Sample conclusion in research paper
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Academic report: conclusion and recommendations
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Archetypal Literary Criticism Essay. archetypes. According to sample in research paper, Jung, the “shadows” of an archetype are a hidden personality trait. For example, masculine characters, like a warrior, indicate a physical trait and its shadow has an aggressive nature (Munafo 1). A feminine archetype, such as a maiden, indicates a physical trait and co-dependent shadow (Munafo 1). Archetypes are seen in all kinds of stories, and persuasive essay about pollution, they usually have the sample paper same meaning.
They help to understand personalities more, which can also help interpret the meaning of a text through the characters. The archetype of a hero is the most common. It is seen in mostly all cultures, and a hero is an & universities animus. Sample Conclusion In Research. In a story there is always a conflict, and then some sort of “hero” can come up to ease the conflict. “The archetype tells the writer about the a good most basic instincts of the hero: how he thinks, how he feels, what drives him and why he chooses both his goals and his methods. The skillful writer, in turn, conveys these instincts to the readers or audience, who, knowing at a glance the character of this hero, settles down to conclusion, watch the tale retold anew” (Cowden 1). Archetypal Literary Criticism was developed shortly after Archetypal Criticism in The Road by Cormac McCarthy Essay. Comparison Essays School And College. Archetypal criticism follows a basic rule of categorizing or relating any work of literature into a set framework. It works from a subjective basis, it is paper, used to essay judged, determine and grasp the ideas of sample in research universal truths messages through literary work.
The universal truths and messages are determined by identifying patterns like character types, storylines, settings, symbols. The Road by persuasive essay about pollution Cormac McCarthy is a novel that accurately exemplifies the principles of archetypal criticism. Conclusion In Research. This narrative account understanding of the nature of man and his world. Essay Youtube. a sense of reality. a sense of absolute (4). While Marxist critics must admit that they themselves are helpless to avoid the effects of hegemony, the critical project of sample conclusion in research paper Marxist literary criticism remains steadfastly committed to judged unfairly, the attempt to identify and understand the mediating contexts in which the forces of hegemony exert pressure on a text, its author, and its audience. Sample Conclusion. These contexts manifest themselves within specific historical Looking At Blood Diamond With The Archetypal Criticism Essay. the products consumers are purchasing come from. Blood Diamond follows Dr.
Carl Jung’s archetypal criticism. Persuasive Essay Pollution. According to Jung, archetypes are forms personified in images, symbols or patterns, and he said that literature imitates the dreams of human kind. Jung states that there are three categories of archetypes (sometimes called Jungian archetypes); narrative archetypes, character archetypes, and archetypal images. Blood Diamond follows Dr. Carl Jung’s theory of archetypes through the actions and
Literary Criticisms of Shakespeare’s Hamlet Essay. In Research Paper. violates a general moral principle by killing his brother and then again by taking what belonged to the King and made it his without permission. The murdered king does reappear, however, as a a ghost. The ghost in essay judged Hamlet is the subject of many literary critiques; in my research I came across two articles in particular about this topic that caught my interest. In particular, Zimmerman’s article explores Kristeva theory of abjection. The reaction from a threatening breakdown in meaning caused by Scarlet Letter Literary Criticism Essay. In Research. just a character, “very picturesquely arranged,” mainly because the story isn’t about them, but what they stand for (James 29). For instance, Pearl is the living sin. Nineteenth century criticism is positive to persuasive essay about pollution, the story. Early twentieth century criticism continues what took place in nineteenth century criticism, to be very optimistic about the story, but takes a deeper look into the main characters. Mark Van Doven points out the greatness of the characters. He explains Pearl in conclusion in research paper a short, but fascinating Feminist Literary Criticism and Lysistrata Essay. actually are. By looking at the roles in which men place those fictional women, we can examine the “cultural ‘mind-set’ in competition men and paper, women which perpetuates cultural inequality” (Barry 122).
This representation of women is a main concern of feminist literary critics. Women characters in classical drama, such as Aristophanes’ Lysistrata, are not so much realistic, well-rounded female characters, but figments of a classical male imagination. The representations of the women in Lysistrata are unrealistic Essay about Psychoanalytic Literary Criticism. a high end social, in order to look her best she borrows what she thinks is an essay unfairly expensive necklace. Sample Paper. Soon after leaving the five youtube ball she discovers she loses the necklace. Thus, begins a ten year struggle to replace the item. In psychoanalyzing literary characters it’s said that the characters are usually projections of an author’s own psyche. The theory is used to analyze the Literary Criticism of conclusion in research paper Swift’s Poetry Essay. . . once removed from the experience depicted and comparison and contrast on high school and college, also distanced from it both by our lack of responsibility for it and by the medium of language. Conveniently, there is a primary voyeur who can absorb the conclusion in research opprobrium attached to the forbidden looking, leaving us guiltlessly looking at words.
18 Barnett makes the distinction between active and passive voyeurism. Swift acts as the active voyeur insofar that he had to actually wander around a lady's dressing room or watch a lady strip in order to be Of Mice and Men Literary Criticism Essay. When Candy thinks back on his dog, he becomes sad and comparison essays on high school, says to George, I ought to of shot that dog myself, George. I shouldn't ought to sample in research, of let no stranger shoot my dog (61). Candy thinks that the right thing to have done would have been to kill his dog himself.
Later in the story, George is faced with a similar situation. While Lennie is essay, being hunted by the angry group, George decides that it would have been better to kill Lennie himself because Lennie was George's companion, his best friend, his Literary Criticism of Oliver Twist Essay. Sample In Research Paper. Dickens witnesses an injustice happening in England's workhouses and works to make society's views of the abuse of children change, but by this time, the horrors of the workhouse were so established in the English scene that they were destined to become part of the British social legend. total degradation (Gold 25). Persuasive. Because of the Poor Law of 1834, the young children suffered more than the able bodied benefited so through Dickens' career, he becomes preoccupied with the use and abuse of the Poor
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Writing a Conclusion for a Research Paper
lab format ASA 7 th /8 th grade Scientific Reports Handout. This handout provides a general guide to writing reports about scientific research you've performed. In addition to describing the conventional rules about the conclusion in research paper format and judged content of a lab report, we'll also attempt to sample conclusion in research paper, convey why these rules exist, so you'll get a clearer, more dependable idea of how to persuasive essay, approach this writing situation. Why do we write research reports? You did an experiment or study for conclusion paper, your science class, and now you have to write it up for essays on high and college, your teacher to review. You feel that you understood the background sufficiently, designed and completed the study effectively, obtained useful data, and can use those data to draw conclusions about a scientific process or principle. But how exactly do you write all that?
What is sample conclusion in research, your teacher expecting to see? To take some of the and contrast guesswork out of answering these questions, try to think beyond the in research paper classroom setting. Essay Pollution. In fact, you and your teacher are both part of conclusion in research paper a scientific community, and the people who participate in this community tend to comparison essays on high and college, share the same values. As long as you understand and respect these values, your writing will likely meet the expectations of conclusion in research paper your audience—including your teacher. So why are you writing this research report? The practical answer is Because the teacher assigned it, but that's classroom thinking. Generally speaking, people investigating some scientific hypothesis have a responsibility to the rest of the scientific world to report their findings, particularly if these findings add to or contradict previous ideas. As you can probably imagine, people reading such reports have two primary goals: They want to gather the information presented. They want to for a essay, know that the conclusion in research paper findings are legitimate. Your job as a writer, then, is to and contrast school and college, fulfill these two goals.
Good question. You're probably familiar with the basic format scientists have designed for research reports: This format, sometimes called IMRAD, may take slightly different shapes depending on the discipline or audience; some ask you to include an abstract or separate section for the hypothesis, or call the sample Discussion section Conclusions, or change the order of the sections (some professional and academic journals require the five essay youtube Methods section to appear last). Overall, however, the IMRAD format was devised to represent a textual version of the scientific method. The scientific method, you'll probably recall, involves developing a hypothesis, testing it, and deciding whether your findings support the hypothesis. In essence, the format for a research report in the sciences mirrors the scientific method but fleshes out the process a little. Below, you'll find a table that shows how each written section fits into conclusion in research paper, the scientific method and what additional information it offers the reader. Scientific method step.
states your hypothesis. explains how you derived that hypothesis and how it connects to persuasive essay about, previous research; gives the conclusion purpose of the good experiment/study. details how you tested your hypothesis. clarifies why you performed your study in that particular way. provides raw (i.e., uninterpreted) data collected. (perhaps) expresses the sample in research data in comparison essays school table form, as an easy-to-read figure, or as percentages/ratios. considers whether the data you obtained support the hypothesis.
explores the implications of your finding and judges the potential limitations of your experimental design. Thinking of your research report as based on the scientific method, but elaborated in conclusion in research paper the ways described above, may help you to essay judged, meet your audience's expectations successfully. Actually, we're going to proceed by explicitly connecting each section of the lab report to the scientific method, then explaining why and sample in research how you need to elaborate that section. It's important to understand that although this handout takes each section in the order in which it should be presented in the final report, you may for practical reasons decide to compose sections in analytical & to foreign universities another order. Conclusion In Research Paper. For example, many writers find that composing their Methods and Results before the other sections help to clarify their idea of the experiment or study as a whole. You might consider using each assignment to practice different approaches to drafting the comparison school and college report, to conclusion paper, find the paragraph essay youtube order that works best for you. What should I do before drafting the lab report? The best way to prepare to write the lab report is to make sure that you fully understand everything you need to about the experiment. Obviously, if you don't quite know what went on during the lab, you're going to find it difficult to explain the lab satisfactorily to someone else. To make sure you know enough to write the report, complete the following steps:
Read your lab manual thoroughly, well before you start to sample conclusion paper, carry out the experiment. Ask yourself the essays on high following questions: What are we going to conclusion paper, do in this lab? (That is, what's the procedure?) Why are we going to do it that way? What are we hoping to learn from this experiment? Why would we benefit from this knowledge? Answering these questions will lead you to a more complete understanding of the experiment, and this big picture will in intro for a essay turn help you write a successful lab report. Make use of your lab supervisor as you perform the lab.
If you don't know how to answer one of the questions above, for example, your lab supervisor will probably be able to explain it to you (or, at sample in research paper least, help you figure it out). Plan the steps of the experiment carefully with your lab partners. The less panicky running around you do, the more likely it is analytical to foreign universities, that you'll perform the experiment correctly and record your findings accurately. Also, take some time to think about the sample conclusion best way to essay about pollution, organize the data before you have to start putting numbers down. If you can design a table to account for the data, that will tend to sample conclusion, work much better than jotting results down hurriedly on a scrap piece of paper. Record the data carefully so you get them right. You won't be able to trust your conclusions if you have the wrong data, and your readers will know you messed up if the other three people in your group have 97 degrees and you have 87. Consult with your lab partners about everything you do. Lab groups often make one or two mistakes: two people do all the work while two have a nice chat, or everybody works together until the group finishes gathering the raw data, then scrams outta there. Bad Essay. Collaborate with your partners, even when the experiment is in research, over.
What trends did you observe? Was the persuasive essay pollution hypothesis supported? Did you all get the same results? What kind of figure should you use to represent your findings? The whole group can work together to sample conclusion paper, answer these questions. Consider your audience. You may believe that audience is competition, a non-issue: it's your lab TA, right? Well, yes—but again, think beyond the sample classroom. If you write with only your lab instructor in mind, you may omit material that is crucial to intro for a, a complete understanding of your experiment, because you assume the instructor knows all that stuff already. As a result, you may receive a lower grade, since your TA won't be sure that you understand all the principles at work. Try to write towards a student in the same course but a different lab section.
That student will have a fair degree of scientific expertise but won't know much about your experiment particularly. Alternatively, you could envision yourself five years from now, after the reading and lectures for this course have faded a bit. What would you remember, and what would you need explained more clearly (as a refresher)? Once you've completed these steps as you perform the experiment, you'll be in a good position to draft an effective lab report. How do I write a strong Introduction? For the purposes of this handout, we'll consider the Introduction to sample, contain four basic elements: the purpose, the scientific literature relevant to the subject, the hypothesis, and the reasons you believed your hypothesis viable.
Let's start by going through each element of the Introduction to clarify what it covers and why it's important. Then we can formulate a logical organizational strategy for five paragraph essay youtube, the section. The inclusion of the purpose (sometimes called the objective) of the experiment often confuses writers. The biggest misconception is that the purpose is the same as the hypothesis. Not quite.
We'll get to hypotheses in a minute, but basically they provide some indication of what you expect the conclusion in research paper experiment to show. The purpose is broader, and deals more with what you expect to competition bad essay, gain through the experiment. Sample Conclusion In Research. In a professional setting, the hypothesis might have something to do with how cells react to a certain kind of genetic manipulation, but the purpose of the experiment is to analytical for admission, learn more about potential cancer treatments. Sample In Research. Undergraduate reports don't often have this wide-ranging a goal, but you should still try to maintain the distinction between your hypothesis and essay about pollution your purpose. Conclusion Paper. In a solubility experiment, for example, your hypothesis might talk about the relationship between temperature and the rate of solubility, but the unfairly purpose is probably to learn more about some specific scientific principle underlying the process of conclusion in research solubility. For starters, most people say that you should write out your working hypothesis before you perform the experiment or study. Analytical Writing & To Foreign. Many beginning science students neglect to conclusion paper, do so and find themselves struggling to remember precisely which variables were involved in the process or in what way the researchers felt that they were related. Write your hypothesis down as you develop it—you'll be glad you did. As for good, the form a hypothesis should take, it's best not to be too fancy or complicated; an inventive style isn't nearly so important as clarity here.
There's nothing wrong with beginning your hypothesis with the phrase, It was hypothesized that . . . Be as specific as you can about the sample in research paper relationship between the different objects of your study. In other words, explain that when term A changes, term B changes in this particular way. Readers of scientific writing are rarely content with the idea that a relationship between two terms exists—they want to know what that relationship entails. Not a hypothesis : It was hypothesized that there is essay, a significant relationship between the sample in research temperature of a solvent and the rate at intro essay which a solute dissolves. Hypothesis : It was hypothesized that as the temperature of a solvent increases, the rate at which a solute will dissolve in that solvent increases. Put more technically, most hypotheses contain both an independent and a dependent variable. The independent variable is what you manipulate to test the reaction; the dependent variable is what changes as a result of sample in research your manipulation. In the example above, the independent variable is the paragraph youtube temperature of the solvent, and sample in research paper the dependent variable is the rate of solubility. Be sure that your hypothesis includes both variables. Justify your hypothesis.
You need to do more than tell your readers what your hypothesis is; you also need to assure them that this hypothesis was reasonable, given the circumstances. In other words, use the Introduction to comparison and contrast and college, explain that you didn't just pluck your hypothesis out of thin air. (If you did pluck it out of thin air, your problems with your report will probably extend beyond using the appropriate format.) If you posit that a particular relationship exists between the conclusion independent and the dependent variable, what led you to believe your guess might be supported by evidence? Scientists often refer to essay, this type of justification as motivating the conclusion paper hypothesis, in the sense that something propelled them to make that prediction. Often, motivation includes what we already know—or rather, what scientists generally accept as true (see Background/previous research below). But you can also motivate your hypothesis by relying on logic or on your own observations. If you're trying to decide which solutes will dissolve more rapidly in a solvent at increased temperatures, you might remember that some solids are meant to dissolve in hot water (e.g., bouillon cubes) and paragraph youtube some are used for a function precisely because they withstand higher temperatures (they make saucepans out of something). Or you can think about whether you've noticed sugar dissolving more rapidly in your glass of iced tea or in your cup of sample conclusion in research paper coffee.
Even such basic, outside-the-lab observations can help you justify your hypothesis as reasonable. This part of the Introduction demonstrates to the reader your awareness of how you're building on for a, other scientists' work. If you think of the scientific community as engaging in a series of conversations about various topics, then you'll recognize that the relevant background material will alert the conclusion in research reader to which conversation you want to enter. Generally speaking, authors writing journal articles use the background for slightly different purposes than do students completing assignments. Because readers of academic journals tend to be professionals in essay unfairly the field, authors explain the background in order to permit readers to evaluate the sample in research study's pertinence for essay, their own work. You, on conclusion in research paper, the other hand, write toward a much narrower audience—your peers in the course or your lab instructor—and so you must demonstrate that you understand the context for the (presumably assigned) experiment or study you've completed. For example, if your professor has been talking about polarity during lectures, and you're doing a solubility experiment, you might try to connect the polarity of a solid to its relative solubility in certain solvents. In any event, both professional researchers and undergraduates need to connect the background material overtly to their own work. Organization of this section. Most of the time, writers begin by stating the purpose or objectives of their own work, which establishes for the reader's benefit the nature and scope of the problem investigated (Day 1994).
Once you have expressed your purpose, you should then find it easier to move from the general purpose, to a good, relevant material on the subject, to your hypothesis. In abbreviated form, an Introduction section might look like this: The purpose of the experiment was to test conventional ideas about solubility in the laboratory [purpose] . . . According to Whitecoat and Labrat (1999), at higher temperatures the molecules of solvents move more quickly . . . We know from the class lecture that molecules moving at higher rates of speed collide with one another more often and sample thus break down more easily [background material/motivation] . . . Paragraph Youtube. Thus, it was hypothesized that as the sample in research temperature of a solvent increases, the rate at which a solute will dissolve in that solvent increases [hypothesis]. Again—these are guidelines, not commandments. Some writers and readers prefer different structures for analytical & essays for admission to foreign universities, the Introduction. The one above merely illustrates a common approach to organizing material. How do I write a strong Materials and Methods section? As with any piece of writing, your Methods section will succeed only if it fulfills its readers' expectations, so you need to be clear in your own mind about the purpose of this section. Sample Conclusion In Research. Let's review the purpose as we described it above: in this section, you want to describe in detail how you tested the hypothesis you developed and also to clarify the rationale for your procedure. Bad Essay. In science, it's not sufficient merely to design and carry out an experiment.
Ultimately, others must be able to paper, verify your findings, so your experiment must be reproducible, to the extent that other researchers can follow the same procedure and universities obtain the same (or similar) results. Here's a real-world example of the importance of reproducibility. In 1989, physicists Stanley Pons and Martin Fleischman announced that they had discovered cold fusion, a way of producing excess heat and power without the nuclear radiation that accompanies hot fusion. Such a discovery could have great ramifications for the industrial production of energy, so these findings created a great deal of interest. When other scientists tried to duplicate the experiment, however, they didn't achieve the same results, and conclusion in research as a result many wrote off the on high and college conclusions as unjustified (or worse, a hoax). To this day, the viability of cold fusion is debated within the sample scientific community, even though an increasing number of researchers believe it possible. So when you write your Methods section, keep in mind that you need to describe your experiment well enough to essay, allow others to replicate it exactly. With these goals in mind, let's consider how to write an effective Methods section in terms of content, structure, and style. Sometimes the hardest thing about sample paper, writing this section isn't what you should talk about, but what you shouldn't talk about. Essay. Writers often want to include the conclusion paper results of their experiment, because they measured and recorded the results during the course of the experiment. But such data should be reserved for the Results section.
In the persuasive essay about pollution Methods section, you can write that you recorded the results, or how you recorded the results (e.g., in a table), but you shouldn't write what the results were—not yet. Here, you're merely stating exactly how you went about testing your hypothesis. How much detail? Be precise in providing details, but stay relevant. Ask yourself, Would it make any difference if this piece were a different size or made from a different material?
If not, you probably don't need to get too specific. If so, you should give as many details as necessary to prevent this experiment from going awry if someone else tries to conclusion in research, carry it out. Persuasive. Probably the sample conclusion paper most crucial detail is measurement; you should always quantify anything you can, such as time elapsed, temperature, mass, volume, etc. Rationale: Be sure that as you're relating your actions during the experiment, you explain your rationale for the protocol you developed. If you capped a test tube immediately after adding a solute to analytical writing & for admission, a solvent, why did you do that? (That's really two questions: why did you cap it, and why did you cap it immediately?) In a professional setting, writers provide their rationale as a way to in research, explain their thinking to competition good, potential critics. On one hand, of in research paper course, that's your motivation for talking about protocol, too. Analytical Writing Universities. On the other hand, since in practical terms you're also writing to conclusion, your teacher (who's seeking to persuasive about pollution, evaluate how well you comprehend the principles of the sample conclusion paper experiment), explaining the persuasive essay about pollution rationale indicates that you understand the reasons for conducting the experiment in that way, and that you're not just following orders. Critical thinking is crucial—robots don't make good scientists.
Control: Most experiments will include a control, which is sample conclusion in research, a means of comparing experimental results. (Sometimes you'll need to have more than one control, depending on the number of hypotheses you want to intro, test.) The control is exactly the same as the other items you're testing, except that you don't manipulate the independent variable-the condition you're altering to check the effect on the dependent variable. Sample Conclusion In Research. For example, if you're testing solubility rates at increased temperatures, your control would be a solution that you didn't heat at all; that way, you'll see how quickly the and contrast school solute dissolves naturally (i.e., without manipulation), and conclusion paper you'll have a point of judged reference against which to compare the solutions you did heat. Describe the control in the Methods section. Two things are especially important in in research writing about the control: identify the control as a control, and explain what you're controlling for. Example: As a control for the temperature change, we placed the comparison essays school same amount of solute in the same amount of solvent, and let the solution stand for five minutes without heating it. Structure and style. Organization is sample conclusion paper, especially important in the Methods section of a lab report because readers must understand your experimental procedure completely. Many writers are surprised by the difficulty of conveying what they did during the experiment, since after all they're only reporting an event, but it's often tricky to present this information in a coherent way. There's a fairly standard structure you can use to guide you, and following the essay about conventions for style can help clarify your points. Subsections: Occasionally, researchers use subsections to report their procedure when the following circumstances apply: 1) if they've used a great many materials; 2) if the procedure is conclusion in research paper, unusually complicated; 3) if they've developed a procedure that won't be familiar to many of their readers.
Because these conditions rarely apply to the experiments you'll perform in class, most undergraduate lab reports won't require you to use subsections. In fact, many guides to writing lab reports suggest that you try to limit your Methods section to a single paragraph. A Good For A Essay. Narrative structure: Think of this section as telling a story about sample conclusion in research paper, a group of people and the experiment they performed. Describe what you did in the order in which you did it. You may have heard the old joke centered on the line, Disconnect the red wire, but only after disconnecting the green wire, where the person reading the directions blows everything to about, kingdom come because the directions weren't in sample paper order.
We're used to reading about events chronologically, and so your readers will generally understand what you did if you present that information in the same way. Also, since the Methods section does generally appear as a narrative (story), you want to analytical writing essays to foreign, avoid the sample conclusion paper recipe approach: First, take a clean, dry 100 ml test tube from the a good for a essay rack. Next, add 50 ml of conclusion distilled water. You should be reporting what did happen, not telling the reader how to perform the experiment: 50 ml of persuasive pollution distilled water was poured into a clean, dry 100 ml test tube. Hint: most of the time, the in research paper recipe approach comes from copying down the steps of the procedure from paragraph essay, your lab manual, so you may want to draft the in research paper Methods section initially without consulting your manual. Later, of course, you can go back and fill in any part of the paragraph youtube procedure you inadvertently overlooked. Past tense: Remember that you're describing what happened, so you should use past tense to refer to paper, everything you did during the experiment. Writers are often tempted to use the imperative (Add 5 g of the solid to the solution) because that's how their lab manuals are worded; less frequently, they use present tense (5 g of the solid are added to the solution). Instead, remember that you're talking about an event which happened at competition good a particular time in the past, and which has already ended by the time you start writing, so simple past tense will be appropriate in this section (5 g of the sample conclusion in research paper solid were added to the solution or We added 5 g of the solid to the solution).
Passive voice vs. first person: In the past, scientific journals encouraged their writers to avoid using the first person (I or we), because the researchers themselves weren't personally important to and contrast essays, the procedure in the experiment. Remember that other researchers should ideally be able to sample paper, reproduce experiments exactly, based on the lab report; using first person indicates (to some readers) that the experiment cannot be duplicated without the original researchers present. To help keep personal references out of competition good bad essay lab reports, scientific conventions also dictated that researchers should use passive voice, in conclusion which the subject of a sentence or clause doesn't perform the action described by and contrast on high, the verb. You can learn more in our handout on passive voice , but these examples might explain the distinction between active and passive voice: Active: We heated the solution to 80°C. Sample Conclusion In Research Paper. (The subject, we, performs the action, heating.) Passive: The solution was heated to 80°C. Persuasive Essay About Pollution. (The subject, solution, doesn't do the heating--it is acted upon, not acting.) Increasingly, especially in the social sciences, using first person and active voice is acceptable in scientific reports. Most readers find that this style of writing conveys information more directly and in research paper therefore more clearly and concisely. This rhetorical choice thus brings two scientific values into conflict: objectivity versus clarity. Intro Essay. Since the scientific community hasn't reached a consensus about which style it prefers, you may want to in research, ask your lab instructor. How do I write a strong Results section?
Here's a paradox for about, you. Paper. The Results section is often both the shortest (yay!) and most important (uh-oh!) part of your report. Your Materials and Methods section shows how you obtained the results, and your Discussion section explores the significance of the results, so clearly the Results section forms the backbone of the lab report. This section provides the most critical information about essays school and college, your experiment: the data that allow you to discuss how your hypothesis was or wasn't supported. But it doesn't provide anything else, which explains why this section is generally shorter than the others. Before you write this section, look at all the data you collected to figure out what relates significantly to sample conclusion, your hypothesis. You'll want to highlight this material in your Results section. Resist the urge to include every bit of analytical for admission universities data you collected, since perhaps not all are relevant. Sample Conclusion In Research. Also, don't try to draw conclusions about the five paragraph essay results—save them for the Discussion section. Sample Conclusion. In this section, you're reporting facts.
Nothing your readers can dispute should appear in the Results section. Most Results sections feature three distinct parts: text, tables, and figures. Let's consider each part one at bad essay a time. This should be a short paragraph, generally just a few lines, that describes the results you obtained from your experiment. In a relatively simple experiment, one that doesn't produce a lot of data for you to sample conclusion paper, repeat, the text can represent the essays and college entire Results section. Don't feel that you need to conclusion in research, include lots of extraneous detail to compensate for a short (but effective) text; your readers appreciate discrimination more than your ability to recite facts. In a more complex experiment, you may want to use tables and/or figures to help guide your readers toward the most important information you gathered. Intro For A Essay. In that event, you'll need to refer to each table or figure directly, where appropriate: Table 1 lists the rates of sample conclusion in research solubility for each substance or Solubility increased as the temperature of the solution increased (see Figure 1). If you do use tables or figures, make sure that you don't present the same material in both the text and the tables/figures, since in essence you'll just repeat yourself, probably annoying your readers with the redundancy of your statements. Feel free to describe trends that emerge as you examine the data.
Although identifying trends requires some judgment on your part and so may not feel like factual reporting, no one can deny that these trends do exist, and so they properly belong in the Results section. Example: Heating the solution increased the rate of solubility of polar solids by 45% but had no effect on the rate of solubility in solutions containing non-polar solids. This point isn't debatable—you're just pointing out what the data show. As in the Materials and Methods section, you want to refer to your data in the past tense, because the events you recorded have already occurred and have finished occurring. In the example above, note the use of increased and had, rather than increases and essay about pollution has. (You don't know from your experiment that heating always increases the solubility of conclusion in research polar solids, but it did that time.)
You shouldn't put information in the table that also appears in essay unfairly the text or use a table to present irrelevant data, just to show you did collect these data during the experiment. Tables are good for some purposes and situations, but not others, so whether and how you'll use tables depends upon what you need them to accomplish. Tables are useful ways to show variation in data, but not to present a great deal of unchanging measurements. If you're dealing with a scientific phenomenon that occurs only within a certain range of temperatures, for example, you don't need to use a table to show that the phenomenon didn't occur at any of the other temperatures. How useful is this table?
As you can probably see, no solubility was observed until the trial temperature reached 50°C, a fact that the in research paper text part of the Results section could easily convey. Analytical Writing & To Foreign Universities. The table could then be limited to what happened at 50°C and higher, thus better illustrating the sample conclusion in research paper differences in solubility rates when solubility did occur. As a rule, try not to use a table to describe any experimental event you can cover in one sentence of judged text. Sample. Here's an persuasive, example of an sample paper, unnecessary table from unfairly, How to Write and conclusion in research paper Publish a Scientific Paper, by Robert A. Essay Judged. Day: As Day notes, all the information in in research this table can be summarized in to foreign one sentence: S. griseus, S. coelicolor, S. everycolor, and S. Conclusion In Research Paper. rainbowenski grew under aerobic conditions, whereas S. nocolor and S. Persuasive Essay About. greenicus required anaerobic conditions.
Most readers won't find the table clearer than that one sentence. When you do have reason to tabulate material, pay attention to the clarity and readability of the format you use. Here are a few tips: Number your table. In Research. Then, when you refer to the table in the text, use that number to tell your readers which table they can review to judged, clarify the material. Sample Paper. Give your table a title. This title should be descriptive enough to communicate the good bad essay contents of the sample conclusion table, but not so long that it becomes difficult to follow. The titles in the sample tables above are acceptable. Arrange your table so that readers read vertically, not horizontally. For the most part, this rule means that you should construct your table so that like elements read down, not across.
Think about what you want your readers to compare, and put that information in the column (up and down) rather than in the row (across). Usually, the point of essay comparison will be the numerical data you collect, so especially make sure you have columns of sample numbers, not rows. Here's an example of how drastically this decision affects the readability of your table (from A Short Guide to Writing about Chemistry, by analytical & universities, Herbert Beall and John Trimbur). Look at this table, which presents the relevant data in horizontal rows: It's a little tough to see the sample paper trends that the author presumably wants to present in paragraph this table. Sample Conclusion In Research. Compare this table, in which the good data appear vertically: The second table shows how putting like elements in sample conclusion in research a vertical column makes for easier reading.
In this case, the like elements are the measurements of length and height, over five trials--not, as in the first table, the five essay length and height measurements for each trial. Make sure to include units of in research measurement in the tables. Readers might be able to guess that you measured something in millimeters, but don't make them try. Line up numbers on the right, like this: or on the decimal point. It may help to intro for a essay, pretend that you're going to in research, add the numbers together and align them accordingly. Don't use vertical lines as part of the format for your table. A Good Intro. This convention exists because journals prefer not to have to reproduce these lines because the tables then become more expensive to print. Even though it's fairly unlikely that you'll be sending your Biology 11 lab report to Science for publication, your readers still have this expectation. Consequently, if you use the table-drawing option in your word-processing software, choose the option that doesn't rely on a grid format (which includes vertical lines). How do I include figures in sample conclusion in research my report?
Although tables can be useful ways of showing trends in the results you obtained, figures (i.e., illustrations) can do an even better job of emphasizing such trends. Lab report writers often use graphic representations of the data they collected to five paragraph essay, provide their readers with a literal picture of conclusion paper how the experiment went. When should you use a figure? Remember the circumstances under which you don't need a table: when you don't have a great deal of data, or when the data you have don't vary a lot. Under the same conditions, you would probably forgo the figure as well, since the figure would be unlikely to provide your readers with an additional perspective. Scientists really don't like their time wasted, so they tend not to respond favorably to redundancy.
If you're trying to decide between using a table and creating a figure to five youtube, present your material, consider the following a rule of sample conclusion in research paper thumb. The strength of analytical a table lies in its ability to supply large amounts of conclusion in research exact data, whereas the strength of a figure is its dramatic illustration of important trends within the experiment. If you feel that your readers won't get the full impact of the results you obtained just by looking at the numbers, then a figure might be appropriate. Of course, an a good intro for a, undergraduate class may expect you to create a figure for your lab experiment, if only to make sure that you can do so effectively. If this is the case, then don't worry about whether to use figures or not—concentrate instead on how best to accomplish your task. Figures can include maps, photographs, pen-and-ink drawings, flow charts, bar graphs, and section graphs (pie charts).
But the sample in research paper most common figure by far, especially for essays on high, undergraduates, is the line graph, so we'll focus on that type in this handout. At the undergraduate level, you can often draw and label your graphs by hand, provided that the result is conclusion paper, clear, legible, and drawn to scale. Computer technology has, however, made creating line graphs a lot easier. Most word-processing software has a number of functions for transferring data into graph form; many scientists have found Microsoft Excel, for a good for a, example, a helpful tool in sample in research graphing results. Five Paragraph Essay Youtube. If you plan on pursuing a career in the sciences, it may be well worth your while to learn to in research, use a similar program. Computers can't, however, decide for you how your graph really works; you have to unfairly, know how to design your graph to meet your readers' expectations. Some of these expectations follow: Keep it as simple as possible.
You may be tempted to signal the complexity of the information you gathered by trying to design a graph that accounts for that complexity. But remember the sample conclusion paper purpose of your graph: to dramatize your results in a manner that's easy to see and grasp. Try not to make the reader stare at the graph for a half hour to find the paragraph youtube important line among the mass of other lines. For maximum effectiveness, limit yourself to three to five lines per graph; if you have more data to sample, demonstrate, use a set of graphs to account for them, rather than trying to cram it all into a single figure. Plot the independent variable on the horizontal (x) axis and writing essays for admission the dependent variable on the vertical (y) axis. Remember that the independent variable is the in research condition that you manipulated during the experiment and the dependent variable is the & to foreign condition that you measured to see if it changed along with the independent variable. Placing the variables along their respective axes is sample conclusion, mostly just a convention, but since your readers are accustomed to viewing graphs in this way, you're better off not challenging the intro convention in conclusion in research paper your report. Label each axis carefully, and be especially careful to include units of measure. You need to make sure that your readers understand perfectly well what your graph indicates.
Number and title your graphs. As with tables, the bad essay title of the graph should be informative but concise, and you should refer to conclusion, your graph by number in the text (e.g., Figure 1 shows the increase in comparison and contrast the solubility rate as a function of temperature). Many editors of in research paper professional scientific journals prefer that writers distinguish the lines in persuasive essay pollution their graphs by sample conclusion in research, attaching a symbol to them, usually a geometric shape (triangle, square, etc.), and using that symbol throughout the curve of the line. Generally, readers have a hard time distinguishing dotted lines from about, dot-dash lines from straight lines, so you should consider staying away from this system. Editors don't usually like different-colored lines within a graph, because colors are difficult and expensive to reproduce; colors may, however, be great for your purposes, as long as you're not planning to submit your paper to Nature. Use your discretion—try to employ whichever technique dramatizes the results most effectively. Try to gather data at regular intervals, so the plot points on your graph aren't too far apart. Sample Conclusion In Research. You can't be sure of the arc you should draw between the plot points if the analytical writing & universities points are located at the far corners of the graph; over a fifteen-minute interval, perhaps the change occurred in the first or last thirty seconds of that period (in which case your straight-line connection between the points is misleading). If you're worried that you didn't collect data at sufficiently regular intervals during your experiment, go ahead and sample conclusion connect the points with a straight line, but you may want to examine this problem as part of your Discussion section. Make your graph large enough so that everything is intro, legible and conclusion in research paper clearly demarcated, but not so large that it either overwhelms the rest of the Results section or provides a far greater range than you need to illustrate your point.
If, for example, the seedlings of essay unfairly your plant grew only 15 mm during the trial, you don't need to construct a graph that accounts for 100 mm of growth. The lines in your graph should more or less fill the space created by the axes; if you see that your data is confined to the lower left portion of the conclusion graph, you should probably re-adjust your scale. If you create a set of graphs, make them the same size and analytical writing & to foreign format, including all the verbal and visual codes (captions, symbols, scale, etc.). You want to sample in research, be as consistent as possible in your illustrations, so that your readers can easily make the analytical & for admission universities comparisons you're trying to get them to see. How do I write a strong Discussion section? The discussion section is probably the least formalized part of the report, in that you can't really apply the conclusion in research same structure to every type of experiment.
In simple terms, here you tell your readers what to and contrast essays on high and college, make of the Results you obtained. If you have done the Results part well, your readers should already recognize the trends in the data and have a fairly clear idea of whether your hypothesis was supported. Because the Results can seem so self-explanatory, many students find it difficult to know what material to add in this last section. Basically, the Discussion contains several parts, in no particular order, but roughly moving from specific (i.e., related to your experiment only) to general (how your findings fit in the larger scientific community). Sample Conclusion Paper. In this section, you will, as a rule, need to: Explain whether the data support your hypothesis Acknowledge any anomalous data or deviations from a good intro for a, what you expected Derive conclusions, based on your findings, about the in research process you're studying Relate your findings to earlier work in the same area (if you can) Explore the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings. Let's look at some dos and don'ts for each of these objectives. Explain whether the data support your hypothesis. This statement is usually a good way to competition, begin the Discussion, since you can't effectively speak about the larger scientific value of your study until you've figured out the particulars of this experiment.
You might begin this part of the Discussion by explicitly stating the relationships or correlations your data indicate between the independent and dependent variables. Then you can show more clearly why you believe your hypothesis was or was not supported. For example, if you tested solubility at various temperatures, you could start this section by noting that the rates of solubility increased as the temperature increased. If your initial hypothesis surmised that temperature change would not affect solubility, you would then say something like, The hypothesis that temperature change would not affect solubility was not supported by the data. Note: Students tend to conclusion in research paper, view labs as practical tests of undeniable scientific truths. As a result, you may want to say that the five essay hypothesis was proved or disproved or that it was correct or incorrect. These terms, however, reflect a degree of certainty that you as a scientist aren't supposed to have. Remember, you're testing a theory with a procedure that lasts only a few hours and sample conclusion paper relies on only a few trials, which severely compromises your ability to be sure about the truth you see. Intro For A. Words like supported, indicated, and suggested are more acceptable ways to evaluate your hypothesis.
Also, recognize that saying whether the data supported your hypothesis or not involves making a claim to conclusion paper, be defended. As such, you need to persuasive, show the readers that this claim is warranted by the evidence. Make sure that you're very explicit about the conclusion in research paper relationship between the evidence and for a the conclusions you draw from it. This process is difficult for many writers because we don't often justify conclusions in our regular lives. For example, you might nudge your friend at a party and whisper, That guy's drunk, and once your friend lays eyes on the person in sample conclusion paper question, she might readily agree. In a scientific paper, by contrast, you would need to intro essay, defend your claim more thoroughly by sample conclusion in research paper, pointing to data such as slurred words, unsteady gait, and the lampshade-as-hat.
In addition to pointing out these details, you would also need to show how (according to previous studies) these signs are consistent with inebriation, especially if they occur in competition good bad essay conjunction with one another. To put it another way, tell your readers exactly how you got from point A (was the hypothesis supported?) to point B (yes/no). Acknowledge any anomalous data, or deviations from what you expected. You need to sample in research, take these exceptions and competition good divergences into account, so that you qualify your conclusions sufficiently. For obvious reasons, your readers will doubt your authority if you (deliberately or inadvertently) overlook a key piece of data that doesn't square with your perspective on paper, what occurred. In a more philosophical sense, once you've ignored evidence that contradicts your claims, you've departed from the persuasive essay scientific method. The urge to tidy up the experiment is often strong, but if you give in to it you're no longer performing good science. Sometimes after you've performed a study or experiment, you realize that some part of the methods you used to test your hypothesis was flawed.
In that case, it's OK to conclusion in research paper, suggest that if you had the a good for a essay chance to conduct your test again, you might change the in research paper design in this or that specific way in order to avoid such and such a problem. Comparison And Contrast And College. The key to making this approach work, though, is to conclusion, be very precise about the weakness in your experiment, why and how you think that weakness might have affected your data, and how you would alter your protocol to eliminate—or limit the effects of—that weakness. Often, inexperienced researchers and writers feel the need to account for essay judged unfairly, wrong data (remember, there's no such animal), and so they speculate wildly about what might have screwed things up. These speculations include such factors as the unusually hot temperature in the room, or the conclusion in research paper possibility that their lab partners read the meters wrong, or the potentially defective equipment. These explanations are what scientists call cop-outs, or lame; don't indicate that the experiment had a weakness unless you're fairly certain that a) it really occurred and b) you can explain reasonably well how that weakness affected your results. Derive conclusions, based on your findings, about the process you're studying. If, for example, your hypothesis dealt with the changes in solubility at different temperatures, then try to figure out what you can rationally say about the good bad essay process of solubility more generally. If you're doing an undergraduate lab, chances are that the lab will connect in some way to sample, the material you've been covering either in lecture or in your reading, so you might choose to return to these resources as a way to help you think clearly about the process as a whole. This part of the Discussion section is another place where you need to make sure that you're not overreaching.
Again, nothing you've found in one study would remotely allow you to claim that you now know something, or that something isn't true, or that your experiment confirmed some principle or other. Hesitate before you go out on a limb—it's dangerous! Use less absolutely conclusive language, including such words as suggest, indicate, correspond, possibly, challenge, etc. Relate your findings to previous work in paragraph essay the field (if possible) We've been talking about how to show that you belong in a particular community (such as biologists or anthropologists) by conclusion, writing within conventions that they recognize and essay judged unfairly accept. Another is to try to identify a conversation going on among members of that community, and use your work to contribute to conclusion in research, that conversation. In a larger philosophical sense, scientists can't fully understand the value of their research unless they have some sense of the context that provoked and nourished it. That is, you have to recognize what's new about your project (potentially, anyway) and how it benefits the wider body of scientific knowledge.
On a more pragmatic level, especially for undergraduates, connecting your lab work to previous research will demonstrate to the TA that you see the big picture. You have an opportunity, in the Discussion section, to distinguish yourself from the students in your class who aren't thinking beyond the barest facts of the study. Capitalize on competition good bad essay, this opportunity by putting your own work in conclusion in research paper context. If you're just beginning to work in the natural sciences (as a first-year biology or chemistry student, say), most likely the work you'll be doing has already been performed and re-performed to a satisfactory degree. Hence, you could probably point to a similar experiment or study and compare/contrast your results and conclusions.
More advanced work may deal with an issue that is somewhat less resolved, and essay so previous research may take the in research form of an ongoing debate, and you can use your own work to weigh in on that debate. If, for example, researchers are hotly disputing the value of herbal remedies for the common cold, and the results of your study suggest that Echinacea diminishes the symptoms but not the actual presence of the cold, then you might want to take some time in the Discussion section to recapitulate the specifics of the dispute as it relates to Echinacea as an herbal remedy. (Consider that you have probably already written in intro essay the Introduction about this debate as background research.) Explore the theoretical and/or practical implications of your findings. This information is often the best way to end your Discussion (and, for all intents and purposes, the report). In argumentative writing generally, you want to use your closing words to convey the main point of your writing. This main point can be primarily theoretical (Now that you understand this information, you're in a better position to paper, understand this larger issue) or primarily practical (You can use this information to take such and such an action). In either case, the essays to foreign universities concluding statements help the reader to sample in research, comprehend the competition bad essay significance of your project and your decision to write about in research, it.
Since a lab report is argumentative—after all, you're investigating a claim, and judging the persuasive essay about pollution legitimacy of sample conclusion paper that claim by generating and on high school collecting evidence—it's often a good idea to sample in research, end your report with the same technique for establishing your main point. If you want to go the intro for a essay theoretical route, you might talk about the consequences your study has for the field or phenomenon you're investigating. To return to the examples regarding solubility, you could end by sample conclusion, reflecting on what your work on solubility as a function of temperature tells us (potentially) about solubility in essay general. Conclusion Paper. (Some folks consider this type of exploration pure as opposed to writing essays for admission, applied science, although these labels can be problematic.) If you want to go the practical route, you could end by speculating about the medical, institutional, or commercial implications of your findings—in other words, answer the question, What can this study help people to do? In either case, you're going to make your readers' experience more satisfying, by helping them see why they spent their time learning what you had to teach them.
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4 CIO Resume Builders to sample Get Ahead. One of the most important things that you can do is highlight work or projects that have been done in conjunction with other non-technical/information related business units, explained Paul Peterson, National Talent Resource Manager, Human Resources at Grant Thornton. For example, write 'in conjunction with marketing developed strategy that #133;' or 'co-led finance project to essay youtube #133;' The goal is to showcase your understanding of the business outside of your traditional role. Sample Conclusion In Research Paper? The win is the difference between mastering a single brush stroke and bad essay being able to make an entire picture out of the paint of your experience. But how do you show command of the big picture when you've been busy mastering details? Connect the detail dots to paint a broader view for the powers-that-be to consider. Take, for example, a data governance program: If a CIO can articulate the paper, business problems and stakeholders who were served by the program, then the CIO is demonstrating three C-Suite skills: 1) the about, ability to deliver value from data assets, 2) balancing the needs of business units against sample, the overall health of the enterprise, 3) resisting the allure of technology-based partial fixes in favor of a sustainable, systemic solution, said Gwen Thomas, president and founder of The Data Governance Institute.
Look at comparison essays on high your accomplishments with a fresh perspective. Where have you worked with other business units? What was the outcome? How did your technology choices move the company ahead (as opposed to conclusion paper just keeping the lights on)? Find the business result of a good intro for a, every decision you made and speak to that on sample conclusion in research, your resume. But don't leave your career advancement strictly to the strength of your resume. Good Bad Essay? Spend time with various business unit heads and learn what their obstacles are. Offer suggestions. Be helpful.
In short, make sure they remember you in a fond light and as a true profit-driven leader rather than as head of a drag-along cost center. These are the sample in research paper, people you'll one day need as references and allies. Further, one of essay judged, them may move up to a position where they can help you advance too. Board members and recruiters alike know that there are essentially two-types of CIOs: the techie and the visionary. Sample In Research? The techie knows technology inside-out whereas the visionary knows business outside-in. The techie can connect anything by essay judged unfairly, wire or wireless.
The visionary connects business units and goals by way of technology. Conclusion Paper? Business-driven CIOs are rare and hard to essay find as most CIOs are individuals who entered the conclusion paper, technology field because they are passionate about technology, not business, said Richard Meuris, partner at Nick Pierce Associates in essays on high school, Atlanta. A top-notch CIO will be passionate about reaching revenue, profit and other overall business goals through the use of technology, which is sample in research paper, why he looks at competition good bad essay resumes with an eye-peeled for a laundry list of sample conclusion in research, business skills and pretty much ignores any CIO resume chock full of technology terms. Another rare talent boards of directors and recruiters look for in a potentially promotable CIO is a well-honed ability to communicate. Too many CIOs are comfortable only speaking geek but it's the CIO that can speak confidently to a non-techie group, make persuasive presentations, blog and write well that wins the higher seat. Your resume is your pitch for why you deserve a promotion. Great attention should be paid to how your resume reads and looks if you want to be a serious contender for good, that coveted position.
It's more than just skills that are crucial to sample paper include when a CIO is vying for the C-Suite; it's how those skills are presented, said Adriana Llames, veteran career coach and author of Career Sudoku: 9 Ways to Win the Job Search Game . First, it's important to consider your resume in all its many forms: as a paper and digital file, a LinkedIn account, descriptors on social media accounts, and the bio on your blog postings. Make sure each contains top keywords and shiny details of business acumen. Remember always that the powers-that-be in your own company are reading what you post. If done right, your credentials may earn you an internal promotion or a lateral move that can aid you on your path to the C-suite. While it's not impossible to move from a CIO role into a non-IT role within another organization, it is much easier strategically to comparison gain additional experience by moving into new functions internally, within one's current company, said Howard Seidel, partner at sample in research paper Essex Partners, a career advisory firm specializing in senior executive and C-level career management. The traditional resume is still the most important consideration in good, the final promotion or hiring decision so make sure yours is up-to-date in terms of content and form.
Professional recruiters and career coaches say as many as four pages are acceptable but it is the one-pager that gets the most attention. Decision-makers for C-suite new hires don't like a lot of detail but they want to know what the person has accomplished -- actual results in past positions, which gives them a very good idea as to in research what the person can accomplish in persuasive essay, the new promotion, said Richard Deems, career coach and author of thirteen books on key management issues. Deems said the sample conclusion paper, perfect one-pager resume begins with a brief (three to a good for a five lines) summary of conclusion in research, past results, each beginning with an for a essay, action word such as increased, reduced, negotiated, developed, reorganized, etc. This is sample conclusion in research paper, followed by short descriptions of past results either by category: leadership, profit growth and reduced costs; or, categorized by past employment. That is followed by a brief blurb on your education. Lastly is a segment Deems calls the What Others Say section. This is three or five -- always an uneven number -- statements that others have said about the intro for a, person, usually with attribution. Keep all resume forms up-to-date and become as visible as possible both online and off.
But be careful how you go about it, because there is one more thing experts say is absolutely in demand from a C-suite candidate: they want a person who won't rock the conclusion paper, boat, said Deems.
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Essay on Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) | Disease. Read this essay to sample paper learn about Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA). After reading this essay you will learn about: 1. A Good. Meaning of Rheumatoid Arthritis 2. Sample Paper. Distribution and Prevalence 3. Therapy 4. Herbal Remedies. Essay on the Meaning of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) Essay on the Distribution and Prevalence of Rheumatoid Arthritis Essay on the Therapy for Rheumatoid Arthritis Essay on the Herbal Remedies for Rheumatoid Arthritis. 1. Meaning of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by five essay youtube, chronic inflammation of the synovial joints, ultimately leading to joint destruction and permanent disability.
It is a chronic disease of conclusion unknown cause affecting over competition good 2 million adults in the USA and 1% of world population. It may be accompanied by the development of other disorders, including anemia, osteoplasia and muscular atrophy, as well as abnormal changes in the skin, eyes, lungs, blood vessels, and heart. RA usually begins with a symmetrical attack on conclusion in research, the joints. The inflammatory process in the affected joints causes pain, swelling and deformity. 2. Essays To Foreign Universities. Distribution and Prevalence of Rheumatoid Arthritis : RA is found in all climatic zones world-wide. Several studies have shown that the mean age at which the sample disease debut is somewhat above 50 years. It occurs in all racial groups and affects females 2 to 4 times more frequently than males. Approximately 50% of patients are unable to work within 10 years of onset and essay unfairly the lifetime costs of the disease rival those of coronary heart disease or stroke. Mortality rates among persons with RA are increased at-least 2-fold and correlate with the sample conclusion in research paper extent and bad essay severity of disease.
There is an increased frequency of RA among first degree relatives and an approximately 30% concordance rate in monozygous twins. A complex association exists between RA and HLA (human leukocyte antigens) genes. Also it is observed that particular amino acid sequence in the third variable region of the sample conclusion paper HLA-D4 molecule may be the element causing susceptibility to persuasive about RA. RA is essentially an idiopathic disease that is in research paper, characterized by immune mediated destruction of joints. The etiology of the & to foreign disease is not well understood, but many factors have been implicated, including altered immune regulation, hormonal influences, infectious triggers and other environmental influences.
Some evidences suggest that the antigens are introduced by an infection, with suspicion falling on the Epistein-Barr virus, Paro viruses and Mycobacteria. A peptidoglycan component of bacterial cell walls has been reported to be arthritogenic in rats and in man (Bennet, 1978). Mostly widely held, although not proved is the view that RA is an autoimmune disease (Maini, 1987). About 80% of patients with RA have a circulating auto-anti-body called rheumatoid factor (RF) against the FC portion of the autologous IgG antibody. Most of the RF is IgM but some is IgG, IgA or IgE. All types of RF form immune complexes with autologous IgG. The IgG-RF immune complexes synthesized within joints and conclusion paper articular spaces activate complement with the five resultant accumulation of sample conclusion in research paper neutrophils. Competition Good Bad Essay. Leucocytes are attracted to conclusion in research the immune complexes which, along with the fibrin, form on the surface of the inflamed synovium. These cells, filled with particles of ingested fibrin and immune complex, may be found in competition good bad essay the synovial fluid and are called “ RA cells ” or “ rhago-cytes “. In the inflamed synovium, dendritic cells and macrophages (antigen presenting) are scattered among a profusion of lymphocytes.
The proximity of T cells and sample in research paper antigen presenting cells speaks in essay favour of a cell mediated immune reaction. Circulating immune complexes are thought to underlie the conclusion paper wide ranging extra-articular manifestations of RA. The levels of circulating immune complexes are very high in patients with RA. Writing & For Admission To Foreign Universities. These immune complexes are not cleared rapidly from the system but accumulate in sample in research paper the joints (Theofilo poulous and Dixon, 1979). This in-turn triggers an pollution, inflammatory response at the joints, causing the erosion and destruction of the synovial membrane and underlying cartilage. The pathogenic events occurring in RA can be defined in four phases: an initiation phase (with no clinical evidence of disease), an early inflammatory phase (which leads to clinical manifestations), a destructive phase (in which, the sample switch to erosive disease has occurred and RA starts to progress) and a perpetuating phase (in which, the consequences of the disease becomes more severe) (Smolen et al., 1996). The destructive phase of the disease is associated with production of the chronic granulation tissue or pannus, which spreads over the articular cartilage surface.
Neutral proteolytic enzymes (matrix metallo proteinases) secreted by activated macrophages in the pannus and acidic lysosomal enzymes secreted by polymorphonuclear leucocytes in the synovial fluid, both play a part in bone and cartilage destruction (Barrett Saklatvala, 1981). The potential mediators of the destruction of the cartilage and subadjacent bone in RA are summarized as follows: Neutrophils in the synovial fluid release reactive free radicals and lysosomal enzymes, mitigating the inflammation, while released proteinase and proteoglycanases degrade the cartilage (Mainardi, 1987). Synovial lining cells, activated by inflammation or phagocytosis of about immune complexes, elaborate collagenase and large amount of prostaglandin E2 and interleukin-1 Lymphocytes (T4 cell) play an important role, the paper activated T cells produce a variety of lymphokines such as interleukin-2, gamma-interferon, macrophage migration inhibition factor and macrophage activating factor. Activated macrophages elaborate in addition to competition lytic enzymes and prostaglandins, a variety of monokines, including interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF). Currently interleukin-1 and tumour necrosis factor are accorded a central role, as they are capable of: (a) Stimulating synthesis and release of collagenase by dendritic cells and synovial fibroblasts. (b) Inhibiting the synthesis of proteoglycans by chondrocytes. (c) Acting as a chemo attractant for neutrophils and lymphocytes.
3. Therapy for conclusion in research paper Rheumatoid Arthritis: Modern therapeutic approaches with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs- eg. School And College. In-domethaccin, phenyl butazone, and sample conclusion paper ibuprofen), steroidal (cortisone, and prednisolone), immunosuppressive drugs (methotrexate, azathioprine, cyclophosphamide, and cyclosporine) and judged unfairly disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (gold salts, pen-cillamine and sulfasalazine) are used to alleviate the conclusion agonizing symptoms due to arthritis. None of the existing above treatments can be considered to essays for admission to foreign universities be curative or definitive therapies for the RA and they offer only temporary relief accompanying with various side effects like weight loss, diarrhea, skin rash and alopecia. Although the sample conclusion paper recent years have brought new information for the researchers and clinicians, but the treatment of RA still remains a challenge. Cytokine research has led to idea for the use of anti-cytokine therapy for the treatment of RA. Etanercept (recombinant form of the p75 TNFR-II) and judged unfairly infliximab (monoclonal antibody directed against TNF-alpha) were the first biological response modifiers approval for the treatment of RA (Lipsky et al., 2000). Both drugs have been designed to bind with TNF-alpha and decrease its bioavailability. Apart from all the above described treatment approaches, scientists are now trying to cure RA using gene therapy, but it is still not fully explored.
Despite early detection, current treatment medications are limited in conclusion paper their efficacy and are frequently toxic. Many patients look for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) options in coping with this debilitating disease. For A Essay. Research has indicated that people suffering from pain, as in RA, and those dissatisfied with current treatment are very likely to seek alternative treatment, and paper an estimated 60- 90% of persons with arthritis use CAM (Cesar Ramos and Ashwini Kumar, 2008). 4. Persuasive Essay. Herbal Remedies for Rheumatoid Arthritis: Medicinal herbs are moving from the fringes to mainstream use with greater number of people seeking remedies and sample in research paper health approaches free from side effects caused by synthetic chemicals. Recently, considerable attention has been paid to analytical writing & for admission to foreign universities utilize eco-friendly and bio-friendly plant-based products for the prevention and cure of different human diseases. Considering the adverse effects of synthetic drugs (Gijtenbeek, 1999; Johnson, 2002), the Western population is looking for natural remedies which are safe and effective. It is documented that 80% of the world’s population has faith in traditional medicine, particularly plant drugs for conclusion their primary healthcare. More than 2000 plants of medicinal value are mentioned in Indian ancient Ayurvedic, Unani and Tibbi systems of comparison on high school medicine. Withania somnifera, popularly known as Ashwagandha is widely considered as the Indian ginseng. It is a green shrub distributed throughout the sample drier parts of intro India, Baluchistan, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Sri Lanka, Congo, South Africa, Egypt, Morocco and sample paper Jordan.
Various parts of this plant have been used for writing & for admission to foreign universities centuries to treat variety of ailments (Bhattacharya et al, 2001; Kulkarni et al, 1998). The major biochemical constituents of Withania somnifera are steroidal alkaloids and lactones, a class of constituents together known as withanolides (Elaskkaetal, 1990). Withanolides, which are extracted from Withania somnifera, are employed in the treatment of arthritis and are known to be potent inhibitor of conclusion in research paper angiogenesis, inflammation and five paragraph essay oxidative stress. Begum and conclusion in research Sadique (1988), for the first time reported the long term effects of competition bad essay Withania somnifera on sample conclusion in research, adjuvant- induced arthritis in persuasive essay about pollution rats. Studies carried out in our laboratory have demonstrated that oral administration of Withania somnifera root powder reversed the biochemical and immunological changes observed in adjuvant-induced arthritis, an conclusion in research, experimental model of RA (Rasool et al, 2007). More recently Ichikawa et al (2006) showed that withanolides can indeed inhibit the activation of transcription factor nuclear factor-KB (NF-KB) and NF- KB-regulated gene expression. Ginger (Zinger officinale Roscoe, Zingiber-acae) is a medicinal plant that has been widely used in Chinese, Ayurvedic and Unani herbal medicines all over the world, since antiquity for arthritis and rheumatism. The anti-inflammatory properties of ginger have been known for centuries. Ginger and its constituents like gingerdiones have been reported to have pharmacological properties mimicking dual-acting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs in competition good intact human leukocytes in vitro (Flynn et al., 1986). More recently, it has been shown that ginger and its constituents are effective against arthritis through suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokine’s produced by synoviocytes, chondrocytes, and leukocytes. Ginger was also found to modulate some biochemical pathways activated in chronic inflammation (Grzanna et al., 2005).
It is established that neither ginger nor its constituents produce the gastrointestinal damage that are usually produced by the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (Konturek et al., 2005). Therefore, ginger appears to be a relatively safe and conclusion in research paper effective supplement to reduce symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis. Triphala is the most commonly used Indian ayurveda herbal formulation, comprising the comparison and contrast on high school fruits of three trees, Indian goose berry (Emblica officinalis Gaertn, family-Euphobiaceae), Belleric my-robalan (Terminalia belerica Linn. Sample Conclusion Paper. family-Combre-taceae) and Chebulic myrobalan (Terminalia chebula Retzr. family-Combretaceae). In Ayurveda, it is an important medicine of the rasayana group and comparison is believed to in research promote health, immunity and longevity (Sandhyaa et al., 2006). Recent studies indicate that this triphala might play a role in the prevention and treatment of arthritis through by paragraph youtube, the inhibition of lysosomal enzymes, glycoproteins, lipid peroxidation and inflammatory mediator TNF-alpha in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats (Rasool et al., 2007). Triphala was also found to be effective against monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation, an experimental model for gouty arthritis (Sabina et al., 2007). Moreover, triphala constituent Emblica officinalis, is conclusion in research, already well established against arthritis by reducing it biochemical and immunological symptoms (Asmawi et al., 1993). Curcumin is the principal curcuminoid of the popular Indian curry spice turmeric that has commonly used in Chinese and Indian medicine system for centuries. Good. The curcuminoids are polyphenols and are responsible for the yellow color of turmeric. Curcumin in several lines of evidence, both in vitro and in conclusion in research paper vivo, has been well documented as an anti-inflammatory agent. The cyclo-oxy-genase 2 (COX-2) inducible and nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) are important enzymes that mediate inflammatory responses.
Improper up-regulation of COX-2 and iNOS has been associated with pathophysiology of certain types of human cancers as well as inflammatory disorders. Recent studies have demonstrated that eukaryotic transcription factor nuclear factor kB (NF-KB) was involved in regulation of COX-2 and iNOS expression. The work from the five youtube laboratory of Aggarwal et al (2006) and others have shown that curcumin can down regulate activation of the transcription of the expression of the transcription factor NF- Eb, thus leading the down regulation of TNF-alpha, adhesion molecules, matrixmetallo proteinases, COX-2 and other inflammatory intermediates all of paper which are associated with arthritis. Jackson et al (2006) reported that curcumin inhibited neutrophil activation, synoviocyte proliferation, angiogenesis, and collagenase, thus suggesting that curcumin has therapeutic potential in arthritis. Boswellia serrata (Salai guggul) commonly called as Frankincense is a moderate tree widely distributed in India and the Middle East. Several researches in the past 30 years identified the principal component boswellic acid and its derivatives from the essay gum resin of in research Boswellia serrata. Boswellic acid has demonstrated the anti-inflammatory as well as anti-arthritic activity against serum albumin-induced arthritis and judged unfairly osteoarthritis. Boswellic acid derivative (acetyl-11-keto-beta- boswellic acid) is also reported to contribute anti-arthritic action through the inhibition of NF-KB, COX-2 and 5-lipo-oxygenase (Jolad et al, 2005). Traditional Chinese Medicines (TCM) have been used for sample conclusion in research centuries in China to treat various immune-mediated disorders like rheumatoid arthritis. The “ thunder god ” vine, Tripterygium wil- fordii Hook F (TWHf), has been extensively used in China to persuasive essay about treat RA.
TWHf not only found to inhibit mitogen-stimulated lymph proliferation, but its active derivatives have also been shown to inhibit production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by monocytes and lymphocytes, as well as prostaglandin E2 production via the cyclooxygenase, COX-2, pathway, a potential mechanism of action in patients with RA (Ramgolam et al., 2000). Seventy patients with active symptoms who had not responded to NSAIDs, where found to show improvement (overall effective rate of over 90%) after TWHf treatment within the first four weeks in all parameters like tenderness score, swelling count, morning stiffness and grip strength. Ulmus davidiana Planch (Ulmaceae) (UD) and Clematis mandshurica Rupr (Ranunculaceae) roots have long been known to be anti-inflammatory in traditional Korean medicine. UD demonstrated a strong growth inhibition in tested mouse osteoblasts in vitro, and suppressed proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, COX-2 expression and sample conclusion paper PGE2 synthesis in & for admission to foreign osteoblasts (Seok-Jung Suh et al., 2006). Inhibition of conclusion paper PGE2 synthesis via suppression of COX-2 expression may be responsible for five paragraph essay youtube its anti-inflammatory activity.
The ethanolic extract of Clematis mandshurica at 100mug/ml was found to significantly block the production of the pro-inflammatory mediators, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)), in paper lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/interferon(IFN)-gamma-stimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages, by up to 77% and 59%, respectively. In addition, it significantly inhibited cell proliferation and cytokine production (interleukin (IL)-2 and IFN-gamma) in splenocytes stimulated with Con A (concanavalin A; 5 mug/ml). RA is persuasive essay pollution, a systemic autoimmune disease characterized by chronic inflammation of the synovial joints, ultimately leading to joint destruction and permanent disability. Although the pathogenesis of RA remains incompletely understood, the treatment for various forms of sample conclusion in research paper arthritis like NSAIDs, diseases modifying anti-rheumatic drugs are available in the market, but they suffer from various drawbacks, such as lack of efficacy, excessive side effects and persuasive pollution high cost. Nowadays, with increasing awareness on traditional medicines, many patients look for complementary and alternative medicine options in sample paper coping with this disease, however this growing interest in alternative medical practices requires extensive investigation into their safety and efficacy to prove their usefulness against competition bad essay, RA. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: