Essay grabber techniques
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Beef Up Your Resume: Work For Free. These days it seems like Human Resource departments and hiring managers are looking for essay grabber techniques, the most experienced candidates, for cover sheet for term paper, even the most basic positions. I’ve often heard college students and unemployed college grads say, “this entry-level position requires x years of work experience. How am I supposed to have work experience? I’ve been busy being a college student!” Most people assume that college graduates are guaranteed or entitled to jobs, simply because they have a degree. Unfortunately, this is not the case. Essay Grabber Techniques? There are tons of people out there, with college degrees and years of work experience, or even no degree at cover sheet, all, but a substantial work history.
These people tend to have the upper hand, when it comes to securing employment. Fortunately, there is essay a way inexperienced job seekers can solve this problem. Working for free is a great way to beef up your resume. When I say work for free, I don’t mean go down to the local animal shelter and play with the puppies; I mean, real work that is brief on america related to your field unless, of course, you’re looking to work as a veterinarian or zoo keeper. This approach may not put money in your pocket immediately; but it will provide you with valuable experiences, the opportunity to develop new skills, and something to put on your CV. Don’t worry you won’t be working for free for ever; it is up to you to determine how long you would like to take this approach. Not only is essay this an excellent way to beef up your resume; but it is also an excellent networking tool; and an great way to grow your list of professional references. For Term Paper? You might even be able to secure a paid job offer from one of the companies you volunteer for. Offering free services is an approach you can take while you search for paid jobs, work part time, or transition from one career to essay, another. Finding volunteer opportunities that are relevant to your field of consumer solving interest might seem like a daunting task; but its much easier than you might think. Here are a few steps to building your resume and eventually getting a paid position, through free work.
Identify Industries of Interest. Consider a few industries that you might find interesting; it is preferable that these fields are somewhat related to your degree. If you have a degree in economics or nutrition, you are not likely to essay grabber, get a job as a counselor or copywriter even if you are offering free services. Finding the right industry may take a bit of soul searching and a lot of Internet research. Gemstone Thesis? Try an online search for, “What can I do with a degree in essay _?”.
It is important to identify various categories of work that might interest you. You might realize, while volunteering, that you don’t actually care for one of these lines of work; and it is always good to computing, have a plan B, C, and essay grabber techniques, D. Once you have identified a few industries or types of jobs, do the essay, following: Find a few job postings within each of grabber techniques your industries of interest. Cover Sheet? Identify the skills, responsibilities, and major roles required for grabber, each of these jobs. Make a list of them. Check off the skills you already have make sure these are listed on cover, your resume and/ or mentioned in your cover letter. Keep note of the skills you do not yet possess. Essay Grabber? These are the skills you will be aiming to develop through your free work. On America? If these skills are “hard” skills, like coding, use of a specific software, or proficiency in a specific process, consider taking an online course. Techniques? There are many affordable courses on the internet. You might even be able to find free online training. You can even learn through YouTube videos, blog posts, and podcasts, as well.
If you decide to gemstone thesis, take a course in person or online, make sure you list it on techniques, your resume. Choose Your Target Companies. Choose a few companies that fit into sheet, your industry of interest. Aim for essay grabber, small businesses, startup companies, individual entrepreneurs, or even internet personalities. These targets are much easier to communicate with; and are more likely to accept your services. Once you have found your target companies, do a little research on them: identify their mission, projects or products they are working on, and make sure to find their e-mail address (or some other form of direct contact). Write a Proposal E-mail. Sheet For Term Paper? Contact your target companies with a concise e-mail, stating that you are offering free services. Do not mention that you are doing this to beef up your resume or gain work experience; chances are, they won’t care or they will perceive you to be inexperienced and desperate. Grabber? You don’t want them to think you are asking them for a favor; you want them to feel like you are offering them a service.
When you write your e-mail consider the gemstone thesis, following: Describe your self briefly: do this in one or two sentences. Mention that you are a fan or supporter of the essay, companies mission, products, or services. My House? Make sure to essay grabber, cite specifics. State that you would like to offer free help remote services that contribute to essay, their mission. Mention specific tasks you are able to do and essay grabber, a few that will allow you to brief essay, develop the essay, skills that you are lacking (do not mention that you are lacking these skills). It is important that the tasks you mention can be completed remotely. This gives you flexibility, which allows you to consumer problem, work for more than one company at grabber techniques, a time. This is extremely important if you are taking courses or currently working as a part-time or full-time employee, or intern. Working remotely also makes the employer feel that you will not need assistance, training, or resources this makes it more appealing for them, as they are assuming no responsibility or risk. Mention how completion of these tasks will benefit the company (increase sales, drive traffic to their website, provide quality products or services to customers, etc.) Mention any relevant skills or experiences that you already have.
Mention that you do not always work at a discounted rate; but that you are willing to contribute to the company’s mission for free. The R Project Computing? State that you will update the essay grabber, company on problem, your progress on a weekly/ biweekly basis. Explain that you will provide high quality work; and essay, that the company may discard your work if they are no pleased with it there is no time or money lost on their end. Also mention that you would be happy to contribute to a argumentative essay, the company as a volunteer for a set period of time (one to essay techniques, three months) if they are pleased with your work. It is important to determine and clearly express how long you are willing to gemstone thesis, work for free; this allows you to grabber, stay in charge of your career. Once your predetermined period has come to an end, you may either ask the company to pay for your services or move on to a different company or industry. Conclude your e-mail by stating that you look forward to further discussing the partnership. Restate how you will contribute to the company’s specific mission or purpose. Include your contact information. Cover Sheet Paper? if you have some work experience, include your resume, portfolio, or samples of your work as an attachment. Free Services You Can Offer.
Here are just a few ideas for tasks that can easily be completed online: Work as a virtual assistant Write/ respond to techniques, e-mails Manage social media accounts Web design Content development / editing Product testing / review SEO / Marketing Illustration / Graphic design Research / fact checking. Transitioning from a argumentative essay Unpaid to grabber, Paid Work. Once you have met the end of your predetermined free work period, it is essay on america time to make the transition from volunteer to essay grabber, private contractor or employee. For Statistical? You will do this by writing another e-mail to grabber, your supervisor. When writing this e-mail, mention the following: State how long you have been providing your services. The R? Express your appreciation for the opportunity they have given you to contribute to essay, their mission. Project? Mention that you are pleased with the success that you have achieved. Mention specific goals, deadlines, or tasks that you have successfully completed. Mention that you are in a financially tight spot; and that you are seeking paid employment.
State that you would be happy to continue working with the company, on a paid basis. Restate your gratitude for the company; and explain that if they are not interested in hiring you, you would at least like to keep in contact, and add them to your list of professional references for future employment applications. Include Free Work On Your Resume. Don’t forget to add the work you have done and the skills you have gained to your resume! It is not necessary that you mention that it was done on techniques, a volunteer basis. It is best to state that this work was done a contract basis or that a predetermined duration was set. A Argumentative? This is especially important if you do not continue working with the company.
You wouldn’t want future employers to think that you hop around from essay grabber techniques job to job every 1 to 3 months.
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Essay: Gene transfer techniques – pros and cons. Gene transfer is a technique to stably and essay grabber techniques, efficiently introduce functional genes (that are usually cloned) into the target cells. Genetic transfer is the mechanism by which DNA is my house essay, transferred from a donor to a recipient. Once donor DNA is inside the recipient, crossing over can occur. The result is a recombinant cell that has a genome different from either the donor or the recipient. A recombination event must occur after transfer in order that the change in the genome be heritable (passed on to the next generation).The genes are the blueprints essential to generate all the proteins in our bodies which eventually perform all the biological functions. Therefore, when a gene is efficiently introduced into a target cell of the host, the protein which is encoded by that gene is produced . Gene transfer technologies developed initially as a research tool for studying the gene expression and its function.
A range of techniques and naturally occurring processes are utilized for the gene transfer. Techniques are available for the introduction of DNA into many different cell types in culture, either to study gene function and regulation or to produce large amounts of recombinant protein. Cell cultures have therefore been used on a commercial scale to synthesize products such as antibodies, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and essay grabber techniques, viral coat proteins for immunization.The most important application of this technology is in vivo gene therapy, i.e. the introduction of DNA into the cells of live animals in order to treat disease. The extraordinary potential of altered DNA molecule is to give rise to new life-forms that are better adopted for survival. Change in base sequence of DNA leads to change in brief on america protein causing disease condition which can be corrected by manipulation of gene. Much emphasis has been given to the gene manipulation in cardiovascular diseases, parkinson’s disease, lysosomal disorders, ocular gene therapy and osteoarthritis. Overview of techniques gene-transfer strategies: Gene transfer can be achieved essentially via three routes. The most straightforward is direct DNA transfer, the physical introduction of foreign DNA directly into the cell.
For example, in consumer solving cultured cells this can be done by microinjection, whereas for cells in vivo direct transfer is essay techniques, often achieved by bombardment with tiny DNA-coated metal particles. The second route is termed transfection, and this encompasses a number of techniques, some chemical and project for statistical computing, some physical, which can be used to persuade cells to take up DNA from their surroundings. The third is to package the DNA inside an. animal virus, since viruses have evolved mechanisms to naturally infect cells and introduce their own nucleic acid. The transfer of foreign DNA into a cell by this route is termed transduction. The choice of methods of DNA transfer depends upon the target cells in which transformation will be performed.
It also depends upon grabber, the objectives of gene manipulation. The transfection may be either stable or transient. Although, choice of DNA transfer method is very important, the other important steps are selection of gene, isolation of gene, preparing recombinant DNA and selection of transformed cells. The regeneration of organism with new characteristics is also equally important. The delivery of genes in vitro can be done by treating the cells with viruses such as retrovirus or adenovirus, calcium phosphate, liposomes, particle bombardment, fine needle naked DNA injection, electroporation or any combination of these methods. These are the gemstone thesis powerful tools for research and have possible applications in gene therapy. FACTORS TO CONSIDER WHEN SELECTING A GENE DELIVERY METHOD. The advancement of new technologies has made gene delivery both more efficient yet more confusing given the formidable array of reagents and methods now available. Determining the best gene delivery approach for any particular experiment requires careful consideration of a number of essay grabber techniques different factors as stated below. 1. Paper! Cellular Context or Environment – The context or environment of the cells (i.e., in vivo vs. in.
vitro vs. ex vivo) to which nucleic acids will be delivered is the first factor to consider when. deciding upon grabber techniques, a gene transfer method. The obstacles and brief on america, challenges posed by delivery to in. vitro cell cultures are very different than those posed by in grabber techniques vivo or ex vivo cells, and require. different tools and techniques for overcoming them. For example, targeting nucleic acids to. particular cells while avoiding other cells is usually a major concern for in vivo gene transfer.
applications, sometimes a concern for ex vivo applications, but usually not a concern for in vitro. Another important issue that must be addressed when planning in vivo (but not in vitro) gene. delivery studies is the immunogenicity of the gene transfer system. This is particularly important when considering the use of certain viral vectors discussed previously, which may be highly immunogenic. On America! Also related to immunogenicity is the issue of essay grabber techniques general safety, both for the experimenter and for the subject of any study utilizing transfection. Essay! Almost always, the use of viral vectors requires very extensive safety precautions than does the use of synthetic transfection methods. 2. Cell or Tissue Type – The origin of the cells or tissue to essay grabber techniques, which nucleic acids will be.
transferred is typically the second parameter considered when selecting a gene delivery. method. For a number of different reasons, the difficulty of cellular nucleic acid delivery varies. from cell type to cell type. Because of this, it is always important to review the literature to. determine if the cell type of interest has previously been utilized for problem solving gene transfer experiments, which exact methods have been used, and what delivery efficiencies were achieved, i.e., what. percentages of cells actually transfected or transduced, with each method.
Certain cell types are often described as ‘notoriously difficult to transfect’. These include primary cell cultures of many varieties. Essay Grabber Techniques! Successful gene transfer to such cells. usually requires a good deal of research before selecting any particular gene delivery method. 3. Delivery Efficiency – For most applications, transfecting or transducing as many cells as.
possible is preferred, especially when it is necessary to detect the for statistical computing presence of rare transgene. products. Thus, it is important to determine the level of delivery efficiency required for a given. application before deciding on a particular gene transfer method. Essay Grabber Techniques! In most cases, it is found that. viral vectors provide the the r computing highest delivery efficiencies. For some commonly used and easily transfected cell lines, cationic lipids nearly match viral vectors in their gene transfer efficiency, while providing safer and much quicker procedures.
4. Stable vs. Essay Grabber! Transient Gene Delivery – Gene transfer procedures are frequently categorized. by whether the delivered gene remains separate from the host cell chromosome or whether it is integrated into the host cell chromosome. In the first case, known as transient gene delivery, expression of the transgene typically dissipates after a given period of time – usually within. several days – because the expression vector is either degraded or expelled from the host cell. In the second case, known as stable gene delivery, expression of the transferred gene is.
prolonged, or stable, because the vector is integrated into the host cell chromosome. Obviously, different applications require different time periods of transgene expression. Thus, a careful. comparison between different gene delivery methodologies will allow a suitable choice for. generating the desired transient or stable expression.
In the gemstone thesis case of viral vectors, determining whether a particular virus is suited for stable or transient. transduction is simply a matter of grabber techniques learning the a argumentative essay general characteristics of the essay vector. In the case. of chemical or physical/mechanical gene transfer, determining whether a given method is. suitable for transient vs. stable delivery may be as easy as reading sales literature from the. manufacturer or checking primary research literature.
5. Type of Delivered Molecule – Another factor to brief on america, consider when selecting a gene delivery. method is what type of nucleic acid or other molecule is techniques, being transfected or transduced. For. example, a reagent that efficiently delivers plasmids may not efficiently deliver DNA. oligonucleotides. Sheet! It is grabber, frequently easiest to simply review the consumer problem solving literature to learn what methods have been used successfully, and to contact other researchers who have experience delivering the molecule of interest. 6. Cytotoxicity – Another issue that comes up frequently when choosing among different gene. delivery methods is the cytotoxicity of the various methods and reagents. Some methods, such.
as electroporation and gene guns, can be extremely harsh on cells and often result in grabber techniques the death. of a majority of cells. The R Project! Also, the DEAE-dextran can be quite harsh on some cell types, especially. when a DMSO or glycerol shock step is used as part of the procedure. In some applications, such as when a small number of transfectants are required from grabber techniques a recalcitrant cell type, this is.
not a problem. In the majority of gemstone thesis applications however, a high percentage of grabber cell death is simply. not acceptable. The plethora of available cationic lipids and my house on fire essay, polymer reagents have varying. degrees of essay grabber toxicity with different cell types, and their concentrations during transfection can be. optimized as needed to minimize cell death. 7. Suspension vs. Adherent cells – Most commonly transfected cells grow – and are. transfected – while attached to some type of support, whether that support is the tissue from. which they are derived, some inert membrane or scaffolding, or the surface of a tissue culture. plate.
Less common are cells that grow while suspended in medium, such as those derived from. blood and other bodily fluids. Suspension cells are generally more difficult to transfect; therefore, it may be necessary to rely on harsher gene delivery methods, such as. electroporation, gene guns, microinjection, or viral vectors for acceptable transfection levels. Also, some cationic lipids can effectively transfect suspension cells, and essay, should be tried when. possible due to their simplicity and cost-effectiveness. 8. Expertise – The degree of difficulty in performing the various transfection techniques can. vary significantly, and therefore the expertise and essay grabber techniques, experience of the researcher is usually an. important factor to the r for statistical, consider. For example, methods like microinjection viral transfection methods are invariably more complex than cationic lipids and polymer reagents. Also, of the chemical methods, calcium phosphate co-precipitation can be quite tricky due to its sensitivity to slight changes in experimental conditions.
9. Time – Another important factor to grabber techniques, consider is the gemstone thesis time required for gene delivery. Viral. methods, while highly efficient, can be quite time consuming, typically taking anywhere from two weeks to one month to complete. In contrast, chemical and physical/mechanical methods can usually be completed within a few days, but frequently provide lower transfection efficiencies. Thus, it is not uncommon to have to weigh the benefits of faster results and less labor against the benefit of essay higher efficiency. 10 Cost – Finally, cost can be a major factor when deciding on the best gene delivery.
method for a given application. My House On Fire! The most expensive methods tend to be the. physical/mechanical methods, such as electroporation and essay techniques, gene guns, due to the specialized. equipment they require.Viral gene delivery is perhaps the project for statistical second most expensive method, since it requires the vector reagents, extensive time and labor to complete lengthy vector preparation procedures, as well as proper disposal of viral waste materials. The third most expensive gene delivery methods utilize polymers and cationic lipids, which do not require any specialized equipment or lengthy viral vector preparation steps. Such reagents typically cost in the hundreds of dollars, depending on the number of transfections to be completed.
Finally, the least expensive methods utilize calcium phosphate, which is a cheap and abundant mineral, and naked DNA, which obviously requires no transfection reagent cost, but can be highly inefficient. GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES. Transformation is the naturally occurring process of gene transfer which involves absorption of the genetic material by grabber, a cell through cell membrane causing the fusion of the foreign DNA with the native DNA resulting in the genetic expression of the received DNA. Transformation involves the uptake of “naked” DNA (DNA not incorporated into structures such as chromosomes) by competent bacterial cells. Cells are only competent (capable of taking up DNA) at a certain stage of their life cycle, apparently prior to the r project computing, the completion of essay techniques cell wall synthesis . Transformation is usually a natural method of gene transfer but as a result of technological advancement originated the artificial or induced transformation. Thus there are two types called as natural transformation and artificial or induced transformation. In natural transformation, the foreign DNA attaches itself to the host cell DNA receptor and with the help of the protein DNA translocase it enters the host cell. The presence of nucleases restricts the entry of two strands of the DNA, destroys a single strand thus allowing only one strand to a argumentative, enter the host cell. Any DNA that is not integrated into the chromosome will be degraded. This single stranded DNA mingles with the host genetic material successfully.
The artificial or induced method of essay techniques transformation is done under laboratory condition which is either a chemical mediated gene transfer or done by electroporation.. Genetic engineers are able to induce competency by putting cells in certain solutions, typically containing calcium salts. At the entry site, endonucleases cut the DNA into fragments of 7,000-10,000 nucleotides, and essay, the double-stranded DNA separates into single strands. Grabber Techniques! The single-stranded DNA may recombine with the project for statistical host’s chromosome once inside the cell. This recombination replaces the gene in essay the host with a variant – albeit homologous – gene. DNA from a closely related genus may be acquired but, in general, DNA is not exchanged between distantly related microbes. Not all bacteria can become competent. Conjugation is a means of gene transfer in many species of bacteria.
Cell-to-cell contact by a specialized appendage, known as the F-pilus (or sex pilus), allows a copy of an F- plasmid (fertility plasmid) to transfer to a cell that does not contain the brief plasmid. On rare occasions an F-plasmid may become integrated in the chromosome of its bacterial host, generating what is known as an Hfr (high frequency of recombination) cell. Such a cell can also direct the synthesis of a sex pilus. As the chromosome of the essay Hfr cell replicates it may begin to cross the problem pilus so that plasmid and essay grabber techniques, chromosomal DNA transfers to the recipient cell. Such DNA may recombine with that of its new host, introducing new gene variants. Plasmids encoding genes for virulence factors antibiotic-resistance are passed throughout populations of bacteria, and between multiple species of bacteria by conjugation. In the gemstone thesis laboratory, conjugation can be used to transfer disrupted genes on a self-transmissible plasmid, to develop a mutant strain. A gene of interest from a recipient E. Techniques! coli strain is cloned into a self-transmissible vector and gemstone thesis, maintained in a donor strain for genetic manipulation. The deleted gene construct is essay, then transferred by conjugation from the donor strain back into the recipient strain. Transduction is another method for transferring genes from one bacterium to another; the problem transfer is mediated by bacteriophages. A bacteriophage infection starts when the virus injects its DNA into a bacterial cell.
The bacteriophage DNA may then direct the synthesis of new viral components assembled in the bacterium. Bacteriophage DNA is replicated and then packaged within the phage particles. Early in the infective cycle the phage encodes an enzyme that degrades the DNA of the host cell. Some of these fragments of bacterial DNA are packaged within the bacteriophage particles, taking the grabber place of phage DNA. As the number of phages increases it breaks open (lyse) the gemstone thesis cell. When released from the infected cell, a phage that contains bacterial genes can continue to grabber, infect a new bacterial cell, transferring the bacterial genes. Sometimes genes transferred in this manner become integrated into the genome of their new bacterial host by homologous recombination. Such transduced bacteria are not lysed because they do not contain adequate phage DNA for brief essay on america viral synthesis and these phages can enter an alternate life cycle called lysogeny. In this cycle, all the grabber virus’s DNA becomes integrated into the genome of the host bacterium. The integrated phage, called a prophage, can confer new properties to the bacterium. Researchers use transduction as a means of gene transfer as it requires a media like virus for transferring genes from one cell to gemstone thesis, the other.
Viruses are thus as a tool to introduce foreign DNA from the selected species to essay grabber, the target organism. There are two types of transduction called as generalized transduction in which any of the bacterial gene is transferred via the bacteriophage to the other bacteria and specialized transduction involves transfer of problem solving limited or selected set of genes. Viral vectors for essay techniques gene transfer: The use of viruses as vectors for transduction, i.e. the introduction of genes into animal cells by exploiting the a argumentative natural ability of the virus particle, within which the transgene is packaged, to adsorb to the surface of the cell and gain entry is being employed . Essay Techniques! Due to consumer problem, the efficiency with which viruses can deliver their nucleic acid into cells and the high levels of replication. and gene expression it is possible to achieve, viruses have been used as vectors not only for gene expression in grabber cultured cells but also for gene transfer to living animals.
Four classes of viral vector have been developed for use in human gene therapy and cover sheet for term, have reached phase 1 clinical trials. These are the retrovirus, adenovirus, herpesvirus and adenoassociated virus (AAV) vectors . Before introducing the individual vector systems,we discuss some general properties of viral transduction vectors. Grabber! Transgenes may be incorporated into. viral vectors either by addition to cover sheet, the whole genome or by replacing one or more viral genes. This is generally achieved either by ligation (many viruses have been modified to incorporate unique restriction sites) or homologous recombination. For many applications, it is favourable to essay techniques, use vectors from which all viral coding sequences have been deleted.These amplicons (also described as ‘gutless vectors’) contain just the cis-acting elements required for packaging and genome replication. Gemstone Thesis! The advantage of such vectors is their high capacity for foreign DNA and the fact that, since no viral gene products are made, the vector has no intrinsic cytotoxic effects. The choice of vector depends on the particular properties of the virus and the intended host, whether transient or stable expression is required and how much DNA needs to essay grabber, be packaged. For example, icosahedral viruses such as adenoviruses and retroviruses package their genomes into preformed capsids, whose volume defines the maximum amount of foreign DNA that can be accommodated. Conversely, rod-shaped viruses such as the baculoviruses form the capsid around the gemstone thesis genome, so there are no such size constraints.
There is no ideal virus for essay grabber gene transfer ‘ each has its own advantages and disadvantages. In recent years, a number of hybrid viral vectors have been developed incorporating the beneficial features of two or more viruses. 1) viral vectors that especially efficient at solving transducing the techniques intended cell type but not other cell types. 2) retroviruses are particularly proficient at delivering genes to dividing cells, such as cancer cells or immortalized cell lines. 1) cannot deliver genes to terminally differentiated cells. 2) viral vectors may be highly immunogenic. TRANSFECTION BY CHEMICAL METHODS. One of the methods of gemstone thesis gene transfer where the genetic material is essay techniques, deliberately introduced into the animal cell in view of studying various functions of proteins and the gene is transfection.
This mode of gene transfer involves creation of pores on the cell membrane enabling the brief essay cell to receive the foreign genetic material. When transformation is carried out in eukaryotic cells it is termed as transfection. 1) Calcium phosphate mediated DNA transfer. The process involves a mixture of isolated DNA (10-100ug) with solution of. calcium chloride and potassium phosphate. . When the two are combined, a fine precipitate of the essay positively charged calcium and the negatively charged phosphate will form, binding the on america DNA to be transfected on its surface .Cells are then incubated with precipitated DNA either in solution or in tissue culture dish. Essay Grabber! A fraction of cells will take up the calcium phosphate DNA precipitate by a process not entirely understood but thought to be endocytosis. Transfection efficiencies using calcium phosphate can be quite low, in the range of 1-2 % . It can. be increased if very high purity DNA is used and on fire, the precipitate allowed to form slowly. 1. Frequency is very low.
2. Integrated genes undergo substantial modification. 3. Many cells do not like having the solid precipitate adhering to them. and the grabber surface of their culture vessel. 4. Integration with host cell chromosome is random. 5, Due to above limitations transfection applied to somatic gene therapy.
This technique is used for introducing DNA into mammalian cells. This process has been a preferred method of identifying many oncogenes. 2)DNA transfer by consumer, DAE-Dextran method: DNA can be transferred with the help of techniques DAE Dextran also. DAE-Dextran may be used in the. transfection medium in which DNA is my house essay, present. This is a polycationic, high molecular weight substance and is convenient for transient assays. The negatively charged DNA binds to the polycation and the complex is taken up by essay techniques, the cell via endocytosis.
If DEAE (diethylaminoethyl )-Dextran treatment is coupled with Dimethyl Sulphoxide (DMSO) shock, then upto 80% transformed cell can express the transferred gene. The advantage of this method is that, it is cheap, simple and can be used for transient cells. which cannot survive even short exposure of calcium phosphate. The major advantages of the technique are its relative simplicity and for statistical, speed, limited expense, and remarkably reproducible interexperimental and essay grabber, intraexperimental transfection efficiency. Disadvantages include inhibition of cell growth and induction of heterogeneous morphological changes in cells. Furthermore, the concentration of serum in the culture medium must be transiently reduced during the transfection. It does not appear to be efficient for solving the production of stable transfectants. For cells that grow in suspension, electroporation or lipofection is usually preferred, although DEAE-dextran-mediated transfection can be used. Transfer of DNA by grabber techniques, polycation-DMSO: As calcium phosphate method of DNA transfer is reproducible and efficient but there is narrow range of essay optimum conditions.
DNA transfer by. Another polycationic chemical,the detergent Polybrene is carried out to essay techniques, increase the adsorption of problem solving DNA to the cell surface followed by a brief treatment with 25-30% DMSO to increase membrane permeability and enhance uptake of DNA. In this method no carrier DNA is required and stable transformants are produced. This method works with mouse fibroblast and chick embryo. LIPOSOME MEDIATED GENE TRANSFER. Liposomes are spheres of lipids which can be used to transport molecules into the cells. These are artificial vesicles that can act as delivery agents for exogenous materials including transgenes.
They are considered as spheres of lipid bilayers surrounding the molecule to be transported and promote transport after fusing with the grabber techniques cell membrane. Liposomes for use as gene transfer vehicles are prepared by adding an appropriate mix of consumer bilayer constituents to an aqueous solution of DNA molecules. In this aqueous environment, phospholipid hydrophilic heads associate with water while hydrophobic tails self-associate to exclude water from within the lipid bilayer. This self-organizing process creates discrete spheres of continuous lipid bilayer membrane enveloping a small quantity of DNA solution. Essay Grabber Techniques! The liposomes are then ready to be added to target cells. Germline transgenesis is essay, possible with liposome mediated gene transfer.Lipofection is the most common and generally utilized gene transfer technique in the recent years and it utilizes cationic lipids. Grabber Techniques! The combined DNA and cationic lipids act instantaneously to form structures called as lipoplexes that are more complex in structure than the simple liposomes. Cationic lipids have a positive charge and these form cationic liposomes which interact with the negatively charged cell membrane more readily than uncharged liposomes. This leads to a fusion between cationic liposome and the cell surface resulting in my house essay quick entry by endocytosis and grabber, the delivery of the DNA directly across the plasma membrane.
Cationic liposomes can be produced from a number of cationic lipids that are commercially available and gemstone thesis, sold as an in vitro-transfecting agent, termed lipofectin. However this pathway would usually result in the fusion of lipoplexes with lysosomes and undergo degradation. Essay! This problem is overcome by a argumentative essay, utilizing the neutral helper lipids, which are generally included along with the cationic lipid. Grabber! This allows entrapped DNA to escape the endosomes, reach the nucleus and get access to the cell’s transcriptional machinery.The endosomal structure is destroyed by increasing the the r computing osmotic pressure created by grabber, the lipids’ buffering action within the endosomes and by the fusion of the lipid with the endosomal membrane. The ability of a lipid to destroy endosomes is gemstone thesis, one of the main characteristics of a transfection reagent. 2. Long term stability.
4. Grabber Techniques! Protection of nucleic acid from degradation. 5. particularly proficient at delivering genes to dividing cells, such as cancer cells or immortalized cell lines. 6. Solving! cationic lipids effectively transfect suspension cells. 1) Cannot deliver genes to terminally differentiated cells. A rapid and simple technique for introducing genes into a wide variety of microbial, plant and animal cells, including E. Essay Techniques! coli, is electroporation. Electroporation uses electrical pulse to project computing, produce transient pores in techniques the plasma membrane thereby allowing macromolecules into the cells. These pores are known as electropores which allow the molecules, ions and a argumentative, water to pass from essay techniques one side of the membrane to another. The electropores reseal spontaneously and essay, the cell can recover. The pores can be recovered only if a suitable electric pulse is applied .The formation of electropores depends upon the cells that are used and essay, the amplitude and duration of the electric pulse that is essay, applied to them. When subjected to electric shock, cells take up exogenous DNA from the suspending solution. Once inside the grabber techniques cell, the DNA is essay, integrated and essay techniques, the foreign gene will express.
A proportion of these cells become stably transformed and can be selected if a suitable marker gene is carried on the transforming DNA. The most critical parameters are the consumer problem intensity and duration of the electric pulse, and these must be determined empirically for different cell types. Electric currents can lead to dramatic heating of the cells that can results in cell death. Heating effects are minimized by essay grabber techniques, using relatively high amplitude, a short duration pulse or by using two very short duration pulses. However, once optimal electroporation parameters have been established, the method is simple to carry out and highly reproducible. Many different factors affect the a argumentative essay efficiency of techniques electroporation, including temperature, various electric-field parameters (voltage, resistance and capacitance), topological form of the DNA, and various host-cell factors (genetic background, growth conditions) and post-pulse treatment. General applications of electroporation. 1. Introduction of exogeneous DNA into animal cell lines, plant protoplast, yeast protoplast and bacterial protoplast. 2. Electroporation can be used to increase efficiency of transformation or transfection of bacterial cells. 3. Wheat, rice, maize, tobacco have been stably transformed with frequency upto 1% by this method.
4. Genes encoding selectable marker may be used to introduce genes using electroporation. 5. To study the transient expression of molecular constructs. 6. Electroporation of early embryo may result in the production of transgenic animals. 7. Project! Hepatocytes, epidermal cells, haematopoietic stem cells, fibroblast, mouse T and B lymphocytes can be transformed by this technique. 8. Naked DNA may be used for gene therapy by applying electroporation device on animal cells. Advantages of techniques electroporation. 1. Method is the r project for statistical, fast. 3. Applied for a number of cell types. 4. Simultaneously a large number of cell can be treated. 5. High percentage of stable transformants can be produced.
1)Limited effective range of. 1 cm between the grabber techniques electrodes. 2)Surgical procedure is required to place the electrodes deep into the internal organs. 3)High voltage applied to tissues can result in irreversible tissue damage as a result of thermal heating. The technique has high input costs, because a specialized capacitor discharge machine is required that can accurately control pulse length and amplitude.
4) Larger numbers of cells may be required than for other methods because, in many cases, the most efficient electroporation occurs when there is up to 50% cell death. Sonication is the a argumentative act of techniques applying sound energy to agitate particles in a sample. Ultrasonic frequencies (20 kHz) are usually used, leading to the process also being known as ultrasonication . Gemstone Thesis! Sonoporation, or cellular sonication, is the use of these ultrasonic frequencies for modifying the permeability of the cell plasma membrane. This technique is usually used in molecular biology and non-viral gene therapy in order to allow uptake of large molecules such as DNA into the cell, in a cell disruption process called transfection or transformation. Essay Techniques! Sonoporation employs the acoustic cavitation of microbubbles to enhance delivery of such large DNA molecules. Although the early results could achieve only 10- to 30-fold increases in transfection efficiency in vitro, technical refinements have lead to enhancements of up to several thousand fold in vitro ,sufficient to brief, encourage ultrasonication mediated gene transfer in vivo. 1) It is non-invasive and well tolerated, 2)extraordinary safety record over a wide range of frequency and grabber techniques, intensity. 3)high levels of public acceptability and understanding.
there are highly sophisticated, flexible, cost-effective and readily available diagnostic and therapeutic systems that can achieve site-specific transfer of consumer problem solving ultrasound energy almost anywhere in the body, except perhaps the essay grabber lung. 4) The bioactivity of this technique is similar to, and in essay some cases found superior to, electroporation. 5) in vivo is techniques, relatively nontoxic. 1)Extended exposure to low-frequency (MHz) ultrasound has been demonstrated to result in complete cellular death (rupturing) as well as microvascular hemorrhage and disruption of tissue structure, thus cellular viability must also be accounted for when employing this technique. 2) Whether ultrasound affects later steps in the transfection process, particularly plasmid entry into the nucleus, remains unclear. Sonoporation is under active study for on fire essay the introduction of foreign genes in tissue culture cells, especially mammalian cells.
Sonoporation is essay grabber, also being studied for use in targetedGene therapy in vivo, in a medical treatment scenario whereby a patient is given modified DNA, and consumer solving, an ultrasonic transducer might target this modified DNA into specific regions of the patient’s body. In microinjection DNA can be introduced into cells or protoplast with the help of techniques very fine needles or. glass micropipettes having the diameter of 0.5 to 10 micrometer. The DNA may be directly delivered into the nucleus or in the cytoplasm. Some of the DNA injected may be taken up by the nucleus. The desired gene in the form of brief essay plasmid or alone is injected directly into the plant protoplast. Injection into the nucleus is essay grabber techniques, more efficient than that into the cytoplasm. Micro-injection is carried out with automatic equipments (robotics) using a micro-needle. Gemstone Thesis! Computerized control of holding pipette, needle, microscope stage and video technology has improved the techniques efficiency of this technique.
Advantages of my house microinjection. 1. Frequency of stable integration of DNA is far better as compare to other methods. 2. Essay Grabber! Method is effective in transforming primary cells as well as cells in gemstone thesis established cultures. 3. The DNA injected in this process is subjected to less extensive modifications. 4. Mere precise integration of techniques recombinant gene in limited copy number can be obtained.
2. Skilled personal required. 3.Has not been successful for many plant cells . 4. Embryonic cells preferred for manipulation. 5. Knowledge of mating timing, oocyte recovery is a argumentative, essential. 6. Method is useful for protoplasts and not for the walled cells. 7. Process causes random integration. 8. Rearrangement or deletion of essay techniques host DNA adjacent to site of integration are common.
9. Essay On America! The technique is laborious, technically difficult, and limited to the number of cells actually injected. Applications of grabber microinjection. 1. Process is applicable for plant cell as well as animal cell but more common for animal cells. 2. Consumer Problem Solving! Technique is ideally useful for producing transgenic animal quickly. 3. Procedure is important for gene transfer to grabber, embryonic cells. 4. Applied to inject DNA into plant nuclei. 5. Method has been successfully used with cells and my house essay, protoplast of. tobacco, alfalfa etc. Fig: microinjection in mouse egg. Biolistics or particle bombardment is essay, a physical method that uses accelerated microprojectiles to.
deliver DNA or other molecules into intact tissues and a argumentative, cells. Techniques! Biolistics transformation is relatively new and novel method amongst the physical methods for artificial transfer of exogenous DNA. The nucleic acid is my house on fire essay, delivered through membrane penetration at a high velocity, usually connected to microprojectiles like microscopic particles of tungsten or gold coated into cells using an grabber electrostatic pulse, air pressure, or gunpowder percussion. As the particles pass through the cell, the DNA becomes free to integrate into the plant-cell genome. The gene gun is a device that literally fires DNA into target cells . The DNA to be transformed. into the cells is coated onto microscopic beads made of either gold or tungsten. Beads are carefully. coated with DNA.
The coated beads are then attached to the end of the plastic bullet and loaded into. the firing chamber of the brief gene gun. An explosive force fires the bullet down the barrel of the gun. towards the target cells that lie just beyond the end of the barrel. When the bullet reaches the essay grabber techniques end of. the barrel it is caught and stopped, but the DNA coated beads continue on toward the target cells. Some of the beads pass through the cell wall into the cytoplasm of the target cells.
Here the bead and. the DNA dissociate and project computing, the cells become transformed. Grabber Techniques! Once inside the target cells, the DNA is. solubilised and may be expressed. 1. My House On Fire Essay! Biolistics technique has been used successfully to essay, transform soyabean, cotton, spruce, sugarcane, papaya, corn, sunflower, rice, maize, wheat, 2. Genomes of subcellular organelles have been accessible to genetic. manipulation by biolistic method. 3. Mitochondria of plants and chloroplast of chlamydomonas have been. 4. Method can be applied to filamentous fungi and yeast (mitochondria).
5. The particle gun has also been used with pollen, early stage. embryoids, meristems somatic embryos, plant cells, root section, seeds and pollen. 6. This approach has been shown to be effective for transferring transgenes into mammalian cells in vivo . 1. Requirement of project protoplast can be avoided. Unlike electroporation and essay grabber, microinjection, this technique does not require protoplasts or even single-cell isolations and is applicable to even intact plant tissue. 2. Walled intact cells can be penetrated. 3. Manipulation of genome of subcellular organelles can be achieved. 4. This is also a highly mechanized or robotic mediated technique in which the. speed of the micro-projectile particles is controlled by foolproof mechanisms.
5) It is also gaining in use as a method for transferring DNA construct into whole animals. 6) This technique is fast, simple and safe, and project for statistical, it can transfer genes to a wide variety of tissues. 7)there appears to be no limits to the size or number of genes that can be delivered. 1. Essay Grabber! Integration is brief on america, random. 2. Requirement of equipments. 3.It can be a challenge to obtain a sufficient number of cells modified by this method to see a biologically significant effect. A new technique is presented to incorporate exogeneous gene materials (DNA) into cells with a microbeam irradiation from an uv pulsed laser. Techniques! A frequency-multiplied Laser, 355 m wavelength, 5 ns pulse duration, punches a self-healing hole of submicrometer aperture in cell membrane under selected irradiation conditions.
At the site of the beam impact, due probably to local temperature changes, the cell membrane modifies its permeability. As a consequence of the hit, circular areas, whose radius may be apparently regulated by changing the irradiation time and/or the cover sheet for term paper radiation intensity (energy), appear on techniques, the wall, last for a short time and the r, fade spontaneously . It takes a fraction of essay grabber techniques a second for the aperture to close, long enough to allow the essay foreign DNA, contained in the medium, to slip into the cell. It is essay grabber techniques, well established that a strong pressure wave, known as a laser-induced stress wave (LISW), accompanies laser-induced plasma. We have extended their method to paper, deliver macromolecules, such as genes. Plasmid DNA (circular DNA residing in bacterial cytoplasm) is used as a vector of the gene of interest. Techniques! We inject the plasmid into target tissue, on which a laser target is placed, and subject the target to irradiation with a high-intensity, nanosecond laser pulse to induce plasma and hence an my house on fire essay LISW. By placing optically transparent material on the target, the plasma is confined, resulting in an increase in the LISW’s impulse.
Interaction of tissue cells with the LISW allows plasmid to enter the cytoplasm. 1) it only takes advantage of the presence of phenol-red, a normal cell medium component, with no need of addition of extraneous substances; (2) it is a very mild treatment virtually suitable for any cell type and. (3) it allows transfection of selected cells even in the presence of cells of different type (providing that they are morphologically distinguishable). 4) . it is essay, rapidly replacing virus mediated techniques as they have serious side effects caused by immune response and limited targeting characteristics rendering them inappropriate for problem clinical application. 5) The method offers a clear advantage over existing methods: increases the success rate of DNA transfection as well as the efficiency of cell modification by orders of magnitude. 6) . Essay Grabber! It enables minimally invasive tissue interaction. Thus there are a number of ways by a argumentative essay, which the genes can be introduced into the cells. Essay Techniques! With the the r advent of molecular tools and technologies it is now comparatively easy to introduce gene into cells without losing its integrity and essay grabber, biological activity. Moreover the recent development in molecular biology has made the transfer of gene with great accuracy to the target cell. The transfer of gene through different gene transfer technologies has cured a number of diseases. Research is on progress to cure those diseases which cannot be cured by using drugs.
Moreover the treatment of diseases by gene transfer provides better result for a prolong period of time. It is the the r for statistical need of essay grabber hour to discover new and cheap method of gene transfer technologies so to make the treatment of the cover diseases a little easier and affordable. Improvements in gene transfer are required in terms of transfection approaches to allow improved transgene uptake efficiencies. 1)Society of Applied Sciences. Gene Transfer Technologies and their Applications: K.H.KHAN.
Medical Biotechnology Division, School of Biosciences and Technology, VIT University, Vellore-632014, Tamil Nadu, India. 2)Principles of gene manipulation: R.W.Old ,S.B. Grabber! Primrose and R.M.Twymann ‘ sixth edition,chapter 10 and my house, 11. 3) BIOTECHNOLOGY 2020-From the Transparent Cell to. the Custom-Designed Process–Prof. Gerhard Kreysa Dr.-Ing. E.h. Dr.h.c.
Dr. R??diger Marquardt. 4) INTRODUCTION TOBIOTECHNOLOGY AND GENETIC ENGINEERING. 5)From genes to genomes- concepts and applications of essay grabber DNA technology–Jeremy W Dale, Malcom von Schantz. Search our thousands of essays: If this essay isn't quite what you're looking for, why not order your own custom Science essay, dissertation or piece of a argumentative coursework that answers your exact question? There are UK writers just like me on hand, waiting to help you. Each of us is essay, qualified to essay, a high level in our area of expertise, and we can write you a fully researched, fully referenced complete original answer to essay techniques, your essay question. Just complete our simple order form and you could have your customised Science work in your email box, in a argumentative essay as little as 3 hours. This Science essay was submitted to us by a student in order to help you with your studies. This page has approximately words.
If you use part of this page in your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: Gene transfer techniques – pros and cons . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/science/essay-gene-transfer-techniques-pros-and-cons/ [05-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to grabber techniques, have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 13-09-17 - The Human Genome project (HGP) 22-08-17 - Adeno associated virus (AAV) vectors 01-08-17 - Test methods on the alkali carbonate reaction in concrete - fluxonic diode - Identifying an unknown organism from a cell phone 05-07-17 - Risk factors for alcohol abuse in men who have sex with men 01-06-17 - Monsanto vs. the world 19-05-17 - Patterns formed by increasing the scale factor – maths 12-05-17 - Swine influenza infections 24-04-17 - Medicinal plants and wound healing. We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and coursework writing service.
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essays guienevere 12 December 2000. Lancelot and Guinevere: The Love Affair through the Ages. Any work of literature can be the result of many different influences and inspirations, but all pieces of literature are produced by at least two distinct sources. The first of these sources is the author himself, and essay grabber techniques the second is the society in which the author lives. The author as a source is intuitive, but the role of society in the crafting of brief essay on america, a piece of literature is less obvious. The premise on techniques which this assertion is consumer problem, based is that no person who has ever lived in a society is grabber techniques, completely independent of its influences. The R Project! Although this influence comes in varying degrees in different people, the prevailing trends, philosophies, technologies, and moralities of any historical period all have significant impact on the way in which people living during that period think. Sometimes this influence encourages divergence from the essay grabber norm, and at other times adherence to for term paper it; some societies encourage people to break free and think independently, while others encourage strict sameness in essay techniques, its citizens. On Fire! Authors, like any other people, are subject to this societal influence.
So, in turn, literary works are affected by the societies in which their writers live. Essay Grabber Techniques! This holds true whether or not a writer?s pieces are set in that same society; even when writing about essay, a new society, a fantastical society, or an old society, the quiet echoes of the author?s own society will always be present in the background. This trend can be best illustrated by reviewing stories that have been written by many different authors over many different historical periods. Although the number of stories that have survived retelling after retelling, century after century, is not large, there are isolated instances of stories that have been passed down and retold in almost every historical and essay grabber techniques literary period since the Middle Ages. My House On Fire! Many of the Arthurian legends have exhibited this kind of survivorship. In particular, the story of the adulterous love affair between Sir Lancelot, Arthur?s bravest knight, and Guinevere, Arthur?s queen, has been included in some form in almost every Arthur story since it was first invented, in Chr?tien de Troyes?s The Knight of the Cart. By following the evolution of how Lancelot and Guinevere?s relationship is depicted in Arthurian legends through the ages, and comparing these depictions to the societies in which the legends? writers were living, contemporary society?s importance on literary works can be demonstrated. Chr?tien de Troyes?s The Knight of the Cart Chr?tien de Troyes wrote the first known story depicting the adulterous affair between Guinevere and Lancelot around the year 1170 (Weigand 7). The subject was not of grabber, his own choosing, but rather of his patroness?s; in the second paragraph of this work he attests that the subject matter and meaning are furnished and given him by the countess, that is, Marie de Champagne of France (Chr?tien 207).
Marie was the daughter of Eleanor of Aquitaine, Queen of France during the early 12 th century. When Eleanor and cover sheet paper her husband Louis VII were divorced, she married Henry Plantagenet, who later became King Henry II (Eleanor of essay grabber, Aquitaine). With the power and influence she gained through being queen of two different countries during her lifetime, Eleanor was able to direct the artistic works that were being written in her court. She was especially fond of the works of traveling minstrels (called troubadours), because they romanticized and glorified women, waxing poetic on their beauty and charms (Whyland, Troubadour). Through patronizing such artists, Eleanor was almost single-handedly responsible for the creation of essay, medieval romance. Marie, daughter of Eleanor and Louis, followed her mother?s example, supporting her own legion of courtly writers and courtly lovers at essay grabber her home in Champagne. Chr?tien was just one of these writers, albeit one of the most well known today by virtue of the fact that he signed his works (Marie de Champagne) The Knight of the Cart, is the consumer romance in which he first describes the relationship between Guinevere and Lancelot.
Chr?tien?s Knight of the Cart begins with a challenge from a mysterious and grabber evil knight from distant lands. He challenges Arthur to send his best knight out to the field for a joust. If the stranger is consumer, victorious, he will claim Guinevere, but if he loses, he promises to essay grabber techniques return his hostages safely to Camelot. Sir Kay the essay Seneschal begs the king for this honor and is granted the essay right to be the queen?s champion, but he loses the battle with the mysterious knight, and in so doing loses the gemstone thesis queen. The noble Sir Gawain comes to the rescue, however; immediately upon hearing the news that the queen has been lost, he offers to go after her. He is joined almost immediately by an anonymous knight, who frantically rides on ahead, eager to save the lady Guinevere. This nameless knight (whom we later discover is essay, Sir Lancelot) rides his horse to death on the way to the queen, and Gawain soon overtakes him again at a cart being driven by a dwarf. In those days, riding in the back of a cart was a punishment for criminals, and so Lancelot hesitates a few seconds before he accepts the dwarf?s offer of a ride, but seeing as he no longer has a horse, he views this ignominy as the only way to reach the queen. My House On Fire! Ever after, even when his true identity is grabber, disclosed, he is known as The Knight of the Cart. The dwarf, who knows where the queen has been taken, takes Lancelot and Gawain (following on his horse) to a crossroads.
One of the cover sheet forks leads to an underwater bridge and the other to a bridge made of nothing but a naked sword blade. These, the dwarf assured the grabber techniques knights, were the only ways to reach the place where Guinevere is brief, being held captive. Gawain opts to essay grabber use the underwater bridge, while Lancelot takes the sword bridge path. During his journey, Lancelot has many adventures, and after much travail he reaches the castle where Guinevere is being held. By this point it has been made clear that Lancelot is in love with Guinevere, but when he bests Meleagant, the mysterious knight who has stolen her in the first place, she spurns Lancelot because of the two seconds he hesitated before boarding the cart. Eventually they are reunited, however; this comes after they have each been convinced of the other?s death, and realizes that in the absence of each other, their own lives are not worth living.
Guinevere is finally allowed to return to the court, but the wicked Meleagant still wishes a final battle with Lancelot. This battle, scheduled to take place in Arthur?s court, required both jousters to be present on an appointed day, lest they forfeit. Meleagant contrives to capture Lancelot, however, and brief essay on america walls him up in a tower so that he cannot reach Camelot on the prescribed day, thereby shaming his name. Lancelot is rescued by Meleagant?s own sister, and enraged, Lancelot returns to essay court. There he is granted his final battle with his enemy; he emerges victorious, and consumer Meleagant is killed in the fight (Troyes 207-294). The depiction of the love affair between Lancelot and essay grabber Guinevere in this story is very much the product of the brief essay on america society in which it was written.
The 12 th century was the age of essay techniques, courtly lovers, especially in the courts of my house essay, powerful ladies like Marie de Champagne. Essay! Time and again, Lancelot proves himself to be one of the greatest of all courtly lovers in this story; there are far too many instances of gemstone thesis, his courtliness to be covered in this brief analysis, but it would be worthwhile to mention a few of the more significant ones. For example, one of the most important objects any courtly lover carries with him is a token of his lady fair. Lancelot finds his token on the way to the sword bridge; it is a comb with a few strands of Guinevere?s golden hair still in its teeth. He gives the comb to the maiden with whom he rides, but the hair he keeps, carrying it underneath his armor, against techniques, his heart. He draws such joy from this token as befits a courtly lover; for example, He would not have traded it for a cart loaded with emeralds or carbuncles; nor did he fear that ulcers or any other disease could afflict him? (Troyes 235).
Only in the society of essay, courtly love would Lancelot?s arduous journey to the queen?s rescue be met with disdain; but indeed, Guinevere is techniques, ungrateful at cover sheet paper first for Lancelot?s efforts. After he has won her freedom, she declares, in truth he has wasted his efforts. Grabber! I shall always deny that I feel any gratitude towards him. Lancelot does not question this reaction at first; indeed, he believes that if she is angry with him, it must be for good cause (Troyes 256). This illustrates the fact that in the etiquette of essay, a courtly relationship, the lady had the power. The knight was subject to her commands; everything that he did and everything for which he fought had to be condoned by essay his lover, lest he lose her favor (Dillon).
If he displeases his love, a knight has no choice other than to try and cover win her favor back, pining for grabber her all the while. The very idea of an brief essay adulterous relationship between Lancelot and Guinevere comes from the tenets of courtly love. In Andreas Capellanus?s Art of Courtly Love , which was written for Marie de Champagne, a series of love trials brings a case before her in essay techniques, which she is asked whether love can exist between married people. Marie replies that in such cases, no true love can exist; meaning courtly lovers had to engage in adulterous relationships if they ever wished to enjoy the gemstone thesis fruits of true love (Capellanus 1990). Therefore, the idea of a relationship between Lancelot and Guinevere (which Marie invented herself) reflects the techniques opinion of 12 th century courtly love society; an adulterous relationship is normal by their standards. Some critics argue that Troyes was quite displeased with his patroness?s choice of subjects for this piece (Cohen 232). As evidence, they point out the fact that Chr?tien did not finish the work himself; he handed it to sheet paper another writer with his blessings: The clerk Godefroy de Lagny has put the final touches on The Knight of the Cart ; ?he did it with the approval of Chr?tien, who began it (Troyes 294). Techniques! Additionally, throughout the piece, Lancelot is constantly being tricked and bested by his antagonists, in such episodes as when he is made to believe that Guinevere is dead, or when he is project, trapped in the stone tower before the final fight with Meleagant. Finally, the grabber techniques introduction of the piece is almost an apology; he makes it clear that the patroness, not the writer, is the source of the story?s subject. On America! It is techniques, possible that Troyes was displeased by the adulterous relationship Marie had envisioned, and that he never wanted to gemstone thesis write the piece at all. Like the grabber techniques elements of courtly love society about which he wrote, this displeasure would also have sprung from the project computing society in which Troyes was living, particularly in its Church.
The Church was displeased with the lack of fidelity people of the 12 th century seemed to have for their spouses. Marriage as an institution was failing; in order to save their flock from essay techniques, further sin, the Church felt that it needed to take action. Essay! Therefore in techniques, the 12 th century, it added marriage to the list of on america, sacraments (Cohen 235). Techniques! When people were married, their bond was no longer merely legal; their contract was written before the Lord. If indeed contextual clues can be interpreted as Troyes?s lack of enthusiasm for his subject, this too would have been a result of the society in which his work was being written. Sir Thomas Malory?s Morte d?Arthur. Le Morte d?Arthur is probably the most important version of the a argumentative Arthurian legends ever to techniques be written. One of its greatest accomplishments is that it draws together many of the stories surrounding the consumer problem solving lives and adventures of King Arthur and his Knights of the Round Table into one cohesive narrative; at least nine different sources were consulted by its author. First published in 1485, it has survived up to the present as one of the most complete versions of the Arthurian legend (Loomis 169-171). Essay Grabber! The love affair between Lancelot and Guinevere is presented at essay length throughout the techniques narrative. Although it is not usually the central part of what is happening at King Arthur?s court, it is essay, ever present in essay, the background, and ultimately is the driving force towards Arthur?s decline and fall at the end of the piece.
The trouble with describing the sociological context during which Le Morte was being written is that the identity of the writer is unknown. There are at least three different candidates for the author, who identifies himself at project computing the end of the work only grabber techniques, as Thomas Malory, Knight. However, this mysterious author does provide us with one other important piece of a argumentative, information: that it was completed at the end of the ninth year of the reign of King Edward IV of England (Malory 531). This places the composition Le Morte in grabber, either 1469 or 1470, in England. Malory?s time was one of instability in government. Edward IV, head of the gemstone thesis house of York, had just come to the throne after the bitterly fought War of the Roses. He married a commoner and, displeased with the nobles at grabber techniques his court, attempted to replace them with more commoners, recently raised to noble positions. This angered the nobles, however, and he was overthrown for a brief time in 1470.
By 1471 he had regained his throne, where he reigned until his death in 1483 (Edward IV). Socially, the days of on fire essay, feudalism were drawing to a close; although the world was still very neatly divided into master and servant classes, the lines between them were not as extreme as they had been in centuries before. The ever-glorified knights in grabber techniques, shining armor still existed, but since the Hundred Years? War (which ended around 1453), they had begun fading away; archers were able to cut them down by the hundreds, ending their regime as the most powerful and elite soldiers in a kingdom?s arsenal. By the latter third of the 15 th century, nobles were pining for earlier, nobler days, while the peasant classes slowly paved the way for the bourgeoisie to form in gemstone thesis, the following centuries. Grabber Techniques! The only power that remained constant was in the hands of the Church, which would not suffer its first serious blow in authority until the Protestant Reformation, still over a century away (Hundred Years? War, Feudalism). The relationship between Lancelot and Guinevere in Le Morte , drawn strongly from sources that had drawn on Chr?tien himself, shares with its predecessor an abundance of the traditions of courtly love. Lancelot performs many deeds of gemstone thesis, chivalry in Guinevere?s name, and time and essay grabber again, throughout Le Morte , Lancelot weaves in and out of favor with his lady.
In contrast with Chr?tien?s Lancelot, however, Malory?s Lancelot is consumer problem, not primarily a lover; he is a fighter, as befits a knight being written about in the wake of the Hundred Years? War and the War of the Roses. Essay! To one of the ladies at consumer solving court, Lancelot says, I love not to be constrained to love?; this is certainly a different Lancelot than the one put forth in The Knight of the Cart (Malory 416). In Malory, the love between Lancelot and techniques Guinevere seems to exist for consumer problem solving one purpose only: to essay inspire Lancelot to problem solving perform chivalrous deeds in the name of his lady and of the court of Camelot. In fact, with the exception of the downfall of Arthur?s kingdom at the end of Le Morte , the love affair exists mostly as a background fact, rather than as a key point. Midway through Le Morte , the greatest quest of all the Arthurian knights begins: the quest for the Holy Grail. This magical cup, the one used in Jesus?s last supper, was brought to England by Joseph of Arimathea, according to legend. All of the knights of the realm took part in this quest, Lancelot among them. He has visions while searching for the Grail, and is told by one of the interpreters of his visions, for great pride though madest great sorrow that thou haddest not overcome all the white knights with the cover of white by whom was betokened virginity and chastity; and therefore God was wroth with you (Malory 300). Here his sin with Guinevere is essay, being held against him, but indirectly so; the people who warn him of consumer, his imminent failure in the Grail quest rarely mention it outright. Grabber! He attempts to repent of his love for Guinevere, hoping that will help him achieve the Grail, but failing this, he immediately goes back to sheet Guinevere upon returning to Camelot. Although in this instance Lancelot fails to be the greatest of knights, 15 th century influence is essay grabber techniques, clear in the seer?s interpretation of Lancelot?s dream, although it is unlikely that it was original to Malory.
That he includes this detail shows that progress since the 12 th century had been made, however: three centuries before, virginity and chastity were unnecessary virtues; here, by the power of the Church, they have been reestablished among the gemstone thesis traits necessary to be one of God?s chosen and most beloved knights. That the love affair is relatively undeveloped until the end of the work could hardly have been an accident on Malory?s part. As a knight himself, Malory would have been a member of the noble class whose social positions were being threatened during the time of Edward IV. In light of the Church?s power at the time, it would have been unwise of Malory to depict his social peers engaging in graphically adulterous relations, and so he downplays the adulterous elements of his material until they become necessary to the plot (MacBain 59-60). When Malory?s Lancelot and Guinevere consummate their love (although we are not led to assume that this is the first time), it is mentioned almost in grabber, passing: So, to pass upon this tale, Sir Launcelot went unto bed with the queen? (Malory 438).
In spite of this brief mention, Malory hedges on the point later, saying, whether they were abed or at other manner of disports, me list not hereof make no mention, for love that time was not as is nowadays (Malory 460). This is in reference to the scene in which Lancelot and Guinevere are caught in their love by Sir Mordred, although Lancelot, ever the noble knight, denies the the r for statistical allegations of treason that are levied upon him. Guinevere joins a nunnery nonetheless, and essay grabber the reign of King Arthur comes to a fiery end as Lancelot and Arthur?s supporters wage war against one another. It is important to note that none of the actual plot surrounding Lancelot and Guinevere?s love affair is original to Malory; for the most part, he remains faithful to his sources, imparting only those things that are written elsewhere. It is in the way in which he tells their story that the influence of his society on his writing can be seen.
Using Lancelot as the ideal nobleman, Malory uses glowing language whenever he talks of his adventures and trials. In a time during which commoners were threatening the gemstone thesis power of contemporary nobility, it is logical that Malory, a knight by his own admission, would present Lancelot in the best light he can muster. That, added to the omnipresent influence of the grabber Church, would do well to explain why Malory refuses to for statistical computing be explicit when describing Lancelot?s relationship with Guinevere. Instead, he hedges throughout; although everyone in Malory?s Camelot was aware of Lancelot and essay grabber Guinevere?s love for each other, whether they ever consummated their love is pointedly glazed over in Le Morte . Alfred, Lord Tennyson?s Guinevere By the nineteenth century, the lifestyles described in on america, Arthurian legends were no more. Knights no longer rode horses and grabber saved damsels; they were few, and those being knighted were scientists, writers, and other people who had made a significant contribution to the world around them, not fighters or courtly lovers. A series of revolutions had overthrown many aristocratic governments, and as time passed, the middle class became, by sheer weight of on america, numbers, quite powerful. The industrial revolution was in full swing, and factories were sprouting all over the western world, speeding England, America, and the other western countries into a new, modern age. During most of this time, Queen Victoria was in power in England.
Ascending to the throne in 1837, she ruled Britain, Ireland, and (eventually) India until her death in 1901. Her reign, which would come to be known as the Victorian era, strongly supported morality and ethics in everything. Victoria championed family values, obedience to the law, and social respectability in essay techniques, herself and in her subjects. Essay! Much of the artistic and literary output of England at the time reflected the philosophies of Victorianism, presenting the English social order of the day to the rest of the essay grabber world [Victoria (queen)]. The Idylls of the King by the r for statistical Alfred, Lord Tennyson is such a piece of grabber, literature, having been written in England during Victoria?s rule. Sheet For Term! Begun in 1859 and not completed until 1885, it is essay grabber, one of the most highly acclaimed versions of the Arthur stories since Malory?s Le Morte. Tennyson chose a different style of writing than had been used in other tellings of the Arthurian legends: he wrote episodically, in verse, keeping each of the stories independent of the others (Tennyson, Alfred, Lord). In one of these episodes, he writes specifically of the love affair between Sir Lancelot and Queen Guinevere and its effect on the fall of Camelot; its title, simply, is Guinevere. When Tennyson?s version of the story begins, Guinevere is already with the nuns at a argumentative essay Almesbury, anonymously in hiding because of the ensuing war between Arthur and Lancelot for her honor.
The first part of the poem is her reflection upon essay the events that have led up to brief her disgrace at techniques Camelot and in the eyes of her husband the king. Her troubles began when she and Lancelot are very nearly caught in their romance by Modred; Lancelot manages to pluck?him by the heel before he can see or hear any of sheet paper, their treasonous behavior, but it is certainly a close call. At first the essay grabber lovers laugh off the incident, but guilt and fear invade their thoughts, and my house on fire they try to swear that they will never see one another again. Essay Grabber! They find themselves unable to go so far, however, and essay instead they make secret plans to meet. Vivian, one of the queen?s ladies, overhears these plans, and takes them to Modred, who in turn catches Lancelot and Guinevere together.
They flee, and Guinevere takes sanctuary in the nunnery, never to be seen or heard from by essay techniques any of them again. Meanwhile, a novice in the nunnery, ignorant of Guinevere?s true identity, finds her weeping about her fate, and tries to comfort her. For Statistical Computing! Ironically, however, the novice uses Arthur?s sorrow as an example of extreme suffering, by whose example all other problems pale. Grabber! In spite of the child?s good intentions, Guinevere is not soothed, being the cause of the very sorrows the novice is describing to her. After their conversation is over, Arthur himself arrives at Almesbury, and a very repentant Guinevere cries on her knees as Arthur gives her both his woes and his forgiveness.
Afterwards, he leaves, and Guinevere repents of a argumentative essay, all she has done, having learned through her guilt and sorrow the evilness of what she has committed. The strict Victorian code of conduct is overwhelmingly present in this version of the story. Very clearly does Tennyson condemn Guinevere for her adulterous relationship with Lancelot, time and again: this is all woman?s grief,/That she is woman, whose disloyal life/Hath wrought confusion in the Table Round; so glad were spirits and men/Before the coming of the sinful Queen (Tennyson). Even Arthur, who claims to love her still, condemns her: Well is it that no child is born of thee./The children born of thee are sword and grabber techniques fire,/Red ruin, and the breaking up of laws (Tennyson). The R Project For Statistical Computing! Victorian society had no patience for adulterers, and even the legendary Guinevere could not escape their judgment. Interestingly, no actual details of the relationship between Lancelot and Guinevere are given in grabber, this poem. There is no indication or even implication that they may have engaged in intercourse; even Malory was more forthcoming on this point. This is yet another indication of 19 th century morality in this piece.
This morality is heightened still by the r computing Arthur?s assertion, O Guinevere,/For I was ever virgin save for thee (Tennyson). Few, if any, other versions of the Arthurian legends pretend this level of chastity in King Arthur; in fact, most versions, including Le Morte , cite him as the techniques father of Sir Mordred with another woman, the product of his own adultery. My House Essay! In this version Tennyson writes a King Arthur with whom a 19 th century Victorian could identify; a blameless, upright man, who remains as sinless as possible under the eyes of God. The legend rewritten, Guinevere takes most of the grabber blame?and the essay pain?for her downfall. Although this is essay grabber, only a brief overview of the consumer solving works in which the love affair between Lancelot and Guinevere is described, it is clear that the story has changed much through the grabber techniques ages. Cover Paper! Its plot certainly has changed with retellings, but the details of the relationship, as well as the essay grabber techniques tone with which it is described, have changed with the times as well. These latter changes have been caused by the changes in the authors? societies themselves. My House On Fire Essay! Even more modern versions of the story have more modernized descriptions; the relationship becomes more sexual and less condemned as time goes by.
In examining these and other works, it becomes clear that the techniques society in which an author is solving, writing has much influence on how he describes his subjects and tells his stories. Essay Techniques! Lancelot and consumer Guinevere is only one example of this phenomenon; likely, it exists in literature wherever stories are retold time and again. Arnstein, Walter. Victoria (queen). Encarta CD-ROM Encyclopedia . Microsoft: 1999. Capellanus, Andreas.
The Art of Courtly Love . Essay Grabber! New York: Columbia UP, 1990. Cazel, Fred A. Feudalism. Encarta CD-ROM Encyclopedia . Microsoft: 1999. Cohen, Jeffrey Jerome. Masoch/Lancelotism. New Literary History 28 (1997): 231-260. Edward IV. Encarta CD-ROM Encyclopedia . Microsoft: 1999. Eleanor of Aquitaine. World Book Encyclopedia Online . Online. Internet.
11 December 2000. Henneman, John Bell. Hundred Years? War. A Argumentative Essay! Encarta CD-ROM Encyclopedia . Essay Grabber Techniques! Microsoft: 1999. Loomis, Roger Sherman. The Development of Arthurian Romance . Brief Essay On America! London: Hutchinson University Library, 1963. Malory, Sir Thomas. Le Morte d?Arthur . Essay Grabber Techniques! Janet Cowen ed.
London: Penguin Books, 1986. Marie de Champagne. Encyclopedia Britannica Online . Online. Internet. 11 December 2000. Macbain, Danielle Morgan. The Tristramization of Malory?s Lancelot. English Studies 1993: pp 57-65.
Tennyson, Alfred, Lord. Encarta CD-ROM Encyclopedia . Microsoft: 1999. Tennyson, Alfred Lord. Guinevere. Gemstone Thesis! Online. Internet. 23 October 2000. Troubadour. World Book Encyclopedia Online . Online. Grabber Techniques! Internet. 11 December 2000.
Troyes, Chr?tien de. Arthurian Romances . London: Penguin Books, 1991. Weigand, Herman. Three Chapters on Courtly Love in Arthurian France and Germany. Chapel Hill: U of North Carolina P, 1956.