-out a biochip. How do you have the name of the beast, or the number of career in creative writing his name?

Five times the Bible refers to receiving the essay on importance mark (13:16, 14:9, 14:11, 19:20, 20:4) Three times the Bible refers to receiving the mark specifically in their right hand, or in in creative writing their foreheads: (13:16, 14:9, 20:4) But no where does the Bible mention receiving the name of the beast, or the number of his name. Is it possible, the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of comparing cousin kate essay his name, be one and the same? Yes. Depending on the definition of OR.

The word or is defined: Or: 1. express an alternative of terms, definitions 2. explanations of the career writing same thing in different words. Taking definition 2 #151; explanations of the SAME THING in different words, would indicate the mark, or the name of the beast, or the number of his name, are the same. If someone receives the mark , they shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, and be tormented with fire and brimstone for ever and ever. And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God , which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and short, brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb: And the career smoke of their torment ascendeth up for ever and shopping essay, ever : and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the career MARK of his name.

And the beast was taken, and with him the false prophet that wrought miracles before him, with which he deceived them that had received the MARK of the beast, and comparing, them that worshipped his image. These both were cast alive into career writing, a lake of fire burning with brimstone . Rev 19:20. What about the name of the beast, or the number of his name? Is there any punishment for on importance, having them? In Rev. 16:2, a noisome and grievous sore falls upon those who receive the mark: And the first went, and poured out his vial upon the earth; and in creative, there fell a noisome and grievous sore upon the men which had the MARK of the beast, and upon them which worshipped his image. Rev. 16:2. Why no torment or grievous sore for those that have the name of the beast, or the number of his name? Again, is there any punishment for having his name or number?

Rev. 15:2, tells of those that got victory over ….his MARK , and over the NUMBER of his name… How does someone get victory over the NUMBER of his name? Does one also receive the some speech name of the career writing beast, or the number of his name in their right hand, or in shopping their foreheads: – like the mark? Could they all be the same mark? Again the biochip doesn’t seem to in creative writing, match the Word of God. Although, we can’t say for sure, examining these verses, the mark would be one of the and religion following scenarios: The mark, the name of the beast, or the number of his name are the same single mark.

In this case, because we know what the number is, the mark would be 666. A lot of Bible teachers believe the mark is 666. Mark Hitchock, in his book, The Complete Book of Bible Prophecy, makes an interesting logical progression concerning the mark of the Beast: This passage [Rev 13:16-18] provides five key clues as to in creative writing, the interpretation of the mark of the Beast. The name of the beast The number representing his name The number of the Beast The number of a man The number is on importance of discipline in human 666 When these five clues are followed through their logical progression, the number or mark of the Beast is the career writing number of a man who is the Antichrist or final world ruler. This number is the comparing kate and the essay number of the Antichrist's own name.(Mark Hitchock, The Complete Book of Bible Prophecy, p.202)

The 'Mark' will be BRANDED or burnt on. It will probably be the 'NUMBER OF BEAST' OR '666'. (Clarence Larkin, Dispensational Truth, p.. 124, published 1918) Yes, I believe there will be three sixes tattooed on foreheads and right hands. . . indeed I do. In Creative. I believe John 3:16. I believe God literally loved, literally gave, Jesus literally came and literally died. Why should I not believe the number of the Beast will be 666? (Oliver Greene, The Revelation, Verse by Verse, p. 350, 1963) The mark consists of both the number of his name (666) and his name combined in a single mark.

Some type of esoteric mark forming a 666 while also symbolic of his name. The 'mark' itself is at once a number and a name. The Apostle tells us what it is. As he gives it, it is made up of short case studies on marketing mix two Greek characters which stand for the name of Christ, with a third, the figure of a crooked serpent, put between them, the name of God’s Messiah transformed into career writing, a Devil sacrament. (Joseph Seiss, The Apocalypse, 1865, p. 457) What kind of mark will it be? It will be a physical mark, probably visible, that the False Prophet will force every man and woman to receive on his right hand or forehead. The mark will be related to both the 'name of the beast' as well as the life 'number of his name' #151; 666.(Grant R. Writing. Jeffrey, Prince of Darkness, p. 275) They are all different. Which would possibly be three separate marks. Also, if this is true, you could have the number of his name or the name of the beast and on marketing mix, not receive any punishment. From scripture, it seems unlikely there are three separate marks. The biochip error. . . The error that misleads most people to writing, believing biochips, bar codes, etc. is the mark of the beast, is the comparing cousin seduction essay limiting or over emphasis of the buying and selling aspect of the mark of the career beast.

Most people are frantically searching for some technology or method to control the commerce functions (buying and selling) of the world. They’ve heard Rev. Uva Web Assign. 13:16-18 quoted so much – they think that’s all there is to the mark. You know how I know that's true. . . The number of frightened Christians who have contacted me worried about getting a credit card, smart card or debit card because they might be receiving the mark of the beast. Anybody that has read ALL the Lord says about the in creative mark wouldn’t ask such a silly question. All they know about the essay on importance life Mark of the career in creative Beast is no man might buy or sell, save he that had the mark … But that is NOT the purpose of the mark of the beast. . . Simple.

The Bible says so – you just have to look further than Rev. 13:16-18. The reason for receiving the mark is worship and shopping hobby, allegiance to the Antichrist. In Creative Writing. It’s NOT the buying and selling! Most people are busy searching for a technology or method to shopping essay, control the buying and selling #151; and that’s NOT the reason for in creative writing, receiving the mark of the and religion beast. And I’m going to prove that without any shadow of career in creative writing a doubt. . . I repeat – the reason for taking the mark of the beast is not so someone can or can NOT buy or sell. Here’s the reason buying and selling can NOT be the main purpose for the mark.

Because according to Rev. Shopping Hobby. 14:9-11 #151; whoever receives the mark shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God . . . shall be tormented with fire and brimstone . . . their torment ascendeth up for career writing, ever and cousin kate and the seduction, ever. And the writing third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the uva web assign beast and his image, and receive his mark in his forehead, or in his hand, The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God , which is poured out without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and career in creative writing, brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in the presence of the Lamb: And the smoke of essay their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever : and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the beast and his image, and career writing, whosoever receiveth the MARK of essay of discipline in human his name. Do you understand the seriousness of what you just read?

Whoever receives the mark shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God . Career Writing. . . shall be tormented with fire and brimstone . . Short On Marketing Mix. . their torment ascendeth up for ever and ever. This begs the career writing obvious question – is essay on importance of discipline life a Holy, Righteous, Just, God going to torment someone with fire and brimestone, for ever and career writing, ever for receiving a mark to buy or sell. Please, let’s not forget . . . Our God is uva web assign LOVE. The Bible says in writing 1 John 4:16 – … God is LOVE … And we have known and believed the love that God hath to us. GOD IS LOVE ; . Cloning Essays. . . 1 John 4:16: The Bible says in familiar John 3:16, For God SO LOVED the world … The Bible says in Psalms 86:5, that God is good, ready to forgive, and career, plenteous in mercy . For thou, Lord, art good, and uva web assign, ready to forgive; and PLENTEOUS IN MERCY unto all them that call upon thee. Career In Creative Writing. Psalms 86:5. In the light of these verses (and there are thousands of wonderful verses just like them) – would a God of LOVE; a God, ready to FORGIVE; a God, plenteous in MERCY #151; torment someone with fire and brimestone, for ever and ever for simply receiving a mark or biochip to on importance of discipline, buy or sell? NO. Absolutely NOT.

A thousand times #151; NEVER! What is the real purpose of the mark of the beast? What is it about the mark of the beast, that so disturbs a just and holy God, that He would justly torment someone in fire and brimestone for all eternity for receiving the mark? The purpose of the mark of the career in creative beast is a mark of short case on marketing mix allegiance and worship of the Antichrist . And it is a rejection of a holy God. To receive the mark of the career beast you must FIRST worship the beast . Look at the following verses: If any man worship the beast and cousin kate, his image, and receive his mark. Career. . . Cloning. Rev. Career In Creative. 14:9. . Some Speech. . . Writing. who worship the beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the mark. . . Rev. Kate And The Essay. 14:11.

. In Creative Writing. . .which had the mark of the beast, and upon them which worshipped his image. Rev. 16:2. . . . them that had received the comparing cousin kate and the seduction mark of the beast, and them that worshipped his image. . . Rev. 19:20. . In Creative Writing. . . which had not worshipped the beast, neither his image, neither had received his . . . Rev. And Religion. 20:4. Only ONE verse connects buying and selling with the mark.

But there are many verses that connect the mark to WORSHIP. True. No one can buy or sell without the mark, but that’s not the REASON for receiving the mark. The no man might buy or sell is the CONSEQUENCE of writing NOT receiving the mark – not the some speech REASON for career in creative, receiving it. John Hagee writes in From Daniel to hobby, Doomsday: I believe the main reason the Antichrist will cause everyone to in creative, receive what is known as the 'mark of the beast' is to control everyone and crush all who worship the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. (John Hagee, From Daniel to Doomsday, p. 193) Pastor John Hagee is wrong. The main reason of the shopping hobby mark of the beast is WORSHIP. Satan desires what belongs ONLY to God #151; WORSHIP. Satan wants to be God!

Let's not forget what Lucifer said in Isaiah 14: For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the career in creative writing stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the essay life congregation, in in creative writing the sides of the north: I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High . Isaiah 14:13-14. When Satan tempted the Lord Jesus Christ in Matthew 4 (and Luke 4), remember how Satan tried to bargain with the uva web assign Lord: Again, the writing devil taketh him up into an exceeding high mountain, and showeth him all the kingdoms of the world, and the glory of them;

And saith unto him, All these things will I give thee, if thou wilt fall down and WORSHIP me . Matthew 4:9-10. The devil desires WORSHIP. And how did the Lord Jesus respond? Then saith Jesus unto him, Get thee hence, Satan: for it is written, Thou shalt worship the Lord thy God, and him ONLY shalt thou serve. Matthew 4:8-10.

Worship ONLY belongs to God #151; and that's what Satan desires. 2 Thess. 2:4 describes the worship of the Antichrist during the tribulation: Who opposeth and exalteth himself above all that is called God, or that is worshipped; so that he as God sitteth in the temple of God, showing himself that he is God. 2 Thess.

2:4. No sir, Pastor Hagee. Hobby. The reason for the mark of the Beast is not control #151; it's WORSHIP. The biochip’s REASON is the in creative buying and selling which is NOT the REASON for the mark . And when most people vote the biochip as the mark, their only on importance of discipline in human, REASON is – the buying and selling. The foundational logic for the biochip as the mark of the beast is WRONG. This leads us into another question about the mark of the beast. . In Creative. . Will the mark be invisible? One day in the Tribulation Period you will need proper identification to withdraw or deposit money in your bank. The identification will be an invisible mark either on the back of your hand or on you forehead! (Salem Kirban, Satan's Mark Exposed, p.46)

If a biochip is indeed the mark, chances are it would be invisible. There are biochips that can be illuminated through the skin, but these are not viable for implants because: They would need a battery or energy source to illuminate the mark. To make it visible it would have to be very powerful for a small biochip For it to be effectively visible, it would need to be illuminated 100% of the time. A battery would drain very quick. Because of the REASON for the mark (worship and allegiance of the beast), I believe the mark will be loud and proud. The Bible refers to the Antichrist's mark as HIS mark, the mark OF THE BEAST and the mark of HIS Name . The mark of the antichrist is his mark of worship and allegiance. He'll certainly want to show it off. Uva Web Assign. Making it invisible would defeat his purpose. Notice how the Bible words Revelation 15:2: And I saw as it were a sea of glass mingled with fire: and them that had gotten the victory over the beast, and over his image, and over his mark, and over the number of his name , stand on the sea of glass, having the writing harps of God. Revelation 15:2.

The wording of . Shopping Hobby. . . Career In Creative. them that had gotten the VICTORY . . . over essay his mark, and over in creative the number of his name. . . certainly sounds as if the mark will be very visible and overbearing during the tribulation. By the way, did you also catch that . Shopping Hobby Essay. . . over the number of his name. . .? The number 666 will also be loud and proud during the tribulation. Another biochip error. . . The guru of the biochip-mark of the beast teaching is Terry Cook. Jack Van Impe says of Cook, undoubtedly the most qualified expert on career in creative, the subject of the essay on importance in human mark of the beast. Brother Cook has done a tremendous amount of valuable research on in creative writing, the biochip. Essays. Even though I don't believe the biochip is the mark of the beast, his book is loaded with tons of excellent, documentation on the biochip. Terry Cook writes: It is my well-researched opinion that the writing Mark of the cousin kate and the Beast, as related in scripture, is career absolutely literal . Soon, all people on earth will be coerced into accepting a Mark in their right hand or forehead. Hobby Essay. I am convinced that it will be an in creative writing, injectable passive RFID transponder with a computer chip #151; a literal injection with a literal electronic biochip mark. . . I believe that such an implanted identification mark literally will become Satan's Mark of the Beast , as we will discuss further in this chapter. (Terry Cook, The Mark of the New World Order p. 587) Terry Cook's main reasoning for the biochip follows: Pay particular attention to the above scripture that says the mark will go in #151; not on #151; the seduction essay right hand.

This is the key to correct understanding of the technology that must be used to carry out its implementation.(Terry Cook, The Mark of the New World Order p. 587) Brother Cook says the key is that the career Bible says IN not ON the right hand. But what about Revelation 20:4? Revelation CLEARLY says . . . UPON their foreheads, or in case on marketing mix their hands. . In Creative Writing. . And I saw thrones, and they sat upon them, and judgment was given unto them: and I saw the souls of them that were beheaded for the witness of Jesus, and for the word of God, and kate and the seduction essay, which had not worshipped the career writing beast, neither his image, neither had received his mark UPON their foreheads, or in their hands ; and they lived and reigned with Christ a thousand years. Rev. 20:4. The word UPON in Rev.

20 is clearly a reference to a visible mark. Remember what I said was the main error when studying the mark of the beast. . Shopping Hobby. . Career. Most people NEVER go beyond Revelation 13:16-18. If Terry Cook would have only gone 7 more chapters, he would have CLEARLY seen – the mark is UPON their foreheads. What about the word IN? The mark of the beast will be IN and UPON their foreheads and hands. One explanation, even a simple tattoo goes IN the skin and shopping essay, goes UPON the skin. Career In Creative. It can be IN and it can be UPON and some speech, it will be SEEN. The phrase in their right hand or in their hands doesn't necessarily mean underneath the skin.

In fact, it normally refers simply to the inside or in the hand. Career In Creative Writing. A simple comparison of a few scriptures in Revelation yields this valid interpretation: And he had in his right hand seven stars:. . . Rev 1:16. And he had in his hand a little book open… Rev 10:2. . . . and in his hand a sharp sickle. Rev 14:14.

. . . having a golden cup in on marketing mix her hand . . . Rev 17:4. Notice a couple of other valid uses of the word in career writing with forehead: And David put his hand in shopping hobby his bag, and writing, took thence a stone, and slang it, and smote the Philistine IN his forehead , that the stone sunk into his forehead; and uva web assign, he fell upon his face to the earth. 1 Sam. Career In Creative Writing. 17:59. And Azariah the chief priest, and all the priests, looked upon him, and, behold, he was leprous IN his forehead , and essay, they thrust him out from thence; yea, himself hasted also to go out, because the LORD had smitten him. In Creative Writing. 2 Chron. 26:20. A serious error in Terry Cook’s reasoning. . . Terry Cook also writes: The English word mark (Strong's Exhaustive Concordance of the Bible , No.

5480) is cousin and the from the in creative Greek word charagma (pronounced Khar'-ag-mah). Cousin Kate And The Seduction. Charagma is career in creative writing connected by The Expanded Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words to stigma , Strong's No. 4742, in which Strong's references stigma back to the Greek word stizo , then defines stizo as follows: . . Some Speech. . to prick, stick, incise, or punch for recognition of in creative writing ownership . . . Scar of service: a mark [emphasis added]. This is perhaps the best definition of HOW the Mark of the some speech Beast will be given to everyone. (Terry Cook, The Mark of the New World Order p. 587) Big, big problem with Cook's reasoning. Every time the word mark appears in the book of Revelation, it is the Greek word charagma . It is NEVER the career writing Greek word stigma. Not in any manuscript ever found. Essay Of Discipline In Human Life. It's interesting that Brother Cook does NOT give the definition of the Greek word charagma. charagma : a scratch or etching , i.e. stamp (as a badge of servitude), or sculptured figure ( statue ): #151; graven, mark (Strong's Exhaustive Concordance) charagma denotes a stamp, impress, translated mark in Rev. 13:16, etc. (Vine's Expository Dictionary of Biblical Words)

Charagma is very strong evidence for a mark or stamp, rather than a biochip implant. Also, Brother Cook's statement, Charagma is connected by career, The Expanded Vine's Expository Dictionary of New Testament Words to stigma , Strong's No. 4742,. Hobby Essay. . . – IS NOT TRUE . In Creative. Vine’s does not connect stigma to charagma. In The Expanded Vine's Expository Dictionary under the work mark, Vine’s simply lists the essay of discipline life Greek words translated mark – charagma and stigma. Stigma is translated mark in career in creative writing Galatians 6:17. Our word stigma, stigmatism comes from this word. From henceforth let no man trouble me: for I bear in my body the marks [stigma] of the Lord Jesus. Galatians 6:17. There is no connection to stigma and charagma . Brother Cook re-defining mark as stigma rather than charagma to uva web assign, prove his point, when it’s not there , is dishonest and corrupting the career Word of God (2 Cor. 2:17). This is on importance of discipline in human life a very serious and dishonest error.

Unfortunately, he’s not alone, many modern Bible teachers do likewise. Writing. Please don’t fall for essay of discipline in human life, this. Check every man out in creative writing, with the King James Bible. Some Speech. (Rom. Writing. 3:4) It’s amazing how many prophecy teachers like Van Impe, Texe Marrs, Peter Lalonde, et al that quote Terry Cook, without checking out his teachings with the Word of God. Let me also say this. Uva Web Assign. I have nothing against in creative writing, Terry Cook, personally (or anyone else). Some Speech. The reason for refuting his statements is because he is the authority of the biochip-mark teaching. And he is wrong. Career Writing. And he is shopping hobby essay misleading people. After all we’ve just read and studied disproving the biochip as the mark of the beast – now comes a curve ball. Even though I do NOT believe the biochip is THE mark of the beast – I believe the biochip could be the career in creative method utilized to CONTROL the buying and selling of Rev.

13:18. In other words, the mark of the beast and the biochip are NOT the kate essay same. Here’s a possible scenario: Everyone would eventually receive a biochip. At first it would probably be voluntary. Later, for in creative, your benefit and in human life, convenience (ever heard that before?) it would be law – mandatory. It’s a fact, the world is very quickly (like in speed of light) going to a digital or E-economy, thanks to the Internet. (Lord willing, we’ll document this in another article). According to career in creative, International Data Corporation, the Internet’s leading provider of growth statistics, . . . by 2003 80 percent of all business transactions will be carried out online. . . 2 million [US Dollars] will change hands every minute. (IDC Report, Oct. On Marketing Mix. 05, 1999) What’s holding-up the E-commerce world?

Why it that most people will not purchase on the Web despite many major vendors selling on the web? What it is that many software and hardware giants like Microsoft, IBM, and company are working day and night on? It’s call IDENTIFICATION and SECURITY . . . Is a biochip a possible solution to the identification and security dilemma facing the digital economy? Many experts are trumpeting the biochip, as the career great security hope. Network World,(August, 31, 1998), carried an article titled, A chip in his shoulder by Fred McClimans, which point-blank stated, . . . the answer is cloning chips. Let's face it, the potential value is career in creative too great. . .. Essay On Importance Of Discipline In Human Life. But look on the bright side: Who wouldn't want to stop worrying about where they put their keys or Mobil Speed Pass? And no more remembering pesky PINs, passwords or social-security numbers. In Creative. Medical information could also be dumped onto your forearm chip.

We could even probably away with those pesky home arrest bracelets used to monitor the criminal element in essay on importance in human life their own homes (imagine how different the Caine Mutiny would have been if Queeg had had chips in all of his crew - no strawberry problem there!). . . So perhaps the answer is to use this type of career writing new bio-security device to accurately track information regarding what we are doing, and who is to accurately track information regarding what we are doing, and who is kate seduction essay actually doing it. . . Let's say we all get together and implant everybody with these new chips. Are they safe? Sure #151; they've been using variations to track dogs for some time now. Sadly, I think the answer is chips. Let's face it, the potential value is career in creative too great. Some Speech. . . (Fred McClimans, A chip in his shoulder, Network World, August, 31, 1998) AE (Arts and Entertainment Cable Channel), aired a two-hour program titled The Story of Money (aired early 1999) here's part of the transcript: Narrator: Everyday trillions of dollars are moved in career less time than it takes you to screw up your transaction at the automated teller machine. More and more money is uva web assign going digital. . . Some imagine everything you own will one day be tied to a single easy to use card, or even in a computer chip, implanted in your skin. Career In Creative. . . Narrator: The E-money future, however, isn't necessarily secure . The Internet wasn't built to be Fort Knox. In the wrong hands, this powerful tool can turn dangerous.

Hackers have already broken into bank files that were 100% secure. One cyber-pirate downloaded 20,000 credit card numbers, courtesy of the phone company. Frank Abagnale (Forgery Expert): The problem is, if we have such tremendous fraud with paper we can only expect even much bigger frauds with electronics. In electronics you're dealing with people from kate seduction essay, all over writing the world that have access through computers and the internet to thousands of accounts and there's really no way of making the system foolproof. Narrator: E-money entrepreneurs are hoping to solve the problem of safeguards with even more electronics. Unidentified banker: The golden rule in banking is know thy customer. Narrator: Know thy customer, and then scan their eyeballs into on marketing mix, a computer. Writing. Your eyes are like fingerprints and by recording them, a company can confirm your identity and your bank balance.

Narrator: But how far will it go. Essay. Pretty far, actually . Neil Marcous (EDS): You'll simply have the chip embedded . You'll do a retina scan or some other kind of bio-scan, you'll validate who you are, you'll have your information, it'll transmit and you can conduct all your business, literally against a ledger, an electronic ledger somewhere. Writing. Note: If anyone knows the Future of electronic money, it would be the people at and religion essays EDS. Career. Over 90% of all electronic payments travel through EDS #151; over 25,000 transactions every 5 minutes! Narrator: Did you say embedded? Neil Marcous (EDS): Well, it could be embedded any number of places, for sake of artistic license, let's say it was embedded under your skin up above your left eyebrow.

Listen to it Yes. It certainly appears the biochip is coming soon #151; in shopping hobby a hand near you! If people are coerced into writing, receiving a biochip to perform the necessary everyday functions, such as financial transactions, medical insurance, security, identification, tied into a global, centralized computer system, it would be a simple matter for the Antichrist to disable your ability to buy or sell. But then again, it could implemented much easier with a simple biometric security system, such as eye-scan, voice-recognition, fingerprint, etc. Biometrics are safer and uva web assign, much more secure, and people would be much more likely to buy into writing, the system.

But, the no man might buy or sell system, might be as simple, visibly looking to see if someone has the mark. I know one thing #151; I don’t plan on hanging around to find out! (1 Thess. 4:16-18, 1 Cor 15:51-55) Are humans currently being biochipped? Many rumors are making their rounds claiming humans are being chipped. According to short studies on marketing mix, The Word I, rumors at writing Stanford University claim, that a microchip implanted in Chelsea Clinton's neck broadcasts her location to a satellite. . . (Craig Dees, Watching From Inside . Vol. 13, The World I, 02-01-1998, p. 150) Of course, as we’ve already seen, and The World I also points out, such biochip location technology does not exist. And the Oklahoma Baby Killer, Timothy McVeigh, claims the U.S. Army implanted a computer chip in his buttocks. (I bet some of the parents whose precious babies were murdered by Monster McVeigh would like to biochip a stick of short dynamite in McVeigh's buttocks, and career writing, light the short case fuse.

To murder and mutilate innocent little babies because he's mad at the government is career writing a sick, wicked, perverted coward.) Killer Colin Ferguson, (whose racial hatred murdered six people on a commuter train), in a press-conference, accused the CIA of implanting a computer chip in his brain. 16 year-old Kip Kinkel, who on May 1998 murdered his parents, two students and wounded 25 students, said he was just obeying the voices in his head. According to Orin Bolstad, a child psychologist who examined Kinkel, the voices commanded, You have to kill him. Shoot him, My dad was sitting at the (breakfast) bar. The voices said, Shoot him. I had no choice. The voices said I had no choice. After he killed his mother, Kinkel said the voices told him to Go to school and kill everybody.

Bolstad said Kinkel believed the voices came from, the devil, a satellite or a computer chip inserted in his head by cloning and religion, the government. (AP Wire, Nov. 04, 1999) In 1995, a Buckingham Palace spokesman said that young Prince William, heir to the British Throne, had a microhip implanted somewhere in his anatomy to discourage would-be kidnappers. Career In Creative. (Texe Marrs, Project L.U.C.I.D. p. 111) According to cloning and religion, Electronic Telegraph (Oct. 6, 1998), Italian dignitaries, who fear kidnapping are having biochips implanted in their bodies so authorities can locate them if kidnapped. Originally designed by Israeli spy-experts, Gen-Etics is launching the Sky-Eye chips in Milan, Italy. The Times of London, describes Sky-Eye as a low-power chip that utilizes electrical energy from the human body.

Gen-Etics claims, 45 of the world's richest are carrying Sky-Eyes. When asked the 64-million-dollar question - What prevents the kidnappers from removing the chip? Gen-Etics says, they're working on a sure-fire solution. Already, the chip is inserted under an anesthetic and even the implantee doesn't know where it's located. Writing. Also, the chip is only 4 mm by 4 mm, making it hard to detect via x-rays.

Conspiracy Nation (Vol. Cloning Essays. 8, No. 97) allegedly, intercepted an official, high-level, IBM document that reports pilot-testing implants in prisoners in Texas, Massachusetts, and California. The highly-classified IBM document reports prisoners were unknown guinea pigs of the biochip titled 20/20 Neural Chip. Arizona Republic (July 20, 1989, p. B1) reports of private investigator Jack Dunlap's plan to career in creative writing, microchip and short case studies, track children. Career In Creative Writing. The system, titled KIDSCAN, would enable the authorities to locate a missing child. Arizona Republic writes, Each child whose parents signed up for KIDSACN would get a computer chip planted under the skin and an identification number. According to uva web assign, Dunbar, Pennsylvania investors were prepared to invest $600,000 and writing, military-industrial powerhouse, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. was prepared to produce the chips. In the end, Martin Marietta backed out and shopping, Dunbar's KIDSCAN came to naught. As Parascope comments on Dunlaps' failed KIDSCAN, The year was 1989. Perhaps the idea came before its time.

But as the technology for such tracking systems continues to career writing, advance, more and more companies are eyeing the potentially lucrative human tracking market. A very interesting and enlightening case recently popped up in a Worchester, Mass. court in June, 1999. Reputed mobster, Vincent (Gigi Portalla) Marino took the Federal Drug Enforcement Administration (FDEA) to court claiming they had secretly implanted a microchip tracking device in his body two and a half years ago during surgery to remove a bullet from his buttocks. Here’s the New York Times report on the unusual case: In an unusual case that unfolded in cloning and religion Worcester, Mass., last week, a reputed mobster by the name of Vincent (Gigi Portalla) Marino went to court to career, find out whether the Federal Drug Enforcement Administration had secretly implanted a microchip tracking device in his body two and a half years ago during surgery to some speech, remove a bullet from in creative writing, his buttocks. Prosecutors first argued that the Government was not required to confirm whether it had done such a thing, but later, after a judge ordered them to respond, they said the drug agency had not implanted a microchip in Mr. Marino. (New York Times, June 20, 1999) What made Vincent Marino believe that the some speech government had biochipped him?

A FDEA agent told him! According to career writing, the New York Times report – . . . Mr. Marino said a drug agent told him had been implanted by cousin essay, the Government. Marino is currently in prison, and requesting an career, MRI scan to check for a microchip. Here’s the enlightening #151; and the frightening part : Intriguingly, the Federal Bureau of Investigation would not say whether it ever uses such tracking devices. ‘This is going to case, fall into career writing, the no-comment category ,’ said a bureau spokesman, Paul Bresson. ‘It's discussing investigative techniques, and uva web assign, that's about akin to a journalist disclosing confidential sources. Writing. It's very sensitive.’ (New York Times, June 20, 1999) But are humans currently being biochipped?

As early as 1967, author Alan Westin was warning the essays possiblity of humans being electronically tagged. In the writing bible of Privacy and Freedom Westin writes: As the microelectronic circuits and microminiature components now available in space work and laboratory experiments filter into on marketing mix, general use, such tags will become available in much smaller sizes, increasing still further the possibilities for secreting them in an individual's clothing or his personal and professional accessories. Receiving or scanning units will also grow more powerful and smaller, making it easier for in creative, investigators to essay of discipline, carry them in concealed form on career, their persons. . . . Cousin And The Essay. Invisible magnetic-ink tattoos might be applied (for example, to career, babies at birth) to and religion, provide permanent identification of every individual; these might possibly be used also for locating a subject. Career Writing. Existing microminiaturized transmitters the size of a pinhead might be coded with an and religion, identification number, enclosed in a permanent capsule, and in creative, implanted under the skin by cloning and religion, a simple and career writing, painless surgical operation. (Privacy and Freedon, Alan F. Westin, 1967, pp. 85-86) There is no question, biochips are silently inching into humans. For instance, at least 6 million medical devices, such as artificial body parts (prosthetic devices), breast implants, chin implants, etc., are implanted in people each year. Shopping Hobby Essay. And most of these medical devices are carrying a surprize guest #151; a biochip. In Creative Writing. In 1993, the Food and shopping hobby, Drug Administration passed the Safe Medical Devices Registration Act of 1993, requiring all artificial body implants to have implanted identification #151; the biochip. So, the career yearly, 6 million recipients of short case studies on marketing mix prosthetic devices and breast implants are biochipped.

ADS (Applied Digital Solutions), a major player in internet e-commerce and America's 5th fastest growing technology company, recently acquired the patent rights to the world's first human implantable digital device. The implantable device is named Digital Angel. According to ADS, it is the world's first digital device #151 implantable in humans #151; with applicatons in E-business to in creative, business security, health care and kate and the essay, criminal justice. Inserted just under the skin, with maintenance-free regenerating power supply, miniature 'Digital Angel' has multi-billion dollar market potential. Career In Creative. And according to the patent abstract, The device is small enough to case on marketing, be implanted in a child, facilitating use as a safeguard against in creative, kidnapping Applied Digital Solutions (ADS) Press Release.

U.S. Patent Info on ADS Device If anyone could truthfully answer the question #151; are humans currently being biochipped? #151; it would certainly be Donald G. Comparing Kate Essay. Small, of Hughes Identification Devices. Hughes Identification Devices is one of the pioneers and largest suppliers of career biochip implants. We are not part of a military program to implant tags in humans. In fact, we are not part of any program to implant tags in some speech humans, but a glass encapsulated animal tag only begs the question of the definition of what type of animal, and if that definition is a ‘mammal,’ certainly it would include man. Are there humans running around somewhere on the globe with tags #151; RFID tags #151; implanted in them? Yes!

Absolutely, conclusively so. (Mark of the New World Order video, Virtue Productions) The first verified human receiving a biochip is the highly publicized Kevin Warwick, professor of Cybernetics at the University of career in creative writing Readings in the UK. Warwick received a biochip in his arm that enabled doors to open, turn on-off lights, basically a high-tech-cyber-remote-control. Warwick told ABC's Good Morning America (August 30, 1998), People have been looking at the possibility of humans and essay of discipline life, silicon chips coming together for some time. And it seemed about time to actually have a go at it.

Would you consider having microchips implanted in career in creative writing your body? Are people ready to receive a biochip? Is the world tuned to cousin and the essay, receive a biochip? When the Social Security program was enacted in 1935, the in creative public was skeptical. Most people, at first, refused to cloning and religion essays, be numbered. Less than 40 years ago, something as seemingly innocent as receiving a social security number was met with hesitance and alarm.

What a difference, a quick 40 years of credit cards, smart cards, satellitles, computers and career writing, the information revolution makes! Is the public ripe for a biochip? Ann Cavoukian and Don Tapscott, writes in some speech their excellant book, Who Knows: Safeguarding Your Privacy in writing a Networked World: Such a microchip [biochip implant] may strike some of you as a gimmick, but two doctors in the United States recently had a microchip containing their respective medical histories implanted in their bodies, as part of a trial. House pets in Europe and North America are routinely implanted with microchips that identify their owners. When a group of internationally renowned privacy experts met to discuss the privacy implications of the cloning and religion essays information highway, they expressed concern that 'these tracking systems will be adapted to humans. The conversion would not be difficult'. Career. Among the many who shared this view was Simon Davies, the director general of Privacy International, who was dismayed that a number of professionals he had spoken to would not object to such a tracking system. . . (Ann Cavoukian and cloning and religion essays, Don Tapscott, Who Knows: Safeguarding Your Privacy in a Networked World, pp. 83-84) Linda LeSabre, singer of the rock group Death Ride 69, says: I love technology, and to me it's not moving fast enough. I think it would kick a__ to have all the things like implants and upgrades because the human body is okay, but it certainly doesn't have the career incredible hyper-capabilities that we could really use. (Alternative Press) The rock group, Iron Maiden sings in their song The Number of the Beast #151; 666, the number of the beast, 666, the one for your and me . Shirts such as 666 Volunteer, 666, and Route 666 are being worn by eager and ready young people.

For more info see Rock Music and 666. Craig Dees, in the World I, says: Today's implantable microchip devices used for identifying animals are the precursors of devices that may monitor, report on, and even regulate a spectrum of conditions in the bodies of animals and humans. . . Implantable microchip devices offer many exciting possibilities in the fields of medicine and scientific research, as well as for general use involving, for example, credit card numbers or passport identification. . . I can see in the near future putting my hand over a grocery store sensor that reads my credit chip and automatically debits my account for the purchase. Considering the burdensome number of cards, identifications, and licenses I carry now, I would have no problem with placing my Social Security number, credit access, passport, and driver's license on a microchip implanted in me. (Craig Dees, Watching From Inside, The World I, Feb. 01, 1998, p. 150) Paul Somerson writes in kate and the PC Computing: How’d you like to avoid waiting in career writing lines for the rest of your life? Breeze through everywhere like you owned the comparing kate and the essay place. Watch lights snap on, doors open automatically, money pop out of career in creative ATMs as you approach. Some Speech. Never have to show an ID, buy a ticket, carry keys, remember a password.

You’d leave stores loaded with packages and waltz right past the cashiers. Career. You wouldn’t have to carry a wallet. Ever. Family and friends could find you instantly in any crowd . There’s only one catch—you’d need to have a tiny little chip implanted in your body. Cloning And Religion Essays. No big deal. . Writing. . (Paul Somerson, Inside Job, PC Computing, Oct. 1999, p. 87) A very informative Mark of the Beast spoof was recently staged on the Internet by uva web assign, Bill Cross. Bill wanted to try his hand at setting up a website. In Creative Writing. Bill decided for his first project, a spoof website of a company peddling the mark of the beast.

So Global Monetary was created with the advertising Become an ID chip member and cloning and religion essays, Receive $250!. Not wanting to cause real panic, Bill admittedly laced the career in creative writing site, with enough clues so that anyone who scrutinized it would know it wasn't for real and would therefor not panic. Bill was surprized, On the first full day of operation the site had more that 4,200 distinct user sessions averaging 6 minutes each. Emails began pouring in from hysterical Christians, privacy enthusiasts, the media world requesting interviews, and many who recognized it was simply a joke. Realizing things were getting out of shopping hand, after just four days, Bill pulled the plug on Global Monetary. Bill also made this alarming statement, I realized that I was getting another kind of visitor to the site: People who actually wanted to in creative, receive the mark of the beast just to get in on the IPO. I was totally blind-sided by uva web assign, that. I never expected that to happen. . . CNN conducted a poll on writing, Jan. 14, 1999, and asked the cloning and religion question: Would you consider having microchips implanted in in creative writing your body?

Here's the surprizing results of the comparing kate seduction essay CNN Poll: CNN POLL conducted Jan. 14, 1999. What's really amazing. . . So many are willing to receive what they believe to be the mark of the beast and, according to in creative writing, the Word of God, whoever receives the mark of the beast shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God, and be tormented with fire and brimstone for ever and case studies, ever! And the third angel followed them, saying with a loud voice, If any man worship the beast and writing, his image, and comparing essay, receive his mark in his forehead, or in career in creative writing his hand, The same shall drink of the wine of the wrath of God , which is poured out and religion essays, without mixture into the cup of his indignation; and he shall be tormented with fire and brimstone in the presence of the holy angels, and in in creative writing the presence of the Lamb: And the smoke of their torment ascendeth up for uva web assign, ever and ever : and they have no rest day nor night, who worship the writing beast and his image, and whosoever receiveth the MARK of his name. Revelation 14:9-11 What a mockery and short studies, ridicule of a Holy God! It's bad now #151; can you imagine what the tribulation will be like? When the salt of the earth #151; the Christians will be removed! When the Antichrist will dazzle the career world with his signs and wonders, prosperity, peace #151 the world will be jumping with joy in anticipation to worship the Beast and receive his mark!

God help you, if you're reading this and have not received the Lord Jesus Christ as your personal Saviour. All these incredible technologies and cloning and religion, events are not just happening #151; they're EXACTLY as the Lord said! Are there plans to biochip humans? We get calls all the in creative time: 'Is this available for shopping hobby, children ?' said Paul McMahon, a spokesman for the LoJack Corporation, based in Dedham, Mass., which markets a positioning device that has helped track down 30,000 stolen cars. People also frequently ask about using LoJacks for an elderly relative who might be suffering from Alzheimer's disease or other disorienting ailments, said Mr.

McMahon. Career. . . It's inevitable [biochipping of hobby essay humans] , said Arthur Caplan, director of the career Center for Bioethics at the University of Pennsylvania. Why? Because there's a level of some speech concern, some based in fact, some based in fear, about the loss of children, about kids being stolen in custody disputes, about writing terrorism, about kidnapping, that leads people to essay of discipline, be frantic about wanting to know where other people they care about are. PC Computing, Oct. 1999, p. 87. Paul Somerson, Inside Job How’d you like to in creative writing, avoid waiting in lines for the rest of your life? Breeze through everywhere like you owned the place. Watch lights snap on, doors open automatically, money pop out of ATMs as you approach.

Never have to show an ID, buy a ticket, carry keys, remember a password. Short Case. You’d leave stores loaded with packages and waltz right past the cashiers. Writing. You wouldn’t have to carry a wallet. Ever. Case Studies Mix. Family and friends could find you instantly in any crowd . There’s only career in creative, one catch—you’d need to comparing kate, have a tiny little chip implanted in your body. No big deal. Writing. . . How will they convince people to uva web assign, implant these chips? First, they’ll hype the convenience of leaving your keys, credit cards, and money at home. Career Writing. Then they’ll automate everything from cash registers to uva web assign, tollbooths so if you’re chipped you can zoom through in career in creative writing a digital carpool lane. (PC Computing, Oct. 1999, p. Hobby Essay. 87) Time magazine,April 27, 1998, pp.

50,51: #9;A single electronic card may replace everything in your wallet including. . . #9;#9;FUTURE One card, or one chip, with your life on it. Time also writes, Your daughter can store money any way she wants – on her laptop, on a debit card, even (in the in creative writing not too distant future) on cousin, a chip implanted under her skin . (Time, April 27, 1998, p. In Creative Writing. 51) Popular Science, July 1995 p. 74 - E-Money. If we had our way, we’d implant a chip behind everyone’s ear in the maternity ward , says Ronald Kane, a vice president of Cubic Corp.’s automatic revenue collection group. Cubic is the and religion essays leading maker of smart card systems for mass transit systems, highway tolls, parking, and other applications and one of a number of companies and in creative writing, government agencies pushing the frontier of smart cards #151; the money of the future. (E-Money (Popular Science, July 1995 p. 74) Brainticklers II, Beyond Y2K#151;Questions for the New Millennium and shopping hobby, the Year 3000 , Supplement to Business 2.0, December 1999, p. 14. What electronic devices will we choose to insert into our bodies? Automatic I.D. News, April 1996, p.6. Mark David, Editor-in-Chief, Satan Big Brother and other uses of Auto. ID

Bar coding people doesn't make sense, but tracking them via RF/ID tags or biometrics does #151; in many cases. The time has come for career in creative, a logical debate about the ethics of coding people. The problem is, logic and efficiency cannot be our sole guides in this matter. Is there any 'logical' reason for not wanting to tag humans with RF/ID chips? (Automatic I.D. News, April 1996, p.6) Network World, August, 31, 1998. Fred McClimans, A chip in his shoulder. But look on the bright side: Who wouldn't want to stop worrying about where they put their keys or Mobil Speed Pass?

And no more remembering pesky PINs, passwords or social-security numbers. Medical information could also be dumped onto your forearm chip. We could even probably away with those pesky home arrest bracelets used to monitor the criminal element in their own homes (imagine how different the Caine Mutiny would have been if Queeg had had chips in all of his crew - no strawberry problem there!). So perhaps the answer is to use this type of new bio-security device to accurately track information regarding what we are doing, and essay in human, who is to accurately track information regarding what we are doing, and who is actually doing it. . . Let's say we all get together and career, implant everybody with these new chips. Are they safe?

Sure #151; they've been using variations to track dogs for some time now. Sadly, I think the answer is chips. Case Studies. Let's face it, the potential value is too great. . Career. . Comparing Cousin Kate And The Seduction Essay. ABC Good Morning America, August, 30, 1998. Part Man, Part Machine. AARON BROWN: But I think what people are scared to death of, frankly, is that this is the beginning [Warwick's test biochip implant] of how governments #151; yours, mine, whose ever #151; who controls us all. We put these little microchips in. Popular Mechanics, A Century of Technology, January 2000, p. 63. However, if technology follows its current trends, this may all be moot.

Becoming ever more compact and powerful, how long before hardware as we know it disappears completely from sight, replaced by in creative writing, nanotechnology and cloning essays, bioimplants that plug directly into body and brain? Scientific American, Rise of the Robots, December, 1999, p. 124. Alert pundits now foresee a world saturated with powerful computer chips, which will increasingly insinuate themselves into our gadgets, dwellings, apparel and even our bodies. Yahoo! Internet Life, Be patient, December 1999, p. 132. By 2007, your entire medical history, including the sequence of your genome, will be stored on career, a data card in your wallet, or in a bracelet on your wrist, or on a chip in your earlobe. Business 2.0, The Web Within Us, December 1999, p. 173. By the second half of the next century, there will be no clear distinction between human and cloning and religion essays, machine intelligence.

Two things will allow this to happen. First, our biological brains will be enhanced by neural implants. This has already begun . Doctors use neural implants to counteract symptoms of Parkinson's disease, for instance, and neuroscientists from Emory University School of Medicine in Atlanta recently placed an electrode into career in creative writing, the brain of a paralyzed stroke victim who now communicates using a PC. On Importance Life. Forbes, Sept. 22, 1997 Computers/Communications.

Ann March, No place to hide. TYPICAL AMERICAN FAMILY, c. 2008. Above their home, foot-long robot airplanes patrol several hundred feet up, on the lookout for criminals and even casual pot smokers. Both family cars are equipped with global-positioning satellite receivers and locator beacons. . . Career In Creative Writing. The parents, the and religion kids and the dogs all have microchips under their skin with ID and medical data . Career. . . The potential loss of privacy leaves Dr. Stevens uneasy, he concedes, but there is no better way to insure the accuracy of a person's medical records. He thinks it inevitable that microchips with medical information will become common in uva web assign humans, possibly inserted under the career skin of the upper arm . AE (Arts and Entertainment Cable Channel) The Story of Money, (two-hour program aired 1999): Narrator: Everyday trillions of dollars are moved in shopping hobby essay less time than it takes you to screw up your transaction at the automated teller machine. Writing. More and uva web assign, more money is career in creative writing going digital. . . Some imagine everything you own will one day be tied to a single, easy to use card, or even in a computer chip, implanted in your skin. . . Narrator: The E-money future, however, isn't necessarily secure . The Internet wasn't built to be Fort Knox. In the wrong hands, this powerful tool can turn dangerous. Hackers have already broken into bank files that were 100% secure.

One cyber-pirate downloaded 20,000 credit card numbers, courtesy of the phone company. Frank Abagnale (Forgery Expert): The problem is, if we have such tremendous fraud with paper we can only hobby, expect even much bigger frauds with electronics. In electronics you're dealing with people from all over the world that have access through computers and the internet to career writing, thousands of accounts and there's really no way of making the system foolproof. Narrator: E-money entrepreneurs are hoping to solve the problem of cousin kate and the essay safeguards with even more electronics. Unidentified banker: The golden rule in banking is know thy customer. Narrator: Know thy customer, and in creative, then scan their eyeballs into a computer.

Your eyes are like fingerprints and by recording them, a company can confirm your identity and your bank balance. Narrator: But how far will it go. Pretty far, actually . Neil Marcous (EDS): You'll simply have the chip embedded . You'll do a retina scan or some other kind of bio-scan, you'll validate who you are, you'll have your information, it'll transmit and some speech, you can conduct all your business, literally against in creative, a ledger, an electronic ledger somewhere. Uva Web Assign. Note: If anyone knows the Future of electronic money, it would be the people at EDS. Over 90% of all electronic payments travel through EDS #151; over 25,000 transactions every 5 minutes! Narrator: Did you say embedded? Neil Marcous (EDS): Well, it could be embedded any number of in creative writing places, for sake of artistic license, let's say it was embedded under your skin up above your left eyebrow. Automatic I.D. News, September 1991, p.E35. Monetary Union, Already a reality at Eurocheck

The EC card is more than just a check guarantee card; it may also be used with a personal identification number (PIN) in automated teller machines (ATM). . . But what is the future of the EC card? A chip, of course! (Automatic I.D. News, Monetary Union, Already a reality at Eurocheck, September 1991, p.E35. Privacy and Freedon, Alan F. Westin, 1967. As the microelectronic circuits and in human life, microminiature components now available in space work and laboratory experiments filter into general use, such tags will become available in much smaller sizes, increasing still further the in creative writing possibilities for secreting them in cloning essays an individual's clothing or his personal and professional accessories.

Receiving or scanning units will also grow more powerful and smaller, making it easier for investigators to carry them in concealed form on their persons. . . . Invisible magnetic-ink tattoos might be applied (for example, to babies at birth) to provide permanent identification of every individual; these might possibly be used also for locating a subject. Existing microminiaturized transmitters the size of a pinhead might be coded with an in creative writing, identification number, enclosed in and the seduction a permanent capsule, and implanted under the skin by a simple and painless surgical operation. (Privacy and writing, Freedon, Alan F. Westin, 1967, pp. 85-86) The Oprah Winfrey Show. Your Life in the Year 2000 (February 25, 1994) Note: The guest, Ms. Faith Popcorn is from Trend Tracker. Ms. Popcorn: . . . And Religion. it's going to writing, be kind of a more controlled future. Oprah: But the shopping essay question is, will violence still be running our lives and will the career writing schools be any better?

Ms. Popcorn: No, because I. . . Oprah: Will we treat each other better? Ms. Popcorn: Well, we may not treat each other any better, but we can get over it faster. As far as violence goes, we're going to have little chips #151; as a privacy issue #151; implanted in us. So we #151; you know, we'll be tracking. You'll be able to track a child that disappears and get them back globally so that #151; because we'll all have our little memory chip. Marin Independent Journal, April 2, 1989 p.A10.

Future Shocker: 'Biochip' 'Science fiction' technology here. Don’t reach for our wallet at the check-out counter. After your food items have been priced, tallied and bagged, simply pass your hand over the computer code scanner used on the groceries, and case studies on marketing, the bill will be automatically deducted from your checking account. . . Most likely. Career. . Cloning Essays. . it would be implanted on in creative, the back of the right or left hand for essay life, convience , so that it would be easy to in creative, scan.(Marin Independent Journal, April 2, 1989 p.A10) Time Enough? Consequences of Human Microchip Implantation, Elaine M. Short Case. Ramesh. Franklin Pierce Law Institute web site. However, proving that old adage that there is nothing new under the sun, the concept [biochips] may be attributed to far earlier authors. The Book of Revelation of the Bible contains the following statement: 'He also forced everyone, small and great, to receive a mark on his right hand or on his forehead, so that no one could buy or sell unless he had the mark, which is the name of the beast or the number of his name.' Revelation 13:16-17. That mark could well be the microchip implant . (Time Enough?

Consequences of Human Microchip Implantation, Elaine M. Career In Creative Writing. Ramesh Franklin Pierce Law Institute web site) Denver Post, September 2, 1995. Chip envisioned to curb inmates. . Cloning And Religion. . .the technology of the future might enable authorities to implant microchips into the heads of in creative convicted felons as a way to handle prisoners. New Mexico Governor Gary Johnson FROM Parascope: Dr. Essay On Importance Life. Daniel Man, on the other hand, holds the first patent in the United States for a homing device designed specifically for implantation in humans. Man had the idea for this device while I was a resident in plastic surgery and I kept seeing on TV all those stories about missing and abducted children.

Man's device was designed for use in conjunction with a network of existing communications satellites, which would locate the implantee via triangulation. Career Writing. (Parascope) Wired, January, 2000, p. 162. Within 20 years, there will be no avoiding MEMS: [Micro Electro Mechanical Systems] They will be in every telecom line, computer, and some speech, coffeemaker #151; even our own bodies. Career Writing. (Wired, January, 2000, p. 162) Excerpts from a speech to the 1994 IBM Health Care Executive Conference by case mix, Mary Jane England, MD, a member of the executive committee of the White House Health Project and career writing, president of the uva web assign Washington Business Group on Health. (source The New American, July 24, 1994) The smart card is a wonderful idea, but even better would be the writing capacity not to have a card, and shopping hobby, I call it 'a chip in your ear,' that would actually access your medical records, so that no matter where you were we would have some capacity to access that medical record. We need to go beyond the narrow conceptualization of the smart card and really use some of the technology that's out career in creative writing, there. . . I don't think that computerized, integrated medical records with a capacity to access through a chip in your ear is so far off and I think we need to think of these things. The Washington Times, October, 05, 1998, p. A21. David Oderberg, He's got it under his skin. But what we do know is that proponents of this technology [biochips] envisage first using it on animals (now widespread, particularly dogs, cats and cattle), then prisoners (more effective than electronic ankle tags), then children (e.g., newborn babies, so as to prevent their being switched or lost) and elderly people suffering from Alzheimer's disease (to prevent their wandering and getting lost). After that, who knows? The potential for the chips to replace credit cards and cash is huge , and will tempt financial institutions in turn to tempt their customers to case, try out the chip with no obligation to carry it permanently, and monetary rewards for those who persevere.

Supporters of the injectable microchip say it is just the logical extension of a technology that already allows the heavy monitoring of career writing people through pagers, cellular phones, smart cards and cars fitted with Global Positioning System transponders. The Digital Economy, Don Tapscott, pp.275-276. There are now chips that can be inserted into studies, breast implants. Perhaps chips would be inserted into in creative writing, other parts of peoples' bodies for nonmedical reasons. We could track repeat offender pedophiles, or repeat offenders in general, or offenders in essay general, or maybe just offensive people. Microprocessor-based products can be attached to children to discourage abduction or locate missing kids. What about chips in children for extra and permanent safety? PC Week, Vision 2000 Special Report, January, 3, 2000, p.42.

The office of tomorrow. A chip embedded underneath the skin of your hand serves as your identification for personal and professional transactions. Career. The Birmingham News, January 2, 2000, p. 4J. Josh Calder, In the 21st century, our luggage will be smarter and tougher. A lost passport will mean less when travelers can wear an some speech, anklet, ring, or patch that contains all ID information, medical records and perhaps some e-cash. The truly worried can get implantable ID chips; either way, a traveler could have his movements tracked in real time by career, satellite. Popular Mechanics, January 2000, Famous Americans Predict the Future, p. 22. Sharyl Attkisson, CBS Television Correspondent. . . . Some Speech. We certainly aren't carrying around cash.

Instead, each person wears a tiny computerlike device in a ring, or has it painlessly tattooed into his skin. Who Knows: Safeguarding Your Privacy in a Networked World, Ann Cavoukian and Don Tapscott, p.83, 84. Such a microchip [biochip implant] may strike some of you as a gimmick, but two doctors in the United States recently had a microchip containing their respective medical histories implanted in their bodies, as part of a trial. House pets in Europe and North America are routinely implanted with microchips that identify their owners. When a group of in creative writing internationally renowned privacy experts met to discuss the privacy implications of the information highway, they expressed concern that 'these tracking systems [biochip implants] will be adapted to some speech, humans. The conversion would not be difficult'. Among the many who shared this view was Simon Davies, the director general of Privacy Internationl, who was dismayed that a number of professionals he had spoken to would not object to such a tracking system. . . Today, it may seem far-fetched, but how long before the microchip embedded in the beast implant and the transponder carried by children are merged into writing, one unit? How long before one device can be implanted into our bodies to identify and track us, and to transmit this information electronically to a central database? PC Magazine, June 22, 1999, pp.142, 145. Regardless of whether you like it or even know it, you have already established a digital identity. That identity is cousin kate and the seduction a constantly growing and shifting amalgam of your personal information, stored in the databases of writing state and municipal offices, hospitals and medical centers, insurance companies, stores, banks, and more federal agencies than we can imagine.

That shifting, inchoate digital identity is destined to become much more real. It will be sharply defined because you will construct and control your own digital persona, carrying it with you, embedded in a microchip, at on marketing mix all times. The growing use of smart cards, especially outside the U.S., paves the way for their acceptance as standard security devices. A smart card, whether in conjunction with passwords or biometric data, can help protect your digital identity by letting you carry that identity embedded in the chip on your own card, rather than have to store the identifying information in databases scattered across or linked via the Internet. In the future, those chips will be embedded in our clothes and perhaps eventually in our bodies. MetroActive News, December 12-18, 1996. Michael Mechanic, Beastly Implants.

Implanted ID tags have become all the rage for saving precious pets. Internal homing devices have the ability to thwart kidnappers. Career Writing. Now that the future has arrived, would you prefer your chip in your wrist or forehead?. . Some Speech. . Within the next decade, human implants are almost certain to become available, too. . . And technology watchers believe it's only a matter of career time before we, too, will carry implants. USA Today, June 6, 1995. Mike Snider, Embedded electronics, a chip off sci-fi. In the near future, people may have chips implanted under their skin with medical history information, even X-ray and MRI images, says chip designer Fadi J. Kurdahi, University of California-Irvine. Philadelphia Inquirer, January 21, 1996: Thirty years from now, chips will be implanted in our bodies encoded with credit card, passport, driver's license and other personal information. Shopping Essay. We'd no longer have to worry about leaving home without it.

Noah Webster, Southwest Radio Church: This past month I received a copy of a confidential report from an IBM affiliate regarding testing of implanted computer chips in prisoners without their knowledge. It could be determined where they went, with whom they talked, details of their conversations, how long they slept how much they exercised, etc. Career In Creative Writing. The only problem encountered was that the prisoners experienced nose bleeds, and the comment was that this problem would have to be solved before wider experimentation could be engaged. Electronic Telegraph, March, 1999. Just three years ago I put forward the notion that chip implants inside humans would become commonplace and as desirable as mobile phones . Cloning And Religion Essays. I also postulated that they would require telecommunication facilities. Well, the latest pacemakers now have a short-hop radio link, and in career in creative the past month there have been reports of paraplegics with silicon brain implants able to control computers, and artificial retinas restoring sufficient sight for someone totally blind to recognize letters of the alphabet.

Most likely the next five years will see people with chip implants as commonplace . Essay On Importance Of Discipline In Human. Newsbytes News Network, August 27, 1998. Sylvia Dennis, UK Professor Implants Chip, Turns Himself Into Cyborg. In five years' time, we will be able to do chips with all sorts of information on them . They could be used for career in creative writing, money transfers, medical records, passports, driving licenses, and loyalty cards. And if they are implanted they are impossible to shopping hobby essay, steal. The potential is enormous, Kevin Warwick, the career in creative first verified human biochip implant. The Straits Times. In 10 years you will have . . Some Speech. . a chip in your head.

Take out your wallet and count the number of cards you carry, not to mention all the Personal Identification Numbers (PINs) that you have to memorize for career, every possible transaction. . . Everything from employment and medical records to hobby, financial status can be written into the chip. Add a short-range wireless transmitter-receiver, implant the whole thing under your skin, and you have a personal transponder, just like those in airplanes. . . Even grocery-shopping could be easier. Just walk into in creative, a store and pick up whatever you want to buy. No more queues at the cashier's counter. All this could be reality in a few years time. The World I, Feb. 01, 1998, p. 150.

Craig Dees, Watching From Inside. Today's implantable microchip devices used for identifying animals are the precursors of devices that may monitor, report on, and even regulate a spectrum of conditions in the bodies of animals and studies on marketing mix, humans. . . Implantable microchip devices offer many exciting possibilities in career the fields of medicine and some speech, scientific research, as well as for general use involving, for example, credit card numbers or passport identification. Writing. . . I can see in the near future putting my hand over a grocery store sensor that reads my credit chip and some speech, automatically debits my account for the purchase. Considering the burdensome number of cards, identifications, and licenses I carry now, I would have no problem with placing my Social Security number, credit access, passport, and driver's license on a microchip implanted in me. Chicago Tribune, May 7, 1996, p.1. John Van, In Future, Tiny Chip May Get Under Skin. A tiny chip implanted inside the human body to send and career writing, receive radio messages, long a popular delusion among paranoids, is likely to be marketed as a consumer item early in the next century. . . This is currently very hot, said Edward Cornish, president of the World Future Society, based in Bethesda, Md. The field is hobby essay developing because the technology is becoming available to do it. Although potential problems are huge, locator ID chips may be inevitable , said Cornish of the World Future Society. Cornish believes, at least initially, that such chips would be voluntary. But he acknowledges that things that are voluntary today have a way of becoming compulsory tomorrow.

Is all this a good thing? Certainly many people are nervous about the privacy issues involved. . . What parent wouldn't sympathize with the career idea of implanting a chip to enable the police to track a lost or abducted toddler ? Popular Science; August 1997, p.53. In the case on marketing near future, watches may be old hat. Future cool may be a programmable LCD that tells time while implanted under a layer of skin . That's the possibility raised by a patent issued to Interval Research Cor., a high-tech lab in Palo Alto, California, funded by Microsoft cofounder Paul Allen, among others. The device, called a programmable subcutaneous visible implant , would be close enough to the skin's surface for the display to be read easily. A control chip and a battery would be the other elements. Holding your wrist next to an external charger would replenish the battery. The device might also prove itself valuable in other areas; the health field offers particular potential, says inventor Andrew Singer of Interval. Career. In one application, the implant might allow individuals to monitor their temperature or blood pressure at any time.

While the implant is shopping hobby essay not actively being developed for commercial use at career in creative writing the moment, Interval sees further possibilities#151;perhaps even in uva web assign the fashion industry. So don't even think about body piercing #151; it'll soon be pass. The trend is toward a watch you'll never lose. Futurist, January - February 1996, p. 11. The Cyber Future. Infotech will be implanted in our bodies . A chip implanted somewhere in our bodies might serve as a combination credit card, passport, driver's license, personal diary, and you name it. No longer would we worry about losing our credit cards while traveling. A chip inserted into our bodies might also give us extra mental power.

Will humans be biochipped in the near future? Probably. Is the biochip the Mark of the Beast? Probably Not.

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Helping Young Children Develop Strong Writing Skills. Note: This article was adapted from two articles written by the U.S. Department of Education, and was compiled by Colorin Colorado. The article refers to the child in career the female gender, but all activities and some speech suggestions apply to both genders. Writing is an important part of our daily lives. It is, however, a difficult skill to learn and master. By getting a head start with some simple activities, you can help your child begin to career develop her writing skills at an early age. By doing so you will be contributing to her future success as a student and as an cousin kate seduction essay adult while teaching her how to express herself. In this article, we provide some reasons that writing is an important skill for people of all ages, as well as a list of in creative writing, suggestions that will help your child become a stronger writer.

Every day, we need to write in order to complete our tasks, whether we are filling out a form at the doctor's office or writing an uva web assign important letter. These tasks require us to write clearly, and organize information effectively. Writing is an important element of a student's education. Whether students are writing by hand or on the computer, many assignments and exams require students to write short answers or longer essays as a way of assessing what they have learned. In Creative Writing! As students get older, they will be expected to show more sophisticated writing skills, and to some speech complete more sophisticated tasks through their writing. In addition, many colleges and career in creative universities require students to write essays as part of uva web assign, their admissions application. Writing can be an career in creative writing important element of an employee's job. Employees in many kinds of jobs are required to write on a daily basis. Perhaps they are taking phone messages and doing administrative work, or writing research reports and newspaper articles. Whatever the task, their ability to shopping essay do their job well may depend on their ability to write.

Many job applicants also must submit a resume and a letter of application when applying to a new job. Writing is an in creative writing important form of communication. Writing letters and essay emails is career in creative a common way of keeping in mix touch with our friends, relatives, and professional colleagues. Writing is frequently the final stage in communication when we want to leave no room for doubt, which is why we write and sign contracts, leases, and treaties when we make important decisions. Writing can be an important outlet. Many people find writing to be therapeutic, and a helpful way to express feelings that cannot be expressed so easily by speaking. It's important to remember that writing can be as difficult a subject to teach and assess as it is to learn.

Many students have trouble writing with clarity, coherence, and organization, and this can discourage them from writing if they feel frustrated. That's where parent involvement can make a big difference. Encouraging your child to writing develop strong writing skills at a young age, and to become a better writer as she gets older, can have a lifelong positive impact on her writing, and some speech may make writing an easier and more enjoyable process for her. To get you started, the career Department of Education offers a number of ideas of things you can do help your child become a stronger writer. While many of these ideas apply to some speech younger children, they can be adapted for older children as well.

To learn more about ways to support your children if they continue to struggle with writing in middle and high school, read Tips for Parents of Struggling Adolescent Writers. Ideas for Parents: How to Help Your Child Become a Stronger Writer. Pencils, crayons, or markers Yarn or ribbon Writing paper or notebook Cardboard or heavy paper Construction paper Safety scissors. It's important for your child to career in creative writing have a good place to shopping write, such as a desk or table with a smooth, flat surface. It's also crucial to have good lighting. Provide plenty of paper (lined and unlined) and things to write with, including pencils, pens, and crayons. Talk with your child as much as possible about her ideas and impressions, and encourage her to describe people and events to you. Encourage the child to draw and to discuss her drawings.

Ask your child questions about her drawings such as: Ask your child to tell you simple stories as you write them down. Copy the story as your child tells it, without making changes. Ask her to career writing clarify anything you don't understand. Encourage your child to write her name. Practice writing her name with her, and point out the letters in her name when you see them in other places (on signs, in uva web assign stores, etc.). Career! She may start by and religion essays only writing the career in creative first few letters of her name, but soon the rest will follow. There are numerous games and puzzles that help children with spelling while increasing their vocabulary. Some of these may include crossword puzzles, word games, anagrams, and short case studies on marketing cryptograms designed especially for children. Flash cards are fun to use too, and they're easy to in creative make at home. Turn your child's writing into books.

Paste her drawings and writings on pieces of construction paper. Some Speech! For each book, make a cover out of heavier paper or cardboard, and add special art, a title, and her name as author. Punch holes in the pages and cover, and bind the career writing book together with yarn or ribbon. Make sure your child sees you writing. She will learn about writing by shopping hobby essay watching you write. Talk with her about your writing so that she begins to understand why writing is important and the many ways it can be used.

Encourage your child to write, even if she's scribbling. Give your child opportunities to practice writing by helping her sign birthday cards, write stories, and make lists. As your child gets older, write together. Have your child help you with the writing you do, including writing letters, shopping lists, and messages. Encourage your child to take notes on trips or outings, and to describe what she saw. Career Writing! This could include a description of nature walks, a boat ride, a car trip, or other events that lend themselves to note-taking. If your child likes a particular song, suggest that she learn the words by writing them down. Also encourage copying favorite poems or quotations from books and plays.

Encourage your child to read her stories out loud. As your child gets older, ask her to share her stories with you. Listen carefully without interrupting, and give her positive feedback about her ideas and her writing! Hang a family message board in the kitchen. Offer to write notes there for your child. Be sure that she finds notes left there for in human life, her. Help your child write letters and emails to relatives and friends. These may include thank you notes or just a special note to say hello. Be sure to send your child a letter or card once in awhile too so that she is reminded of career in creative, how special it is to get a letter in essay on importance of discipline in human the mail.

Consider finding a pen pal for career in creative writing, your child. Encourage keeping a journal. This is comparing kate seduction essay excellent writing practice as well as a good outlet for venting feelings. Encourage your child to write about things that happen at home and school, about career people she likes or dislikes and why, and about things she wants to remember and do. If she wants to share the journal with you, read the entries and discuss them together. Help your child spend time thinking about a writing project or exercise. Good writers often spend a lot of time thinking, preparing, and some speech researching before starting to write. Career In Creative Writing! Your child may dawdle, sharpen a pencil, get papers ready, or look up the spelling of and the seduction essay, a word. Be patient — this may all be part of in creative writing, her preparation. Respond to some speech your child's writing.

Respond to career the ideas your child expresses verbally or in some speech writing. Make it clear that you are interested in what the writing conveys, which means focusing on what the in creative child has written rather than how it was written. It's usually wise to ignore minor errors, particularly at the stage when your child is just getting ideas together. Praise your child's writing. Take a positive approach and find good things to some speech say about your child's writing. Is it accurate? Descriptive?

Original? Creative? Thoughtful? Interesting? Avoid writing for your child. Don't write a paper for your child that will be turned in as her work, and don't rewrite your child's work. Meeting a writing deadline, taking responsibility for in creative writing, the finished product, and feeling ownership of it are also important parts of the writing process. Help your child with her writing as she gets older.

Ask your child questions that will help her clarify the details of her stories and assignments as they get longer, and help her organize her thoughts. Talk about the on importance in human life objective of what she is writing. Provide your child with spelling help when she's ready for it. When your child is in creative writing just learning how to read and write, she may try different ways to write and short case studies on marketing mix spell. Our job is to career writing encourage our children's writing so they will enjoy putting their thoughts and ideas on paper. At first, your child may begin to case studies on marketing write words the way that she hears them. For example, she might write haf instead of have, frn instead of friend, and Frd instead of in creative writing, Fred. Cloning And Religion! This actually is a positive step in career in creative writing developing her phonemic awareness. Keep practicing with her, and shopping hobby essay model the career in creative writing correct spelling of words when you write.

As your child gets older and begins to ask more questions about letters and spelling, provide her with the help she needs. Practice, practice, practice. Writing well takes lots of kate seduction essay, practice, so make sure your child doesn't get discouraged too easily. It's not easy! Give her plenty of opportunities to practice so that she has the opportunity to improve. Reading and writing support each other.

The more your child does of each, the writing better she will be at both. Shopping! Reading can also stimulate your child to write about her own family or school life. If your child has a particular favorite story or author, ask her why she thinks that story or that person's writing is special. As you read and write more with your child, you will be building an important foundation, and in creative writing taking steps that will help your child to become a better reader, writer, and student. Your efforts now will make a difference — and it may be just the uva web assign difference that your child needs to writing succeed! U.S.

Department of Education. Office of comparing cousin essay, Educational Research and writing Improvement, Archived Information. Case Studies Mix! Help Your Child Learn to career in creative Write Well. http://www.ed.gov/pubs/parents/Writing/index.html. U.S. Department of Education. Parent Section: Helping Your Child Become a Reader. Write On! http://www.ed.gov/parents/academic/help/reader/part5.html#write. Five Things Teachers Can Do to Improve Learning for some speech, ELLs in the New Year.

Culturally Responsive Instruction for Holiday and Religious Celebrations. Language Objectives: The Key to Effective Content Area Instruction for career in creative, English Learners. Essential Actions: 15 Research-based Practices to Increase ELL Student Achievement. Tatiana Del Carpio replied on Thu, 2010-01-21 11:02 Permalink. Love the site..I wish I worked with children. seems like a lot of fun when one has this kind of tips. Asha replied on Fri, 2012-07-13 05:04 Permalink.

Really it is super for a mother like me. It help me a lot by giving good idea to improve my child. sumit bhat replied on Wed, 2012-08-01 08:00 Permalink. really, i liked the article. i hope the parents should read it and comparing cousin kate essay act it. jojo replied on Fri, 2012-11-16 06:37 Permalink. wooow very useful thanks. jessica replied on in creative writing, Wed, 2012-12-12 22:42 Permalink. really liked that article. going to short studies on marketing mix start use these tips right away. great help!

ailyn replied on Mon, 2012-12-31 03:52 Permalink. do you have book of this? can you share the career writing book? Melinda replied on Fri, 2013-09-13 08:25 Permalink. This is very useful i will try this. Im not very good with englsh and writing you should see my hand writing it is terrible i tell my son to write better than me and he says well you are helping me to learn.Im just doing what you are doing.What should i do ? Eleena replied on Tue, 2013-10-08 18:38 Permalink.

Thank you for the tips. I would never have known. A real eye opener for parents. rvrameshkumar@y. replied on Wed, 2013-11-06 23:59 Permalink. I teach communicative English to engineering students but i came to understand that they lack writing skills. Hope your suggestions would help me. looking forward for more tips. Nasser replied on Tue, 2013-11-26 13:59 Permalink.

it is very useful. Maria replied on Fri, 2014-02-07 00:58 Permalink. Thanks for shopping hobby essay, the ideas but quick question how can I help my son detailing in writing? Writing more..please anyone HELP! tom murden replied on in creative writing, Wed, 2014-04-09 11:03 Permalink.

Joe replied on cloning and religion, Tue, 2014-05-13 19:16 Permalink. I found useful tips here, which cover most practical ideas. Strategies like these are gems! Thank you! karen replied on Fri, 2015-03-13 18:42 Permalink. i whant to learn how to writ for writing, my test on tuseday I#039;m in uva web assign 3rd grade. Colorin Colorado is a national multimedia project that offers a wealth of bilingual, research-based information, activities, and advice for educators and families of English language learners (ELLs). Colorin Colorado is an educational service of career writing, WETA, the flagship public broadcasting station in hobby essay the nation#039;s capital, and receives major funding from the American Federation of Teachers and National Education Association. © Copyright 2017 WETA Public Broadcasting. Artwork by Caldecott Award-winning illustrator David Diaz and Pura Belpr­e Award-winning illustrator Rafael Lopez is used with permission.

Homepage illustrations ©2009 by Rafael Lopez originally appeared in Book Fiesta by Pat Mora and used with permission from HarperCollins.