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Balancing Histone/Protein Acetylation: Gene Regulation and Cancer Therapy. By: Min-Hao Kuo , LSI Volume 7 Article 1. Paper! Michigan State University, East Lansing, Michigan, USA. A highly sophisticated mechanism organizes the an essay explanation 2-meter long human genome within a 6-μm wide nucleus. Up to 10,000-fold of compaction of the paper chromatin is achieved during mitosis, allowing faithful segregation of corpus christi history, mitotic chromosomes to daughter cells. Conversely, the interphase chromatin is research paper quotes much less compacted, more dynamic, and christi college, amenable for research quotes a variety of chromatin-based functions. For example, cellular transcription machinery gains access to in management writing, specific loci for constitutive or signal-induced gene expression. When committed to differentiation, those transcription programs designed for cellular proliferation are repressed, or uncontrolled division and malignancies may occur. Damage of research, DNA, hence potentially deleterious mutations, caused by such factors as UV, free radicals, and active transcription, needs to be repaired before these mutations are passed to daughter cells.
Lastly, V(D)J recombination specializes the assembly of genes for immunoglobulins and T-cell receptors. Thus, eukaryotic chromatin is a dynamic platform supporting a wide array of nuclear activities. The fundamental repeating units of chromatin are nucleosomes. Each nucleosome consists of about 150 basepairs of DNA and a histone octamer containing two of each core histones H2A, H2B, H3, and why christopher columbus essay, H4. Linker DNA connects two adjacent nucleosomes, and is bound by linker histones, (e.g.
H1) that organize the 10-nm nucleosomal array into a 30-nm fiber. This 30-nm fiber is the predominant structure of interphase chromatin, but permits low accessibility and processivity for regulator proteins and enzymes. Conserved mechanisms regulate the structure and biophysical behaviors of chromatin in a way that selective loci become amenable for the activities of specific macromolecular assemblies. During development, and in different tissues, the profile of transcription is inherited epigenetically. The genetic code per se remains unchanged; whereas, locus-specific chromatin structures specifying the transcription status are inherited. These epigenetic regulatory mechanisms include covalent modifications of histones, ATP hydrolysis-dependent chromatin remodeling activities, substitutions of the research quotes core (major) histones with their related variant (minor) histones, and DNA methylation. There are many excellent reviews for different aspects of epigenetic control that are beyond the an essay on criticism alexander pope explanation scope of this article [1-5]. Research! This essay focuses on one well-studied epigenetic control, histone (de)acetylation, and the recent development of cancer therapy aiming at altering the balance of histone and protein acetylation. Acetylation of histones occurs at the e-amino group of lysine residues within the peptide chain. This is different from the co-translational acetylation at the a-amino group of the first amino acid . N-terminal acetylation is most likely related to the control of protein stability.
The internal e-acetylation of christi college history essay, histones (henceforth simply referred to as histone acetylation) exerts several functions. First, adding an acetyl moiety to the e-amino group neutralizes the positive charge. The already bulky lysine side chain becomes bulkier. Since histone proteins are highly basic and can interact extensively with the negatively charged DNA, acetylation may weaken histone-DNA interactions, hence modulating the structure of the underlying locus. Research Paper Quotes! Second, acetylation may create a new protein-protein interaction interface. The best-known module that interacts with acetyllysine is the bromodomain present in many transcriptional regulators. Illegal Gambling Thesis! Furthermore, a recent genetic screen identified novel acetylated histone-binding proteins without the research quotes bromodomain , suggesting a broader repertoire of possible interaction targets for acetylated histones. Third, many histone acetyltransferases (HATs) act within multi-subunit complexes that commonly perform functions other than histone acetylation. For example, the rotary club essay yeast SAGA complex recruits TATA-binding proteins to research paper quotes, the promoter, and also contains a ubiquitin hydrolase that facilitates the cycling of protein (de)ubiquitinylation [8-10]. Thus, histone acetylation may simply be a by-product of columbus is a, anchoring the multi-functional HAT complexes to research, the target loci. Fourth, acetylation is cleared by histone deacetylases (HDACs).
These enzymes are typically part of why christopher is a villain, multi-component complexes that repress transcription. Quotes! One counter-intuitive function of histone acetylation is to provide the substrate for HDACs. Business! When HDACs are recruited, so are the associated negative regulatory factors for transcription. Furthermore, the acetylationdeacetylation cycle may be the basis for cyclic transcriptional (re)initiation that permits a swift response to the oscillation of environmental stimuli . Finally, HATs and quotes, HDACs also use non-histone protein substrates .
An increasing number of transcriptional regulators, chromatin components, and signaling factors have been shown to be regulated by easystreet online, acetylation, adding yet another level of control. Several families of paper, HATs have been recognized: GNAT (Gcn5- related N-acetyltransferases); MYST (MOZ-Ybf2/Sas3-Sas2- Tip60); p300/CBP, although the catalytic domains of p300 and CBP are very similar to those of the easystreet GNAT family HATs; nuclear hormone receptor coactivators; and TAF1 (formerly TAFII230 in human and quotes, TAFII250 in Drosophila) [13,14]. Structural and kinetic studies of GNAT and MYST families have been thoroughly investigated . An array of christi college history essay, point mutations with highly specific effects on catalysis are available for research paper molecular and functional studies of Gcn5, the founding member of the GNAT family HATs [16,17]. Christi College History Essay! From yeast to research quotes, mammals, many HATs form complexes with other proteins. In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, there are several chromatographically distinct HAT complexes [18,19]. The SAGA (Spt-Ada-Gcn5 acetylase) and NuA3 complexes prefer H3, while NuA4 uses nucleosomal H4 as the illegal gambling predominant substrate. Quotes! Mammalian HAT complexes are less thoroughly characterized. PCAF is closely related to the yeast Gcn5 protein in many aspects. PCAF is also part of a complex whose composition is quite similar to that of SAGA . Both SAGA and PCAF complexes contain selective TBP-associated factors (TAFs) that play critical roles in transcriptional activation.
Figure 1. Summary of the molecular outcomes resulting from nucleosome acetylation and deacetylation. Histone acetylation may weaken the electrostatic interactions between DNA and histones and corpus history, recruit bromodomain-containing transcriptional coactivators and other chromatin modulating proteins/activities. When histones are acetylated, the quotes lysine residues become refractory to other modifications such as methylation and ubiquitinylation. Meanwhile, acetylated histones are substrates for deacetylases that are commonly present in multicomponent transcriptional co-repressor complexes. When HDACs are recruited to rotary club of intent, the acetylated loci, deacetylation occurs and consequently renders the unacetylated lysine residues available for other modifications, including re-acetylation, and binding of transcriptional repressor proteins. Paper Quotes! In addition, unacetylated histones are known to bind certain transcriptional silencing factors. Thus, the illegal cycle of histone acetylation/deacetylation provides a means for cells to rapidly control gene activities. p300 and research, CBP are highly similar to each other throughout the entire length as both are about business in management writing 2,400 amino acids long . While they commonly perform redundant functions, animal models and research paper quotes, patient studies suggest non-overlapping roles as well . These two HATs are targets of many cellular and viral proteins . However, there is no evidence that p300 or CBP forms a stable complex with other proteins. SAGA, PCAF, and p300/CBP HATs are recruited to the target promoters by interacting with selective transcriptional activators .
In their catalytic domain, the MYST family of HATs possess an thesis acetyl coA binding motif, and a C2HC zinc finger . In addition, some MYST family members contain a chromodomain; whereas, others possess the PHD (plant homeodomain) finger that might be important for protein-protein interactions. The chromodomain interacts with methylated lysines for transcriptional repression and research, silencing. Indeed, the Sas2 and Sas3 HATs promote transcriptional silencing in yeast. Compared to the promoter-targeted action of SAGA complex, some of the MYST HAT complexes exert their activity across a much larger chromosomal locus. For example, in Drosophila, the rotary of intent male has one X chromosome while the research paper quotes female has two. To compensate for the difference, male insects express X chromosomal genes twice as efficiently as each of the two female X chromosomes. Pope Explanation! This dosage compensation is research paper quotes achieved by dissertation in management researching writing, MOF-mediated H4 Lys16 acetylation coating the entire male X chromosome .
HAT activity is also seen in nuclear hormone receptor coactivators, including ACTR and SRC-1 . These co-activators interact with nuclear hormone receptors (NRs) such as glucocorticoid receptors. Interestingly, NRs control transcription by recruiting HATs, HDACs, and chromatin remodeling complexes. The observations that ACTR and SRC-1 are HATs represents another level of regulation of hormone signaling. Histone deacetylases are also grouped into different families . Each family is represented by a yeast HDAC: Class I, II, and III members are homologous to Rpd3, Hda1, and Sir2, respectively. Class I and II HDACs require a zinc ion and a water molecule at the active center for catalysis; whereas, Class III HDACs use NAD as the cofactor and are insensitive to research, many chemicals that effectively inhibit the activities of Classes I and II enzymes [28,29]. The Sir2-related Class III HDACs, because of their obligatory need of NAD for catalysis, have been linked to intracellular sensing of nutrient/energy status and senescence [30,31]. HDACs are best known for their ability to repress transcription.
Similar to HATs, HDACs are also recruited by DNAbinding transcriptional repressor proteins. Microarray and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies have shown that different enzymes function at selective loci . In addition, HDACs also collaborate with other enzyme activities, most notably histone and DNA methyltransferases such as Suv39h and Dnmt1, respectively [33,34]. For example, the columbus villain NURD/ Mi2/MeCP1 complex contains both HDAC and methylated DNA-binding activities . Research Paper Quotes! DNA methylation is an in management researching important epigenetic mark for imprinting . The prevalent model suggests that HDACs are attracted to DNA methylated loci and deacetylate the research paper quotes local histones. Because acetylation and methylation on lysine residues are mutually exclusive (i.e., competing for the same e-amino group), the action of HDACs generates a suitable substrate for subsequent histone methyltransferase activity. Methylated lysine residues then recruit and anchor repressors such as HP1 (heterochromatin protein 1) that create long-range transcriptional silencing. Non-Histone Proteins Controlled by Acetylation.
In addition to histones, a growing number of non-histone proteins have been shown to be controlled by acetylation. In fact, it is why christopher villain now well recognized that protein acetylation may be as important as protein phosphorylation in paper quotes, regulating a wide variety of why christopher columbus is a essay, cellular functions . Paper Quotes! Interested readers are directed to an excellent review article by Sterner and columbus is a essay, Berger . p53 is probably the best-known acetylated, non-histone protein. Quotes! Mutations of p53 are found in 50% of all human cancers. p53 acetylation is induced by DNA damage and has been shown to recruit other transcriptional co-activators . The acetylation of p53 is also enhanced by phosphorylation at certain residues . In addition, acetylation at the nuclear localization sequence of p53 may be a regulatory mechanism, determining the intracellular distribution of p53 . Online! The key activator determining muscle differentiation is MyoD . MyoD can be acetylated by PCAF, which in paper quotes, turn stimulates its DNA binding affinity. Why Christopher! In addition to being a target for acetylation, MyoD interacts with p300/CBP and CARM1, an arginine methyltransferase and transcriptional co-activator . Class I HDACs also target their action on research paper, MyoD to columbus is a essay, inhibit myogenesis . Signaling mechanisms cause hypophosphorylation of Rb, which in turn strips HDACs from MyoD.
Consequently, myogenesis is paper quotes permitted. E2F is required for cell cycle progression . PCAF-acetylated E2F shows stronger DNA binding affinity. Thus, acetylation has a positive role on E2F. Similarly, the function of the GATA-1 blood cell differentiation factor is essay also enhanced by p300/CBP-mediated acetylation. Recent data suggest that the replication factor, PCNA (proliferating cell nuclear antigen), may be acetylated by p300, and that the acetylated PCNA may participate in research quotes, DNA replication; whereas, its unacetylated counterpart may play a role in termination . HATs and christi, HDACs in quotes, Diseases and Development. Since the discovery of mammalian histone acetyltransferases, multiple cancer-related translocation mutations involving HATs have been reported. Rotary Essay Of Intent! The most notable example of these is the MOZ protein, a MYST family HAT, that has been shown to be fused to quotes, the HATs including CBP, p300, and TIF-2, resulting in a variety of leukemias [45,46]. Furthermore, the MLL (mixed lineage leukemia) protein was also found to be fused to CBP and p300 .
It is essay of intent possible that these translocations produce unregulated or misregulated HATs, which then alter the research expression pattern of genes involved in cellular growth or differentiation, resulting in tumorigenesis . A variety of illegal gambling thesis, epithelial cancers, including breast, colorectal, gastric, and pancreatic carcinomas are linked to missense mutations of p300 . Similarly, Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome is research paper a developmental disorder associated with CBP mutations . Patients with the Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome have a 350-fold increased risk of developing cancer. There are very few pathogenic mutations of HDACs.
Aberrant activities of HDACs are, instead, caused by mutations of key transcriptional repressors that rely on HDACs for their functions, e.g. translocation and easystreet, fusion of paper, RARa (retinoic acid receptor-a) to PML or PLZF causes leukemia [50,51]. Rotary Club Of Intent! RARa represses transcription by recruiting HDAC complexes. Retinoic acid displaces HDACs and, thus, relieves the repression created by RARa. When fused to PML or PLZF, the research paper quotes remnant RARa becomes insensitive to easystreet online, retinoic acid, leading to persistent repression of retinoic acid-responsive gene expression and blockage of hematopoietic differentiation . Research Quotes! Practically all of the mammalian epigenetic regulators are conserved in the plant kingdom . The Gcn5 homolog in why christopher is a villain essay, Arabidopsis , AtGcn5, and one of its interacting partners, Ada2b, are important for plant development, and appear to be involved in cold acclimation, an important trait of plants that enables them to research paper, deal with sub-freezing environments . Alexander Explanation! Knocking down the quotes expression of why christopher essay, several Arabidopsis deacetylases by antisense RNA leads to developmental defects such as early senescence, delayed flowering and seed abortion [55,56]. Even wildtype HATs and HDACs may become renegade when “bad influences” are present. Many viral proteins target their pathogenic actions at HATs and quotes, HDACs . The adenovirus E1A oncoprotein competes with PCAF for p300 and CBP. The HIV Tat protein is an RNA binding protein critical for christi college history essay viral gene expression.
Tip60, TAF1, p300, CBP, and PCAF are all direct interaction targets for Tat. Research Paper! The Herpes simplex virus immediate early gene activator VP16 has been used by many as a model to study eukaryotic transcriptional activation. VP16 hijacks p300, CBP, and PCAF to activate viral transcription. HDACs are also targeted by viral regulators. For example, the Papilloma virus E7 oncoprotein interacts with the NURD/Mi-2 complex to promote cell growth. The Epstein-Barr virus EBNA2 protein is easystreet online essential for research paper quotes EBVmediated B-cell immortalization. EBNA2 interacts with HDAC2 and several other proteins associated with HDAC2 . Such interactions are thought to counteract the action of a cellular transcriptional repressor CBF1. Similar scenarios are also seen in gambling, plants. For example, the fungus Cochliobolus Carbonum produces HC-toxin, a cyclic tetrapeptide that selectively inhibits the host (maize) but not its own HDACs during infection .
In fact, the quotes production of HC-toxin is an indicator of virulence of this pathogenic fungus. In summary, perturbation of the balanced action of HATs and HDACs, arising either from germline or somatic mutations, or from pathogenic infection, may lead to rotary essay of intent, deleterious consequences in different organisms. Indeed, the research paper quotes close link between cancers and dysregulation of histone acetylation led to in management writing, the exciting discoveries that a variety of HDAC inhibitors have therapeutic potential in the treatment of cancer. Research Paper! For the remainder of this article, the use of small molecules that inhibit the HDAC activity in cancer therapy is reviewed. Thesis! Cancer Therapy with HDAC Inhibitors. One of the research recurring mechanisms underlying the immortality of cancer cells is the repression of genes encoding tumor suppressors and apoptotic factors .
Meanwhile, proteins that promote cell division are up-regulated. Online! Both phenomena are frequently attributable by unbalanced acetylation. Molecules that inhibit HDACs may thus gear dividing cancerous cells to a halt, leading to differentiation or apoptosis. Indeed, in paper, the 1970s, several reports showed that butyric acid, commonly produced by anaerobic bacteria, can stop DNA synthesis and cell proliferation . Furthermore, treating cultured erythroleukemic cells with butyric acid results in why christopher is a villain, differentiation. Later, butyric acid was found able to induce histone hyperacetylation in HeLa and Friend erythroleukemic cells , marking the dawn of cancer treatment with HDAC inhibitors. Research Quotes! The studies of HAT inhibitors are comparatively less advanced. Several synthetic bisubstrate analogs were reported to inhibit p300 and PCAF activities [61-63].
However, cells have very low permeability to these potential drugs. Two recent reports showed promising anti-p300 activity of curcumin, a major curcumanoid present in the spice trumeric [64,65], raising the christi college essay hope that HAT inhibitors may soon catch up with their HDAC inhibitor counterparts. To date, many naturally occurring and synthetic HDAC inhibitors have been shown to research, possess anti-cancer activity and are in easystreet, clinical trials (see Figures 2 and 3 for representative compounds). A few comprehensive reviews of the HDAC inhibitors in clinical trials were recently published [66,67]. A brief summary is included herein. Quotes! Different HDAC inhibitors are able to gambling thesis, change transcription, both positively and negatively, for about 2% of total human genes. While this number seems to be small, common genes affected by these inhibitors are known to exert critical functions in controlling cell cycle and apoptosis .
One of the most notable among these genes is p21WAF1, which inhibits cyclin-dependent kinases and arrests cell cycle. In addition, down-regulation of genes important for cell cycle progression, such as cyclin A and D, has been observed. Cell cycle arrest potentiates differentiation and apoptosis, both of which provide the required anti-cancer mechanism. For apoptosis, both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways have been shown to be affected by HDAC inhibitors. Research Paper! Mitochrondrial permeability can be increased by certain HDAC inhibitors, in particular the hydroxamic acid derivatives (see Figures 2 and an essay on criticism pope, 3), resulting in the release of molecules such as cytochrome c, Smac, and Omi, and leads to caspase-dependent apoptosis. For the paper quotes extrinsic death signal-triggered apoptosis, Fas and the Apo-2L/TRAIL receptors DR4 and DR5 have been shown to be up-regulated by these inhibitors . The potent effects on cell cycle arrest and apoptosis induced by HDAC inhibitors make them promising anti-cancer drugs. While these molecules may be structurally dissimilar, most seem to inhibit Class I and II HDAC activity by binding to the active site and the essential zinc ion . On the other hand, the Class III HDACs are NAD-dependent enzymes that use a completely different mechanism for deacetylation.
New activators and inhibitors for these HDACs (a.k.a. Essay Of Intent! sirtuins) were recently reported [72-75]. Sirtuin inhibitors include splitomicin derivatives and research quotes, compounds with a 2-hydroxyl-1- naphthol moiety. Several polyphenolic compounds, including a red wine agent resveratrol, activate Sir2 class HDACs and increase the life span of the budding yeast . However, the therapeutic potential of these compounds remains to be determined. Chemically, inhibitors of Class I and II HDACs can be divided into five major and why christopher columbus essay, one hybrid groups . Research Paper! These include short-chain fatty acids (e.g. butyric acid, phenylacetate, and phenylbutyrate), hydroxamic acids (e.g. Trichostatin A, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, or SAHA, and oxamflatin), epoxyketones (e.g. Essay! Trapoxin, HC-toxin, amino-8-oxo-9,10- epoxydecanoic acid, or AOE), cyclic peptides (e.g. apicidin and depsipeptide), and benzamides (e.g. MS-275 and CI-994). The hybrid molecules are composed of moieties of a cyclic peptide conjugated to an aliphatic hydroxamate (e.g.
CHAP31 and CHAP50), or to an epoxyketone group (e.g. trapoxin and paper quotes, HC-toxin). Several short-chain fatty acid HDAC inhibitors, such as phenylbutyrate and thesis, valproic acid, are under phase I and II clinical trials examining the treatment of hematological and solid tumors . Effects of these inhibitors on research quotes, cancer cells include proteosomal degradation of HDAC2, antiangiogenesis, induction of p21WAF1, apoptosis, and telomerase inhibition. These small molecules likely bind only part of the active center of HDACs at relatively low affinity. The hydroxamate derivatives are the broadest class of HDAC inhibitors with high affinity for club essay of intent the targets (sub-micromolar range). These molecules usually contain three basic components: a hydroxamic acid moiety that chelates the zinc ion; a hydrophobic spacer that helps span the entire active center; and a hydrophobic cap that covers the active center, thus effectively competing against the acetylated histone/protein substrates.
Other than butyrate , trichostatin was one of the first HDAC inhibitors to be identified , and has since been a highly valuable tool in research paper quotes, studies of transcription and other acetylation-related molecular functions. This compound blocks proliferation and can trigger apoptosis in different tissue culture and transformed cell lines. Other inhibitors in this class in easystreet online, clinical trials include SAHA, pyroxamide, and NVP-LAQ-824. Research Quotes! The epoxyketone class of HDAC inhibitors may modify the active center with the epoxy group. The ketone group may also hydrogen bond with the target residues.
Several hybrid molecules are derived from the combination of gambling thesis, epoxyketone and a cyclic peptide. Trapoxin and HC-toxin fall into this group. The presence of two functional moieties contribute to strong, nanomolar HDAC inhibitory activity. Another group of hybrid molecules have a cyclic peptide joining an research paper quotes aliphatic hydroxamate (e.g. CHAP31 and dissertation, CHAP50).
Strong binding affinities are displayed by these inhibitors. The synthetic benzamide class of HDAC inhibitors, including CI-994 and MS-275, are generally less potent than hydroxamate or cyclic peptides. However, MS-275 shows antiproliferative activity in several cancer cell lines including breast, colorectal, leukemia, and others. Both MS-275 and CI-994 are in clinical trials, although their mechanisms of action remain unclear. In addition to administering each HDAC inhibitor alone, it is also promising to combine HDAC inhibitors with other anti-cancer reagents that target epigenetic regulation . For example, long-term transcriptional repression (i.e. silencing) requires the concerted action of histone deacetylation and DNA methylation.
5-aza-2’-deoxycytidine is a potent inhibitor against DNA methyltransferases. Combining trichostatin A with this DNA methylation inhibitor restores transcription of several key factors such as MLH1, TIMP3, maspin, and gelsolin , leading to anti-neoplastic effects. Maintaining the balance of histone and non-histone protein acetylation is of tremendous importance for paper quotes regulating transcription and cellular development and differentiation. Mutations that cause dysregulation of club of intent, HAT activities or recruitment of HDAC complexes result in devastating phenotypes in research, animals and plants. Many pathogenic viruses and fungi target their action on the host (de)acetylation machinery. The use of HDAC inhibitors as anti-cancer drugs has yielded promising clinical results. Combination of HDAC inhibitors and an essay explanation, other drugs may further synergize the therapeutic efficacy. Paper Quotes! It is anticipated that the use of specific HDAC, and easystreet online, possibly HAT, modulators in the future will not only offer an effective cancer therapeutic strategy, but also critical insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying tumorigenesis. Min-Hao Kuo received his Ph.D. from the University of Rochester. He worked on a multifunctional transcriptional regulator, Mcm1, with Dr. Elizabeth Grayhack.
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LAFAYETTE, Marie Jean Paul Joseph Roche Yves Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de , French soldier, born at paper quotes, the castle of Chavagnac, in Auvergne, 6 Sept., 1757 died in gambling Paris, 20 May, 1834. The family has been for more than three centuries distinguished in French history. The subject of this article was son of Michel Roche Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette, colonel of grenadiers, who was killed in the battle of Min-den, 1 Aug., 1759, and Marie Louise, daughter of Joseph Yves Hyacinthe, Marquis de la Riviere. In 1768 he was taken by his mother to Paris, and entered the College of Louis-le-Grand. In 1770 the death of his mother and grandfather left him with a very large fortune. He became a page to the queen Marie Leczinska, and through her influence received a lieutenant's commission in the royal musketeers, a body of soldiers charged with the defense of the king's person. He married, 11 April, 1774, Anastasie Adrienne de Noailles. second daughter of the Duke d'Ayen, afterward Duke de Noailles. Having been commissioned a captain of artillery in a regiment stationed at Metz, toward the end of 1776 he happened to meet at dinner the Duke of paper quotes Gloucester, brother of why christopher columbus villain essay George III., and heard of the Declaration of Independence and other events that had lately occurred in the United States.
An enthusiastic sentiment of devotion to liberty and the rights of man was then growing up among youthful Frenchmen in all classes of society. Many young officers were eager to go to America, some from an intelligent interest in paper the cause at business dissertation in management researching writing, stake there, others from a love of research paper romantic adventure or a desire to strike a blow at the English in revenge for the disasters of the Seven Years' War. Of Intent? This last motive was strongly operative at court, though opinion was far from unanimous there. Louis XVI. Research Paper? had no sympathy with Americans or with rebels, and was fond of repeating the humorous remark of gambling his brother-in-law, Joseph II. : I am a royalist by my trade, you know. The policy of Choiseul, however, which would leave no stone unturned to quotes, undo the work of the Seven years' war and weaken the colonial empire of England, found favor with Marie Antoinette, as well as with Count Vergennes, the able minister of foreign affairs. Caution was needed, however. It was no part of the policy of Vergennes to run the why christopher columbus villain, risk of a quarrel with Great Britain until it should become quite clear that the American alliance was, from a military point of research paper quotes view, worth having. For the present, accordingly, he contented himself with sending secret aid to the Americans in the shape of illegal money, arms, and ammunition. This aid was furnished through the agency of the famous author, Beaumarchais (q. v.), and in paper such a manner that the government might officially pretend to be ignorant of what was going on.
In this surreptitious way as early as the spring of 1777 a large quantity of military stores had been conveyed to America, and had been followed by such officers as Pulaski, La Rouerie, and some fifty others. Club Essay Of Intent? The Duke of Montmorency-Laval and research paper, other young nobles asked the king's permission to rotary, go to research, America; but it was refused, and for the sake of keeping up appearances the columbus villain, refusal had something of the air of research paper a reprimand. Rotary Club? It was necessary, therefore, for Lafayette to proceed with caution when he made up his mind, as the result of the conversation at Netz, to cross the ocean and paper quotes, offer his services to congress. Corpus Essay? He consulted with the Baron de Kalb, who was cherishing a similar intention. Paper Quotes? De Kalb introduced him to Silas Deane, who gave him, 7 Dec., 1776, a letter of introduction to congress, in which he alluded to the great dignity and influence of easystreet online Lafayette's family, and asked for him a major-general's commission. Lafayette now proceeded secretly and at his own expense to fit out a vessel at research paper quotes, Bordeaux, but his preparations were somewhat delayed by the necessity of making a journey to London in company with the Prince de Poix. He did not think it best to decline the invitation to this journey for fear of exciting suspicion as to his real plans.
While at London, hearing of Washington's victories at Trenton and Princeton, he expressed such keen pleasure as to attract the notice of Lord Shelburne, the warm friend of the Americans. Madame de Lafayette's uncle, the Marquis de Noailles, was then the French ambassador at business in management, the court of St. James, and every word and action of his young visitor was sure to research, be carefully watched and weighed. After three weeks he returned secretly to Paris, leaving it to rotary club, be supposed that he was still in England, while, to keep up the concealment as long as possible, the Marquis de Noailles explained his nonappearance in research paper society by spreading a report that he was slightly ill. After three days at De Kalb's house in Paris, Lafayette went on to Bordeaux. There he learned that the court had information of his movements and had issued an order for his arrest. To avoid this he sailed with his ship to Passage, a Spanish port, where his preparations were completed. Here he received letters from his family and easystreet, the ministry which led him to return for paper quotes a short, time to Bordeaux. A letter which he now wrote to online, the government, begging permission to proceed with his enterprise, remained unanswered. In a private letter to paper quotes, Maurepas, he observed that silence gives consent, and he should go on. Easystreet? There was more than mere pleasantry in this.
He doubtless understood well enough that the royal disapproval of his movements was in great part assumed for the sake of appearances. He set sail from Pasage, 26 April, 1777, taking with him De Kalb and eleven other officers, and landed, 14 June, at Georgetown, S. C., whence he proceeded to Charleston. After a journey of more than a month on horseback he arrived in Philadelphia, where congress was in session. Research Paper? Congress was at that time beset with so many applications from foreign officers in quest of adventure, and in some instances, as in that of Du Coudray (q. Thesis? v.), these applica tions led to so much jealousy and discontent that Lafayette at first met with a rather cold reception ; but, after he had declared his wish to serve as a volunteer and at his own expense, Congress (31 July, 1777) appointed him major-general. The next day he was introduced to Washington, and the life-long friendship between the two was at once begun. Paper Quotes? As it appeared that his appointment was for the present merely honorary, Lafayette served for a time as a sort of volunteer aide upon Washington's staff. At the Battle of Brandywine, 11 Sept., he behaved very gallantly and received a wound in the leg, which laid him up for two months. During this time he remained under the care of the illegal, Moravian Brethren at research paper quotes, Bethlehem. On 25 Nov., in a reconnaissance of General Greene against Cornwallis's position at Gloucester Point, Lafayette with 300 men defeated a superior force of Hessians. In recognition of this service he was appointed, 4 Dec., to online, command the division of Washington's army lately under Gen. Stephen, who had been removed for alleged misconduct in the Battle of Germantown.
The intrigue known as the Conway cabal, for removing Washington from the quotes, chief command of the Continental army and on criticism alexander pope explanation, putting Gates in his place, seemed at this time to be faring prosperously. Paper Quotes? Among the schemes of the intriguers was one for an invasion of Canada, which Washington was known to disapprove. It was thought that with the aid of Stark enough Green Mountain boys could be enlisted to join with a small force of regulars stationed at easystreet, Albany, so as to make up an research, invading army of 4,000 men. The command of this small army was offered by pope, the board of war to Lafayette, and paper quotes, it was hoped that on his arrival in Canada the French population of that country would hail him as their deliverer, and would forthwith rise against the British. L afayette's appointment was dated 23 Jan., 1778, and at easystreet online, the same time Washington's enemy, Conway, was made second in command. His first information of the appointment was conveyed in a letter of 24 Jan. from Gates, enclosed in one from that officer to Washington. Lafayette did not accept the command until he had first consulted with Washington, and he furthermore insisted that De Kalb, who outranked Conway, should accompany the expedition. On arriving at Albany it appeared that the scheme was a fiasco quite worthy of the shallow intriguers who had conceived it. The few regulars at Albany were in nowise equipped for a winter march, no help could be .got from Stark, and not a volunteer could be found m any quarter. The new alliance with France (6 Feb., 1778) had put an end to the desire of the New England people for conquering Canada. They feared that France might insist upon retaining it at the end of the war, and they greatly preferred Great Britain to France for a neighbor.
The failure of this scheme was a serious blow to research quotes, the enemies of Washington, to whose camp Lafayette joyfully returned early in April. Throughout the whole affair he showed much sagacity along with unswerving fidelity to Washington. On 19 May the British General Grant, with an why christopher is a, overwhelming force, surprised him at Barren Hill, near Philadelphia; but Lafayette succeeded in withdrawing his troops and artillery without loss. Research Paper Quotes? Here he gave proof of the skill in handling men which afterward characterized his campaign in Virginia. Club? Washington's confidence in him was shown soon afterward at paper, the Battle of thesis Monmouth, 28 June.
The command of the force entrusted with the attack upon Clinton's rear division was at research, first assigned to Lee as the officer highest in rank next to Washington. Illegal? When Lee expressed his unwillingness to undertake the attack, Washington at once assigned this very important operation to Lafayette. On the eve of the battle Lee changed his mind, and research quotes, begged for the command which he had before refused. The operation was accordingly assigned to Lee, and online, Lafayette commanded one of the divisions of his force. When the strange disorder and retreat began, he was one of the first to suspect Lee's treachery, and sent a messenger to Washington to hasten his arrival upon the field. Research Paper Quotes? During the remainder of the battle, Lafayette commanded the in management, second line with ability.
He was sent, 21 July, with two brigades of infantry, to operate under Sullivan in Rhode Island. After the destructive storm of 19 Aug., he tried in vain to dissuade D'Estaing from paper quotes, taking the fleet away to Boston: and, 29 Aug., rode on horseback from Newport to Boston to alexander, urge the admiral's speedy return; next day a gallop of eighty miles in eight hours brought him back to Rhode Island just in time to assist in superintending the retreat of the American forces. For his zealous efforts in this campaign he received from congress a vote of thanks. Having witnessed the ill success of this important enterprise, due chiefly to the misunderstandings and want of co-operation between the research paper, French and rotary club essay, American commanders, Lafayette now thought that he could for research paper a while be more useful to the American cause in France than in illegal gambling the United States. The alliance between the two countries would now insure him a favorable reception at court, in spite of the technical irregularity of his first departure for paper America, and the opportunity to visit wife and family could not but be grateful to the young soldier. He obtained leave of absence from congress, 21 Oct., but was seized with a fever which kept him for an essay alexander several weeks dangerously ill at Fishkill. He sailed from Boston, 11 Jan., 1779, in the new American frigate Alliance. a swift and well-built ship, but manned by a rough and motley crew, picked up at research, short notice. Corpus Christi College History? A plot was laid among these ruffians to seize the ship and take her into a British port, after murdering all on board except Lafayette, who was to be delivered up to the British government as a prisoner of paper quotes suitable rank to be exchanged for Gen.
Burgoyne. The plot was betrayed to the marquis, who caused thirty of the mutineers, to be put in irons. Arriving m Paris, 12 Feb., he was forbidden the king's presence until he should have passed a week in confinement at his father-in-law's palace. After purifying himself by this kind of why christopher columbus villain political quarantine from the stain of former disobedience, he was received with favor at court, and appointed colonel of dragoons to serve in the army with which it was designed to invade England early in the summer. Research Paper Quotes? The invasion depended upon is a villain essay the combined support of the research quotes, French and Spanish fleets, and illegal, owing to paper, the failure of this naval support was abandoned. Corpus College Essay? Lafayette took much pains in laying before Vergennes a clear and correct statement of the situation in the United States, and on his own responsibility urged him to research paper quotes, send a land force as well as a fleet to cooperate with Washington's army. This was a step in advance of the policy of congress, which as yet desired only naval assistance, and dreaded the dissensions likely to arise between French and American soldiers serving together. To avoid such dissensions, Lafayette recommended that all disputes about why christopher columbus villain precedence should be forestalled by paper quotes, expressly placing the French auxiliary army under Washington's command, and ordering that in all cases a French officer should be regarded as junior to an American officer of equal rank. These views were supported by D' Estaing upon his arrival in France early in 1780, and they were adopted by the ministry in sending out the auxiliary force of thesis 6,000 men, under Count Rochambeau, which arrived in Rhode Island 10 July of that year. To report these negotiations to paper, congress and prepare for the arrival of the troops, Lafayette sailed from Rochelle in the French frigate Hermione, 19 March, 1780, and arrived, 27 April, in Boston harbor.
After transacting business at Philadelphia and Newport, connected with these matters, Lafayette repaired to Washington's headquarters at Tappan on the Hudson, and was appointed, 7 Aug., to command a special corps of 2,000 light infantry ; his place, from first to why christopher is a villain, last, was with the American army, not with the French auxiliaries. An interview between Washington and Rochambeau was arranged for 20 Sept. at Hartford, and Lafayette and research paper, Knox accompanied the American commander thither. Business Dissertation? Returning to the Hudson, they reached West Point, 26 Sept., the day on which Arnold's treason was discovered. Lafayette was a member of the board of fourteen generals that condemned Andr5 to death. When Arnold, with a British force, invaded Virginia, early in 1781, Lafayette was sent with 1,200 men from the New England and New Jersey lines to assist in the defense of research paper quotes that state. His troops were ill equipped for a campaign; for want of tents they were obliged to pass the frosty nights in the open air, and many of them were without hats or shoes. At Baltimore he purchased the illegal gambling thesis, necessary clothes and equipments for the troops, paying for them in drafts on the French treasury, which he endorsed for greater security in ease the French government should not see fit to add the amount to the loans already appropriated for research quotes the United States. Why Christopher Villain? The military stores of Virginia were in great part concentrated at Richmond, and the British commanders Arnold and Phillips had planned the destruction of that town; but Lafayette arrived there, 29 April, in time to foil the research paper quotes, designs of the club, enemy. For some days skirmishing went on between Lafayette and Phillips, who was suddenly seized with fever, and died 13 May, leaving Arnold in sole command.
Lord Cornwallis, retreating from North Carolina after the research paper, battle of Guilford, arrived 20 May at Petersburg, where he effected a junction with Arnold. The British force now numbered 5,000 men, and Lafayette did not feel strong enough to oppose it until he should have been re-enforced by Wayne, who was moving southward with 1,000 infantry of the Pennsylvania line. He accordingly retreated northward from business dissertation in management researching, Richmond toward Fredericksburg, with Cornwallis in full pursuit. The boy cannot escape me, wrote the British general in a letter which was intercepted; but the young Frenchman's retreat was admirably conducted. He crossed the Rapidan at Ely's Ford, 4 June, and secured a strong position, while Cornwallis paused for a moment and detached Tarleton on a raid to Charlottesville, to research, break up the legislature which was in rotary essay session there, and to paper quotes, Albemarle, where a quantity of military stores had been collected. The first part of the raid was partially successful, but Lafayette effected his junction with Wayne, 7 June, and prevented Tarleton from approaching Albemarle. Cornwallis now, when rejoined by Tarleton, abandoned as imprudent the idea of an offensive campaign in the interior of the corpus essay, country, so far from his base of operations on research paper, the sea-coast, and accordingly retreated to Richmond.
Lafayette was presently re-enforced by Steuben, so that he outnumbered Cornwallis, who accordingly, 20 June, continued his retreat, crossing the easystreet online, Chickahominy near White Oak Swamp, and marching down to paper quotes, the peninsula to Williamsburg. At Green Spring, near that town, an indecisive action was fought between parts of the two armies, 6 July, the Americans attacking, but unsuccessfully. Illegal? Cornwallis continued his retreat to Yorktown, while Lafayette occupied Malvern Hill, and awaited further developments. Washington and Rochambeau, with 6,000 men, started, 19 Aug., from the Hudson, and reached the head of Chesapeake bay, 5 Sept., the same day on which the French fleet, under De Grasse, repulsed the British fleet, and obtained full possession of the Virginia waters. Cornwallis as yet knew nothing of Washington's approach, but there was just a chance that he might realize his danger, and, crossing the James river, seek safety in a retreat upon North Carolina. This solitary chance was now forestalled by Lafayette. The troops of Saint-Simon, brought by quotes, the fleet, had now increased his army to 8,000, and with his force he took his stand, 7 Sept., across the neck of the peninsula at Williamsburg, thus cutting off Cornwallis's retreat.
Washington arrived, 14 Sept., at Lafayette's headquarters and took command, and the ensuing concentration of all the allied forces at Williamsburg sealed the doom of alexander Cornwallis. During the whole campaign, from 20 May to 14 Sept., while Lafayette was in research paper quotes command opposed to Cornwallis, his conduct was prudent and gambling, skilful, and contributed in no slight degree toward the grand result. On 22 Dec. he sailed again from Boston in the Alliance, and on his arrival in research paper France was greeted with enthusiasm. An army of 24,000 French and Spanish troops was about to assemble at Cadiz, and Lafayette was appointed chief-of-staff, with a brevet of major-general. Before the preparations for business in management researching writing this expedition were completed, the war was at an end, and Lafayette sent from Cadiz the swift frigate Triumph, which arrived, 23 March, 1783, at Philadelphia, with the research paper quotes, first news of peace. Next year, at Washington's invitation, he returned to the United States, and after a visit to Mount Vernon made a journey through the country from Virginia to Massachusetts. On 25 Dec., 1784, he sailed from New York in the French frigate Nymphe.
In 1785 he traveled in Germany. About this time he was deeply interested in the abolition of slavery, and purchased a large plantation in Cayenne, where great numbers of slaves might be educated with a view to gradual emancipation. On Criticism Alexander Pope? Washington, Jefferson, and others were interested in this experiment, which it was hoped might furnish an example for imitation in the United States. In 1787 Lafayette was a member of the assembly of notables, and in research paper quotes the states-general of 1789 he sat as representative of the thesis, nobility of Auvergne. He was chosen, 26 July, 1789. commander-in-chief of the National guard, a position which he held till 8 Oct., 1791. Part of his difficult duties at this time related to the protection of the paper quotes, king and queen, who distrusted him, as they distrusted every one who might have been of real service to them. His moderate views made Lafayette very distasteful to rotary, the Jacobins, and with their rise to power his influence and popularity diminished. Having been promoted lieutenant-general, 30 June, 1791, he was appointed, on the declaration of research war against Austria, 20 April, 1792, to command the army of the center, 52,000 strong, between Philippeville and dissertation researching, Lauterbourg. From his camp at Maubeuge, 16 June, he wrote the famous letter to the National assembly, in which he denounced the dangerous policy of the Jacobins. The insurrection of 20 June followed. On the 28th Lafayette came to quotes, Paris, and appeared before the assembly to defend his course.
After two days, finding the easystreet, Jacobins all-powerful in the city, he returned to camp, and formed a plan for removing the king from Paris. Before the plan was fully matured, and while his army was at Sedan, only four days' march from the capital, there came the research, news of the revolution of 10 Aug. and the imprisonment of the king. Lafayette now refused to obey the orders of the assembly, and arrested the three commissioners sent by that body to an essay on criticism explanation, his camp. In return the assembly removed him from command and appointed Dumouriez in his place, 19 Aug.; his impeachment was also decided upon, and it became evident that his soldiers were in sympathy with the Jacobins. He fled into Belgium with half a dozen companions, was taken prisoner by the Austrians, and quotes, handed over by them to the Prussians, by whom he was imprisoned first at Wesel, afterward at corpus christi college, Magdeburg. He was offered his liberty on condition of assisting the allies in their invasion of France, but refused. After a year's incarceration at Magdeburg, he was transferred to Austria for safe keeping, and passed the quotes, next four years in a loathsome dungeon at Ohnutz, where he was treated with barbarous cruelty. Much sympathy was felt for on criticism explanation him in research the United States and in England. In parliament, Fox, Wilberforee, and Sheridan were active in his behalf, and Washington wrote to the emperor, Francis I1., asking that he might be allowed to come on parole to the United States.
In the autumn of 1794, through the boldness and skill of Dr. An Essay Pope Explanation? Bollmann, a young German physician, and Francis Kinlock Huger, of research quotes South Carolina, he was actually set free, and had nearly got clear of Austrian territory when he was captured, loaded with irons, and carried back to his dungeon. With much difficulty, in 1795, his wife and two daughters got permission to share his captivity. In these sufferings Lafayette served as the scapegoat upon which the emperor could freely vent his rage at on criticism alexander pope explanation, the revolutionary party in general for the indignities heaped upon his kinswoman Marie Antoinette. The unfortunate victim was at length set free, 23 Sept., 1797, by research paper quotes, the victories of Bonaparte. After a sojourn in Holstein and then in Holland, he returned to France in March 1800, after the overthrow of the Directory, and retired to his castle of rotary of intent La Grange, in research quotes Brie, about forty-three miles from Paris. An Essay On Criticism Alexander Pope Explanation? Napoleon sought to research paper quotes, gain his adherence by offering him a senatorship, the cross of the Legion of honor, and the position of minister to the United States; but he declined these offers. He also declined President Jefferson's offer in 1805 to christi college essay, appoint him governor of Louisiana. During Napoleon's rule he remained in the quiet of his home at La Grange, where his wife died, 24 Dec., 1807. Click here to see house illustration . On Napoleon's return from Elba, it seemed desirable to quotes, secure the support of that moderate liberal sentiment which Lafayette had always consistently represented, and Joseph Bonaparte was accordingly sent to La Grange to sound Lafayette and secure his allegiance. Lafayette refused to accept a place in the hereditary peerage which the Corsican proposed to re-establish, or to attach himself in any way to his fortunes.
If I should ever again appear in public life, said he, it can only online be as a representative of the people. When a chamber of research paper quotes representatives was established he was chosen member for the Department of Seine-et-Marne, but took little or no part in in management researching the proceedings until after Waterloo. On 21 June, 1815, he insisted that Napoleon's abdication should be demanded, while at quotes, the same time his life and gambling, liberty should be guaranteed by the nation. He endeavored unsuccessfully to research paper quotes, procure for Napoleon the means of escaping to researching, the United States. Paper? In 1818, after three years of seclusion at home, he was elected to the chamber of deputies, where he sat till 1824, as a leader of the opposition, opposing the censorship of the press, and voting for all truly liberal measures.
In 1824 congress passed unanimously a resolution requesting President Monroe to invite Lafayette to visit the United States. Rotary Club Of Intent? He sailed from Havre, 12 July, in an American mer chantman, and arrived 15 Aug. in New York. In the course of the next fourteen months he traveled through the whole country, visiting each of the twenty-four states and research paper quotes, all the principal cities, and was everywhere received with tokens of an essay pope explanation enthusiastic reverence and affection. In consideration of his services in the Revolutionary war, congress voted him a grant of $200,000, besides a township of 24,000 acres, to be assigned somewhere among the unappropriated public lands. His sixty-eighth birthday, 6 Sept., 1825, was celebrated at research, the White House in Washington, on which occasion a noble farewell speech was pronounced by President Adams, and next day he sailed from the Potomac in the frigate Brandywine, and arrived in Havre, 5 Oct. The illustration click here represents a vase that was presented to him by the midshipmen of the frigate shortly after his arrival, he was again, in 1827, elected to the chamber of rotary club essay of intent deputies. In the revolution of July, 1830, he was made commander-in-chief of the National guard, and quotes, was instrumental in placing Louis Philippe on the throne, in the hope that France , might thus at. length be enabled to enter upon the path of peaceful constitutional progress. He remained a member of the illegal gambling, chamber of deputies un til his death.
He received a magnificent funeral, and his remains were interred beside those of his wife in the cemetery of Picpus in the faubourg Saint-Antoine. The grave is research, shown in the illustration above. He left one son, George Washington, and two daughters, Anastasie and Virginie; the elder married Charles de Latour Maubourg, and the younger the Count de Lasteyrie. In person Lafayette was tall and rotary of intent, powerfully built, with broad shoulders, deep chest, and a tendency toward corpulence. His features were large and strongly marked. He had much dignity of manner, and was ordinarily quiet and self-possessed. Perhaps the best testimony to his purity of character is the fact that his bitterest detractors, in the absence of quotes any other available charge, are in an essay on criticism alexander explanation the habit of insisting upon his vanity. Research Quotes? Among all the eminent Frenchmen of the revolutionary period, he was perhaps the only one in whose career there was nothing to be really ashamed of. His traits of character were solid rather than brilliant; and he was too thoroughly imbued with American ideas to identify himself with any one of the violent movements originating in the French revolution of 1789. His love of constitutional liberty was too strong for him to cooperate either with Bourbons or with Jacobins or with Bonapartists; and from all three quarters attempts have been made to detract from his rightful fame.
In European history his place, though not among the foremost, is respectable ; in American history he is not only a very picturesque and interesting figure, but his services in our struggle for political independence were of substantial and considerable value. Lafayette left a journal of the principal events in which he took part, which was published by his son, and completed with some supplementary documents, letters of Washington and other statesmen, under the title Memoires, manuscrits et correspondance du General de Lafayette (6 vols., Paris, 1837-'8). See also E. de la Be-dolliere, Vie politique du Marquis de Lafayette (Paris, 1833) Jules Cloquet, Souvenirs de la vie privee du General Lafayette (Paris, 1836) ; E. Laboulaye, Histoire politique des Etats-Unis ; Henri Martin, Histoire de France Duruy, Histoire de France Thiers, Revolution Francaise Sainte Beuve, Portraits historiques et litteraires and Critiques sur Menoires de Lafayette ( Revue des Deux-Mondes, 1838) ; Louis Blanc, ttistoire de mon temps Napoleon, Md-morial de Sainte II51ene ; L. de Lomenie, Gale-rie des contemporaires Chateaubriand, Me-moires d'outre tombe ; Louis Blanc, Histoire de 10 ans; Vaulabelle, Les deux restaurations ; A. Nettement, Histoire de la restauration ; Villemain, Souvenirs Bourguelat, Etudes critiques ; Guizot, Mdmoires and Essai sur Washington ; A. Maurin, Chute des Bourbons ; De Barante, De la declaration des droits ; Mira-beau, Correspondance et memoires ; Mme. de Stae1; Rivarol, Portrait de Lafayette, etc. Villain? There are also numerous biographies of him both in quotes French and English.-- His son, George Wash ington Lafayette , born in Paris in 1779; died in easystreet December, 1849, entered the army as a lieutenant in 1800 and served with distinction until 1808, when he resigned and retired with his father to La Grange. Research Paper? During the Hundred Days he was elected to the house of representatives, and in 1822 to the chamber of deputies, voting constantly for all liberal measures. In 1824 he accompanied his father during his visit to is a essay, the United States. He was re-elected to the chamber of deputies in 1827, and at all the subsequent elections till 1848. He left two sons, OSCAR THOMAS GILBERT DU MOTIER, born in Paris, 20 Aug., 1815, served as an artillery officer from 1835 till 1842, when he was elected to paper, the chamber of deputies, and made himself conspicuous for his liberal opinions.
Re-elected in 1848 and club essay of intent, 1849, he sent his resignation after the paper, coup d'eat, 2 Dec., 1851, and lived quietly in history essay La Grange under the reign of quotes Napoleon III. College History? In 1871 he was elected to the national assembly, and in 1875 became a life-senator. His brother, FRANCOIS EDMOND GILBERT DU MOTIER, born 11 July, 1818, was in 1848 elected to the legislative assembly. Since 1876 he represents the research paper quotes, department of La Sarthe to the chamber of deputies, and is a Radical in politics. Why Christopher Villain? -- Edited Appleton's Cyclopedia American Biography Copyright© 2001 by Virtualology TM. Edited Appleton's American Image Copyright© 2001 by Virtualology TM.
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10 Resume Tips From A Legal Recruiter. Ed. Paper? note : This is the latest installment in a series of online posts on lateral partner moves from research Lateral Link’s team of expert contributors. Abby Gordon is a Director with Lateral Link’s New York office. Abby works with attorney candidates on law firm and in-house searches, primarily in New York, Boston, and Europe. Prior to joining Lateral Link, Abby spent seven years as a corporate associate with Cleary Gottlieb, focusing on capital markets transactions for Latin American clients in New York and for the last five years for European clients in Paris. Villain Essay? A native of research paper quotes Boston, Abby holds a J.D., cum laude, from Georgetown University Law Center and a B.A. in government and romance languages, magna cum laude, from Dartmouth College. Abby also worked with the International Rescue Committee as a Fulbright Scholar in online, Madrid, Spain. Paper? She is villain essay a member of the New York Bar and is fluent in French and Spanish (and dabbles in research, Portuguese and why christopher columbus villain, Italian). As a legal recruiter, I review numerous resumes each week in research, an effort to assist my candidates with the substance and presentation of business dissertation in management researching their one-page life summaries.
Here are ten tips based on the most common problems I see and questions I am asked: 1. Assume no one will read your resume word-for-word. Picture your interviewer pulling your resume off the printer and research paper, reading only what he can in the time it takes to walk back to business in management researching writing, his office. You need to paper, make the business dissertation in management writing most important stuff jump off the paper page. Use bold.
Use bullet points. Use headings. Give some thought to the format that will convey the necessary information in the most logical way. An Essay Alexander Pope? 2. Be concise and make every word count. Research Paper Quotes? This is related to Tip #1. You want the most important stuff to researching writing, jump off the page, but every word on your resume should serve the purpose of showing that you are the best candidate for paper quotes, the specific job.
It’s just one page. 3. Tailor your resume to the specific job. Keep in the forefront of your mind that you are applying for a legal job. Why Christopher Columbus? Do not view “updating” your resume as merely adding to the same document you first created 20 years ago. Delete information that is paper no longer relevant #8212; remember, every last word should serve the purpose of getting you this job. If you are applying to 10 general litigation openings, one version may be just fine. But if you are applying to some general litigation spots and some patent litigation spots, you may want to have two versions of your resume, with each tailored to the specific opening or category of opening. 4. Be sure you can talk intelligently about every last thing you include on pope explanation your resume. Research Paper? If you can no longer remember the main argument of your senior thesis from college, delete it from your resume or refresh your memory before any interviews.
You also must be prepared to talk about the easystreet online any legal matters you claim to have worked on, including about the research quotes underlying legal issues. 5. When describing your legal experience, give concrete examples . Pope Explanation? Instead of merely asserting that you are a capital markets lawyer, note that you “Drafted the research paper quotes underwriting agreement as lead associate representing the underwriters in an essay on criticism, the offering of $300 million in floating rate notes by a large U.S. manufacturing company.” Even if you have a separate representative matters sheet, it may be helpful to include a few bullets points showing this experience in your actual resume as well. And remember from Tip #2, every word counts. Don’t use neutral words where a more positive word could convey more meaning. For example, which is paper quotes more powerful, stating that you “worked on” a project or that you “successfully implemented” a project? 6. Be sure all information is up-to-date. If you are no longer on rotary club of intent a committee, delete it from your resume or indicate the proper dates. Change the verbs (“represent,” “draft,” “negotiate”) from the descriptions of your prior jobs to the past tense (“represented,” “drafted,” “negotiated”). No longer fluent in French? Be accurate in the assessment of your language ability as of today, not as of quotes mid-way through your junior year abroad.
7. Additional Information: Space is a commodity, but you should still make room for two or three lines that show you are a human being and not just a robot. An Essay On Criticism? Include a few interests (but be sure they are real interests of yours and not aspirational hobbies). Maybe you and one of the interviewers will find you have a hobby in common. If nothing else, this “fluff” gives interviewers some material for a few softball questions to break the ice or end the research paper interview on a lighter note. Aside from true interests/hobbies, include language abilities, bar admissions, and memberships/affiliations so long as you are an active and not just passive participant in these organizations.
Remember the essential test: “Can you talk intelligently about it if asked?” If someone asks about your membership in an alumni network, will you state proudly that you assisted in raising $500,000 in alumni contributions for a scholarship fund or will you cower in your chair and corpus essay, confess that you are on the e-mail list for the committee but have yet to paper quotes, attend a meeting? 8. Education first or work experience first? This is a common question. Remember Tip #1 #8212; you want the most important stuff to jump off the page. So if you went to on criticism alexander pope explanation, a top law school, you may want to list education first. If your law school was not as highly ranked but you somehow landed a job at Wachtell, list work experience first.
In the research paper case of a tie, I’d go with work experience first. 9. The squint test : It seems a bit unsophisticated but it works. Tape your resume to a wall about 10 feet away or just hold it far out in front of you and squint. Does the rotary club balance of black and white on paper the page make your eyes happy? Is there much too much dense text?
Or way too much white space? If you’ve ever strung lights on a Christmas tree, it’s the same principle. Squint and then follow your instincts. 10. Proofread your resume carefully. Then proofread it again. Then ask a friend to thesis, proofread it. And another friend. Quotes? And your legal recruiter. Then proofread it again. Nothing screams “Don’t hire me!” like a glaring typo or spelling mistake.
10?. Here’s a freebie. It’s not the most important tip unless… well if it is, you know who you are. You know that photo of you in the Bahamas in your bikini? Shirtless? You remember how you uploaded it to your Google profile? And now you list your Gmail address on your resume?
Well guess what… When I am e-mailing you at your Gmail address, yes, I can see that photo of you in the right-hand sidebar on my screen. If I can see it, so can the illegal gambling recruiting coordinator and so can the partner at the firm where you’re interviewing. Oh, and one more thing: your Twitter feed will also now show up on the right-hand sidebar. I’m not asking you to stop using social media. But if you are indiscriminate about your tweets, think about setting up a separate e-mail address for the job search process. There is research paper quotes not just one right way of designing a resume. But there are wrong ways. Writing? Look at models but don’t just copy someone else’s. This singular piece of paper is your key to getting your foot in the door in the next step of your career… or not.
It’s worth spending a few extra hours getting it right. Lateral Link is one of the paper top-rated international legal recruiting firms. With over 14 offices world-wide, Lateral Link specializes in placing attorneys at columbus is a villain essay, the most prestigious law firms in research paper, the world. Managed by an essay on criticism pope explanation, former practicing attorneys from paper top law schools, Lateral Link has a tradition of hiring lawyers to execute the lateral leaps of practicing attorneys. Click ::here:: to find out easystreet more about us. Sign up for our newsletter. WilmerHale And The Terrible, Horrible, No Good, Very Bad Day Of Leaking Client Whistleblower Docs To The WSJ. Woman Abandons Law Degree To Become Porn Star. Research Paper Quotes? Federal Lawsuit Filed Against #8216;The Jews#8217; Associates In This City Just Got Their Raises. The Freestanding Law Schools With The Highest Student Loan Default Rates. The Ugliest Law Schools In America.
A Brand New Email Screw-Up For Abbe Lowell. Why Christopher Is A Villain? Biglaw Associate Fails Bar Exam, Gets Fired, Sues Bar Examiners For Causing Job Loss. Biglaw Firm Impresses Associates (And Staff) With Enhanced Parental Leave Policy. Research Paper Quotes? Senior Attorney Fired For Cruel Commentary On Las Vegas Shooting. The Trump Administration Seeks To Rip The Heart Out Of Labor And Employment Law. Lawyer Burnout And The Finish Line Problem. Man Opens Fire At Law Firm Representing His Ex. Biglaw Firm#8217;s Move To New Office Means It#8217;s Time For Some Buyouts. Subscribe and business dissertation in management researching writing, get breaking news, commentary, and opinions on law firms, lawyers, law schools, lawsuits, judges, and more. Breaking Media Editor at research quotes, Large. Sign up for an essay on criticism alexander pope, our newsletter.
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case study yin stake Critics of the case study method believe that the research quotes study of a small number of cases can offer no grounds for in management researching writing, establishing reliability or generality of findings. Research Paper! Others feel that the intense exposure to study of the case biases the findings. Some dismiss case study research as useful only as an business, exploratory tool. Yet researchers continue to use the case study research method with success in carefully planned and crafted studies of quotes real-life situations, issues, and problems. Reports on case studies from many disciplines are widely available in the literature. This paper explains how to rotary club essay of intent use the research paper case study method and then applies the rotary club essay of intent method to an example case study project designed to examine how one set of users, non-profit organizations, make use of an electronic community network. The study examines the issue of whether or not the electronic community network is research paper beneficial in some way to non-profit organizations and what those benefits might be. Many well-known case study researchers such as Robert E. Stake, Helen Simons, and Robert K. Yin have written about dissertation in management researching writing, case study research and suggested techniques for organizing and conducting the research successfully.
This introduction to paper case study research draws upon their work and proposes six steps that should be used: Determine and define the research questions Select the cases and determine data gathering and analysis techniques Prepare to collect the data Collect data in the field Evaluate and analyze the data Prepare the report Step 1. Determine and Define the Research Questions. The first step in case study research is to establish a firm research focus to which the researcher can refer over the course of study of a complex phenomenon or object. The researcher establishes the focus of the study by forming questions about the situation or problem to be studied and determining a purpose for the study. The research object in a case study is of intent often a program, an entity, a person, or a group of people. Each object is likely to research paper quotes be intricately connected to political, social, historical, and club personal issues, providing wide ranging possibilities for questions and adding complexity to the case study.
The researcher investigates the object of the case study in depth using a variety of data gathering methods to produce evidence that leads to understanding of the case and answers the research questions. Case study research generally answers one or more questions which begin with how or why. The questions are targeted to a limited number of events or conditions and their inter-relationships. To assist in targeting and formulating the questions, researchers conduct a literature review. This review establishes what research has been previously conducted and leads to refined, insightful questions about the paper problem.
Careful definition of the questions at the start pinpoints where to look for evidence and villain essay helps determine the methods of paper quotes analysis to be used in the study. The literature review, definition of the purpose of the case study, and club of intent early determination of the potential audience for the final report guide how the study will be designed, conducted, and publicly reported. Step 2. Select the Cases and Determine Data Gathering and Analysis Techniques. During the design phase of research paper case study research, the researcher determines what approaches to use in selecting single or multiple real-life cases to examine in depth and which instruments and data gathering approaches to use. Online! When using multiple cases, each case is treated as a single case. Each case?s conclusions can then be used as information contributing to the whole study, but each case remains a single case. Exemplary case studies carefully select cases and carefully examine the choices available from among many research tools available in order to increase the validity of the study. Paper Quotes! Careful discrimination at the point of selection also helps erect boundaries around the case. The researcher must determine whether to study cases which are unique in illegal, some way or cases which are considered typical and may also select cases to represent a variety of geographic regions, a variety of size parameters, or other parameters. Quotes! A useful step in the selection process is to business in management writing repeatedly refer back to the purpose of the study in order to paper focus attention on where to look for cases and evidence that will satisfy the purpose of the study and answer the research questions posed. Selecting multiple or single cases is a key element, but a case study can include more than one unit of embedded analysis.
For example, a case study may involve study of a single industry and a firm participating in that industry. This type of case study involves two levels of analysis and an essay alexander explanation increases the complexity and research paper quotes amount of data to be gathered and analyzed. A key strength of the case study method involves using multiple sources and techniques in the data gathering process. The researcher determines in advance what evidence to gather and what analysis techniques to use with the data to answer the research questions. Data gathered is normally largely qualitative, but it may also be quantitative. Tools to collect data can include surveys, interviews, documentation review, observation, and even the collection of dissertation in management researching writing physical artifacts.
The researcher must use the designated data gathering tools systematically and properly in collecting the evidence. Throughout the design phase, researchers must ensure that the study is well constructed to paper ensure construct validity, internal validity, external validity, and reliability. Construct validity requires the researcher to use the correct measures for the concepts being studied. Internal validity (especially important with explanatory or causal studies) demonstrates that certain conditions lead to other conditions and requires the use of multiple pieces of evidence from multiple sources to uncover convergent lines of inquiry. The researcher strives to columbus villain essay establish a chain of evidence forward and backward. External validity reflects whether or not findings are generalizable beyond the immediate case or cases; the more variations in places, people, and procedures a case study can withstand and still yield the same findings, the more external validity. Techniques such as cross-case examination and within-case examination along with literature review helps ensure external validity. Reliability refers to the stability, accuracy, and precision of measurement. Exemplary case study design ensures that the procedures used are well documented and research paper quotes can be repeated with the same results over and over again.
Step 3. Prepare to Collect the Data. Because case study research generates a large amount of data from gambling multiple sources, systematic organization of the research quotes data is important to prevent the corpus christi college researcher from becoming overwhelmed by the amount of quotes data and to prevent the researcher from losing sight of the original research purpose and an essay on criticism alexander questions. Advance preparation assists in quotes, handling large amounts of data in a documented and systematic fashion. Researchers prepare databases to assist with categorizing, sorting, storing, and retrieving data for analysis. Exemplary case studies prepare good training programs for investigators, establish clear protocols and rotary club essay of intent procedures in advance of investigator field work, and research paper quotes conduct a pilot study in advance of moving into the field in order to remove obvious barriers and problems. The investigator training program covers the basic concepts of the study, terminology, processes, and methods, and teaches investigators how to properly apply the techniques being used in the study. The program also trains investigators to understand how the gathering of data using multiple techniques strengthens the study by providing opportunities for triangulation during the analysis phase of the study.
The program covers protocols for case study research, including time deadlines, formats for narrative reporting and field notes, guidelines for collection of documents, and guidelines for field procedures to be used. Investigators need to be good listeners who can hear exactly the in management writing words being used by those interviewed. Qualifications for investigators also include being able to ask good questions and interpret answers. Good investigators review documents looking for facts, but also read between the lines and pursue collaborative evidence elsewhere when that seems appropriate. Investigators need to quotes be flexible in real-life situations and not feel threatened by unexpected change, missed appointments, or lack of corpus christi college essay office space.
Investigators need to understand the purpose of the study and grasp the issues and must be open to contrary findings. Investigators must also be aware that they are going into the world of real human beings who may be threatened or unsure of what the case study will bring. After investigators are trained, the final advance preparation step is to select a pilot site and conduct a pilot test using each data gathering method so that problematic areas can be uncovered and corrected. Researchers need to anticipate key problems and events, identify key people, prepare letters of introduction, establish rules for confidentiality, and actively seek opportunities to revisit and revise the research design in order to quotes address and add to the original set of research questions. 4. Collect Data in the Field. The researcher must collect and store multiple sources of evidence comprehensively and systematically, in on criticism pope explanation, formats that can be referenced and sorted so that converging lines of inquiry and research patterns can be uncovered. Christi History! Researchers carefully observe the object of the case study and identify causal factors associated with the observed phenomenon. Renegotiation of arrangements with the objects of the study or addition of research paper quotes questions to interviews may be necessary as the study progresses. Case study research is flexible, but when changes are made, they are documented systematically. Exemplary case studies use field notes and databases to categorize and reference data so that it is thesis readily available for subsequent reinterpretation. Field notes record feelings and intuitive hunches, pose questions, and document the work in research paper, progress.
They record testimonies, stories, and illustrations which can be used in later reports. They may warn of impending bias because of the detailed exposure of the client to special attention, or give an early signal that a pattern is emerging. They assist in determining whether or not the inquiry needs to be reformulated or redefined based on what is being observed. Field notes should be kept separate from the data being collected and stored for analysis. Maintaining the relationship between the issue and the evidence is mandatory.
The researcher may enter some data into a database and physically store other data, but the researcher documents, classifies, and cross-references all evidence so that it can be efficiently recalled for sorting and examination over the course of the study. Step 5. Evaluate and Analyze the Data. The researcher examines raw data using many interpretations in order to find linkages between the research object and an essay on criticism alexander explanation the outcomes with reference to the original research questions. Throughout the evaluation and analysis process, the researcher remains open to new opportunities and insights. The case study method, with its use of multiple data collection methods and analysis techniques, provides researchers with opportunities to triangulate data in order to strengthen the research findings and conclusions. The tactics used in analysis force researchers to move beyond initial impressions to improve the likelihood of accurate and reliable findings. Research! Exemplary case studies will deliberately sort the data in many different ways to expose or create new insights and will deliberately look for conflicting data to disconfirm the analysis.
Researchers categorize, tabulate, and recombine data to address the illegal thesis initial propositions or purpose of the study, and conduct cross-checks of facts and discrepancies in accounts. Focused, short, repeat interviews may be necessary to gather additional data to verify key observations or check a fact. Specific techniques include placing information into arrays, creating matrices of categories, creating flow charts or other displays, and tabulating frequency of events. Quotes! Researchers use the quantitative data that has been collected to corroborate and support the qualitative data which is most useful for understanding the rationale or theory underlying relationships. Another technique is to use multiple investigators to gain the advantage provided when a variety of perspectives and insights examine the college history essay data and the patterns.
When the research quotes multiple observations converge, confidence in the findings increases. Conflicting perceptions, on the other hand, cause the researchers to pry more deeply. Another technique, the cross-case search for patterns, keeps investigators from reaching premature conclusions by requiring that investigators look at the data in many different ways. Easystreet! Cross-case analysis divides the data by type across all cases investigated. One researcher then examines the data of that type thoroughly. When a pattern from research one data type is corroborated by the evidence from another, the finding is stronger. When evidence conflicts, deeper probing of the differences is online necessary to identify the cause or source of conflict. In all cases, the researcher treats the quotes evidence fairly to produce analytic conclusions answering the original how and why research questions.
Step 6. Prepare the report. Exemplary case studies report the data in a way that transforms a complex issue into business dissertation, one that can be understood, allowing the reader to question and examine the study and reach an understanding independent of the researcher. The goal of the written report is to portray a complex problem in a way that conveys a vicarious experience to the reader. Paper! Case studies present data in very publicly accessible ways and may lead the reader to apply the experience in his or her own real-life situation. Researchers pay particular attention to displaying sufficient evidence to gain the reader?s confidence that all avenues have been explored, clearly communicating the boundaries of the case, and giving special attention to conflicting propositions. Techniques for composing the report can include handling each case as a separate chapter or treating the easystreet online case as a chronological recounting. Some researchers report the case study as a story. During the report preparation process, researchers critically examine the document looking for ways the research paper quotes report is incomplete.
The researcher uses representative audience groups to review and comment on the draft document. Illegal Thesis! Based on the comments, the researcher rewrites and makes revisions. Some case study researchers suggest that the document review audience include a journalist and some suggest that the documents should be reviewed by the participants in the study. Applying the Case Study Method to an Electronic Community Network. Step 1. Paper! Determine and Define the Research Questions. In general, electronic community networks have three distinct types of users, each one a good candidate for case study research. Easystreet! The three groups of users include people around the world who use the research paper electronic community network, the non-profit organizations using the history essay electronic community network to provide information to potential users of their services, and the community that forms as the result of interacting with other participants on the electronic community network. In this case, the researcher is primarily interested in determining whether or not the electronic community network is beneficial in research, some way to non-profit organization participants. The researcher begins with a review of the literature to determine what prior studies have determined about this issue and uses the literature to essay define the following questions for the study of the non-profit organizations providing information to the electronic community network: Why do non-profit organization participants use the network?
How do non-profit organization participants determine what to place on the electronic community network? Do the non-profit organization participants believe the community network serves a useful purpose in furthering their mission? How? Step 2. Select the Cases and Determine Data Gathering and Analysis Techniques. Many communities have constructed electronic community networks on the World Wide Web. At the paper outset of the design phase, the researcher determines that only one of these networks will be studied and further sets the study boundaries to include only researching writing some of the non-profit organizations represented on paper that one network. Gambling Thesis! The researcher contacts the Board of paper quotes Directors of the community network, who are open to the idea of the case study.
The researcher also gathers computer generated log data from the network and, using this data, determines that an in-depth study of representative organizations from four categories -- health care, environmental, education, and why christopher villain religious -- is feasible. The investigator applies additional selection criteria so that an urban-based and a rural-based non-profit are represented in the study in paper quotes, order to examine whether urban non-profits perceive more benefits from community networks than rural organizations. The researcher considers multiple sources of data for this study and selects document examination, the illegal gambling thesis gathering and study of research quotes organizational documents such as administrative reports, agendas, letters, minutes, and news clippings for each of the organizations. In this case, the investigator decides to also conduct open-ended interviews with key members of each organization using a check-list to guide interviewers during the gambling interview process so that uniformity and consistency can be assured in the data, which could include facts, opinions, and unexpected insights. In this case study, the researcher cannot employ direct observation as a tool because some of the organizations involved have no office and meet infrequently to conduct business directly related to research paper quotes the electronic community network. The researcher instead decides to survey all Board members of the selected organizations using a questionnaire as a third data gathering tool. Within-case and cross-case analysis of data are selected as analysis techniques. Step 3. Prepare to Collect the Data. The researcher prepares to collect data by first contacting each organization to be studied to gain their cooperation, explain the purpose of the study, and assemble key contact information.
Since data to easystreet online be collected and examined includes organizational documents, the researcher states his intent to request copies of research quotes these documents, and plans for storage, classification, and retrieval of these items, as well as the interview and survey data. The researcher develops a formal investigator training program to include seminar topics on non-profit organizations and their structures in each of the columbus essay four categories selected for this study. The training program also includes practice sessions in conducting open-ended interviews and documenting sources, suggested field notes formats, and a detailed explanation of the purpose of the case study. The researcher selects a fifth case as a pilot case, and the investigators apply the data gathering tools to the pilot case to determine whether the planned timeline is feasible and whether or not the research paper interview and survey questions are appropriate and effective. Based on the results of the pilot, the researcher makes adjustments and assigns investigators particular cases which become their area of expertise in the evaluation and analysis of the data. Step 4. Collect Data in the Field. Investigators first arrange to visit with the Board of Directors of each non-profit organization as a group and ask for dissertation in management, copies of the research paper quotes organization?s mission, news clippings, brochures, and any other written material describing the organization and its purpose. The investigator reviews the purpose of the study with the entire Board, schedules individual interview times with as many Board members as can cooperate, confirms key contact data, and requests that all Board members respond to the written survey which will be mailed later.
Investigators take written notes during the interview and college record field notes after the research paper interview is completed. The interviews, although open-ended, are structured around the research questions defined at the start of the corpus college history essay case study. Research Question: Why do non-profit organization participants use the network? Interview Questions: How did the organization make the decision to place data on the World Wide Web community network? What need was the organization hoping to fulfill? Research Question: How do non-profit organization participants determine what to place on the electronic community network? Interview Questions: What process was used to select the information that would be used on the network? How is the information kept up to date? Research Question: Do the non-profit organization participants believe the community network serves a useful purpose in furthering their mission?
How? Interview Questions: How does the organization know if the research quotes electronic community network is beneficial to the organization? How does the easystreet online electronic community network further the mission of the research quotes organization? What systematic tracking mechanisms exist to determine how many or what types of users are accessing the organization information? The investigator?s field notes record impressions and questions that might assist with the christi college history interpretation of the interview data. The investigator makes note of stories told during open-ended interviews and flags them for potential use in the final report. Research! Data is entered into the database. The researcher mails written surveys to all Board members with a requested return date and a stamped return envelope. Once the columbus is a villain surveys are returned, the researcher codes and enters the data into the database so that it can be used independently as well as integrated when the case study progresses to research quotes the point of cross-case examination of data for columbus is a villain essay, all four cases. Step 5. Evaluate and Analyze the research paper quotes Data. Within-case analysis is the first analysis technique used with each non-profit organization under study.
The assigned investigator studies each organization?s written documentation and survey response data as a separate case to identify unique patterns within the data for that single organization. Individual investigators prepare detailed case study write-ups for online, each organization, categorizing interview questions and answers and examining the data for within-group similarities and paper quotes differences. Cross-case analysis follows. Investigators examine pairs of cases, categorizing the similarities and differences in each pair. Business In Management! Investigators then examine similar pairs for differences, and research dissimilar pairs for similarities. As patterns begin to emerge, certain evidence may stand out as being in conflict with the patterns. In those cases, the investigator conducts follow-up focused interviews to confirm or correct the initial data in order to tie the evidence to the findings and to state relationships in answer to the research questions. Step 6 Prepare the Report. The outline of the thesis report includes thanking all of the participants, stating the problem, listing the research questions, describing the methods used to conduct the research and any potential flaws in the method used, explaining the data gathering and analysis techniques used, and research paper concluding with the answers to the questions and suggestions for further research. Key features of the report include a retelling of specific stories related to the successes or disappointments experienced by the organizations that were conveyed during data collection, and answers or comments illuminating issues directly related to the research questions.
The researcher develops each issue using quotations or other details from the data collected, and points out the writing triangulation of data where applicable. The report also includes confirming and conflicting findings from literature reviews. The report conclusion makes assertions and suggestions for further research activity, so that another researcher may apply these techniques to another electronic community network and research paper quotes its participants to determine whether similar findings are identifiable in other communities. Final report distribution includes all participants. Applicability to Library and Information Science. Busha, C. H., Harter, S. P. (1980). Research methods in librarianship, techniques and interpretation. New York: Academic Press. Chang, H. C. (1974). Library goals as responses to structural milieu requirements: A comparative case study.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Massachusetts, Amherst. DuMont, R. Corpus Christi History Essay! R. (1975). The large urban public library as an agency of social reform, 1890-1915. Research Paper Quotes! Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Eisenhardt, K. History! M. (1989). Building theories from research case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14 (4), 352-550. Emory, C. Easystreet Online! W., Cooper, D. R. (1991). Business research methods. (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Irvin. Goldhor, H. Paper Quotes! (1972).
An introduction to scientific research in librarianship. Easystreet Online! Urbana, IL: University of Illinois. Hamel, J. (with Dufour, S., Fortin, D.). Research Paper! (1993). Case study methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. Harris, S., Sutton, R. (1986). Illegal Thesis! Functions of parting ceremonies in dying organizations. Academy of Management Journal, 19, 5-30. Lawson, V. (1971). Reference service in university libraries, two case studies.
Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Columbia University, New York. McAdams, D. C. (1979). Powerful actors in public land use decision making processes: A case study in Austin, Texas. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Texas, Austin. McClure, C. R., Hernon, P. (Eds.). Research! (1991). Library and information science research: perspectives and why christopher is a villain essay strategies for improvement. Research! Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Miles, M. B., Huberman, A. M. (1984). Qualitative data analysis: A sourcebook of new methods.
Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Miller, F. (1986). Use, appraisal, and research: A case study of business researching writing social history . Research Paper! The American Archivist: 49 (4), 371-392. Paris, M. (1988). Library school closings: Four case studies. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press. Patton, M. Q. (1980). Qualitative evaluation methods. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage. Powell, R. R. (1985).
Basic research methods for librarians. Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Schindler, D. Business Dissertation Writing! (1996). Urban youth and the frail elderly: Reciprocal giving and receiving. Research Paper Quotes! New York: Garland. Simons, H. (1980). Illegal Gambling! Towards a science of the singular: Essays about case study in educational research and evaluation.
Norwich, UK: University of East Anglia, Centre for Applied Research in Education. Stake, R. E. (1995). The art of case study research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Swisher, R., McClure, C. R. (1984). Research for decision making, methods for librarians. Chicago: American Library Association.
Taylor, R. S. (1967). Question-negotiation and information-seeking in libraries. Paper! Bethlehem, PA: Center for the Information Sciences. U.S. Department of Education. (1988). Rethinking the library in the information age: Issues in library research: proposals for the 1990s. Volume II.
Washington, DC. Weiss, C.H., Bucuvala, M. J. Club Essay Of Intent! (1980). Quotes! Social science research and decision-making. New York: Columbia University Press. Wholey, J. S., Hatry, H. P., Newcomer, K. E. (Eds.). (1994).
Handbook of practical program evaluation. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Yin, R. K. Why Christopher Columbus Villain! (1984). Case study research: Design and methods. Newbury Park, CA: Sage. This page is research paper quotes created and maintained by Sue Soy firstname.lastname@example.org. Last Updated 02/12/2006. Copyright 1996 Susan K. Soy.
Please feel free to dissertation in management researching writing copy and distribute freely for academic purposes with attribution. Cite as: Soy, Susan K. Research! (1997). The case study as a research method . Unpublished paper, University of Texas at Austin.