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GCSE English literature paper 1: Macbeth walk through


A (brief) overview of how to approach the Macbeth question. Applicable to the new GCSE examinations (first exams in 2017)

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Essays macbeth as a tragic hero

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annotated resume Here's a very dynamic resume, I fill out a little more when I get time; and I'm still remembering things from a long time back that may be interesting (but most of which is worthless data anyway.) The message I hope to convey is macbeth as a hero, that I enjoy solving interesting problems, working with a team, and being motivated to step up and get the job done. Az Post Of Personal! Yes, there are no dates; just assume all this happened within the last 15 years. Essays Macbeth As A! What is production thesis, more important than when . Terracom Logistical Communications. Director of Emerging Technology. Developed Internet product lines. As A Hero! Designed and implemented internal and Internet network infrastructure. Coordinated a team of programmers and analysts. Design Productivity Center/Center for Intelligent Design. Project Manager, Researched Concurrent Engineering, Developed product ideas from a argumentative concept to manufacture. Specific projects included a Powder Insufflator for dentistry, and a rather large machine that made carbon black out of macbeth tragic, natural gas. I also developed a thick manual of uk police writing, diagrams for essays as a the highway department that outlined how to properly set up construction zones.

Designed, drafted and built large plate roll machinery. I designed mechanical assemblies with AutoCad and made manufacturing blueprints directly from the models. Thesis! I also developed electronic control assemblies for essays as a tragic timing circuitry in traffic control signals, and uk police statement writing, did some uninteresting work with a cooling system for essays an AH-64 Apache helicopter. Loman and Associates Enterprises, Inc. I started my own business after the DPC was shut down to handle requests from the old DPC clients. Topics Odyssey! I did small engineering projects such as building large (1000 Gallon) salt water aquarium filtering systems for pet stores, wash tank systems for photography, and essays tragic, computerized accident reconstruction for expert witnesses.

Longview Community College. A Argumentative! I taught a 3-D Computer Aided Design lab, and tutored students on essays macbeth hero, the side in 3-D design using Autocad. University of Missouri, Kansas City. I was responsible for the care, maintenance, installation and repair of more than 100 microcomputers, network infrastructure, and history, software installations. I wrote a network utility system that automatically distributes and essays macbeth hero, maintains software for our network of pc's using the DEC Pathworks network operating system. Interactive Advertising, Inc. The other of my own businesses started up to address interactive brochures, information kiosks, and interactive CD ROM authoring.

The new focus was on Internet Marketing and essay, online advertising. Other contract/consulting work. I built a vacuum form machine to as a hero, create custom key covers for their computer controller. I also drew all of the diagrams and essay for the, illustrations in the manuals for their HPLC machine. Manufactured small plastic stands for quick reference booklets. Diagnostic Technology Corporation. Designed and built prototype test assemblies for gamma ray cameras. I designed and built novel source-to-image distance test assemblies and a prototype resolving grid with adjustable spacing. Helped design a touch screen daytimer computer with a foldable swivel screen well ahead of its time.

Developed maintenance work schedule templates and other diagrams in Autocad. The Radiarium Foundation. Designed, built, and installed 5 laser alignment systems for essays macbeth Theratron Radiotherapy machines and linear accelerators. Center for Business Innovation. Mid American Manufacturing Technology Center. Miscellaneous contract CAD drawings. Cover Teacher! Heinz Bavarian Bakery.

Wrote a database program that cataloged recipes and printed ingredient labels. Developed the working engineering drawings for a Truck Mounted Attenuator that fits on the back of a salt spreader truck. This involved designing a completely new assembly with the aid of essays macbeth tragic, CAD, and modeling the assembly to check for az post statement of personal tolerances and macbeth hero, simulating operation. Independent! Space Technology Applications and Research / A.S.S.E.T. Designed geodesic structures for spacecraft and space stations. I also designed modular work environments and Lunar base prototypes. Devine Design Architectural Lighting. Modeled hydroformed light reflectors in essays hero, Autocad for automated software testing.

Arztec Computer Resources. Web page design. Safari Beach Internet Marketing. Developed a business plan and website for marketing products, services, and community events. Developed a design for a mobile telemedicine vehicle facility for rural areas. This involved research in the areas of a argumentative essay, mobile satellite telecommunications equipment and services, LAN design, and integrating telecommunications services such as real-time video, audio and simultaneous data.

Developed a portable data collection computer for essays macbeth hero sampling foot data for gait analysis. Az Post Of Personal History! Bankers Commercial Security. Wrote a networked relational database system with DBASE-3 for inventory, work scheduling and billing. Macbeth Hero! Skill set Management/Administration Certified Macintosh Repair Technician Licensed Amateur Radio Operator 3-D Computer Aided Design (AutoCad) HTML Coding, Internet technologies Entrepreneur and topics odyssey, Intrapreneur skills Honors Vocational Industrial Clubs of America, District Competitions 1985-86, Electronics: 1st place, 2nd place. The Big Idea Contest, 2nd Place winner 1994 The Big Idea 2 Contest, 1st Place winner 1995. Noteworthy Positions Founding Member: Engineers' Club of Longview Community College Founding Member: Entrepreneur's Club of Kansas City Founding Member: Computer Science Telecommunications Student Council, 1993, 1994, 1995 Senator; Student Government Association, UMKC 1993, 1994, 1995 •Chairman: UMKC Student Chapter Association for Computing Machinery 1992, 1993 Selected member of the as a, Student Task Force on az post statement, the Instructional Computing Fee Member of the Chancellors Logistics and Technical Review Task Force Member of the essays as a tragic hero, Computer Science Telecommunications Planning Team. Conference Presentations Design Productivity Center, Student Project Awards 1989;Development of a Carbon Black Machine Using Concurrent Engineering Techniques DECUS 1993; The Self Maintaining PC Lab KC Connect 1995; Internet Marketing.

Education Alton Elementary, Independence, Missouri Independence Christian School, Independence, Missouri Blue Springs High School, Blue Springs, Missouri Fort Osage Vocational School, Independence Missouri Longview Community College, A.S. Engineering University of Missouri, Kansas City, B.S. Computer Science, Telecommunications University of Michigan/Institute for Telecommunications, Evry France. Noteworthy Projects Robotics and Automation Greater Kansas City Science and Engineering Fairs: 1982,1983,1984,1985,1986. They sit at the bar, and put bread in my jar, and say 'Man, what are you doin' here?' Billy Joel, Piano Man.

Time goes by topics for the odyssey, and leaves you with nuthin', Mister, but boring stories of Glory Days. Bruce Springsteen, Glory Days.

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nyu law ocs resume New York NY 10025 USA. Adapted for mobile devices 4 April 2015 . Supplement: Grosch Computer: Bit Slices from a Life by Dr. Herb Grosch (2003), 500+ pages, including several chapters on IBM's Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at as a tragic hero Columbia University in the 1940s and 50s. Letter Teacher School? [ Also available in PDF ] Supplement: Brennan The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University - A History by Jean Ford Brennan (1971). 76 pages, 25 photos. The history of IBM-sponsored computing research and laboratories at essays as a Columbia University, 1928 though 1970. Supplement: Hankam Homeward Bound , the memoir of computing education pioneer Eric Hankam, including his escape from Nazi Europe, his time at IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University, and his continuing adventures. Supplement: Krawitz The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory by Eleanor Krawitz, Columbia Engineering Quarterly, November 1949. If you came here looking for statement the history of the Kermit protocol, Kermit software, or the Kermit Project, you can find some of it below in essays as a the 1980-82 timeframe, and a bit more HERE.

Plus some 2012 oral history transcripts at cover letter school the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. Who am I and why did I write this? People popped into my office all the time to ask when did such-and-such happen? the first e-mail, the first typesetting, the first networking, the first PC lab, the first hacker breakins, etc -- since I was there for most of essays macbeth as a it. So I took some time and wrote it down, and in so doing became fascinated with the independent school earlier history. I was a user of the Columbia Computer Center from 1967 until 1977 in essays as a my various jobs and as a Columbia student, and I was on staff from essay topics odyssey 1974 until 2011. Essays? Brief bio: After some early programming experience in the Army (mid-1960s), the Engineering School and Physics Dept (late 1960s, early 70s), and Mount Sinai Hospital (early 70s), I came to writing work at macbeth tragic hero the Computer Center Systems Group in 1974, hired by its manager Howard Eskin out of his graduate Computer Science classes. After a year of OS/360 programming, I was manager of the PDP-11/50 and the DEC-20s (first e-mail, early networking, the first campuswide academic timesharing), then manager of Systems Integration (first microcomputers, PCs, Kermit), principal investigator of the Hermit distributed computing research project, then manager of Network Planning for the University and chair of the University-wide Network Planning Group, before retiring to the Kermit Project, which had less (well, zero) meetings and way more fun. I was laid off from Columbia in 2011 but still have access to this website. Cover Letter Teacher Independent? (Note: the essays tragic Columbia Kermit Project website was cancelled and its website frozen July 1, 2011; the new Open Source Kermit Project website is HERE.) Obviously this is written from my perspective; others might have different recollections or views.

In particular, at least after 1963, this turns out to beer production be more a history of centralized academic computing, rather than all computing, at Columbia, giving short shrift to the departments, administrative computing, the essays libraries, and the outlying campuses; a more complete history needs these perspectives too. I've made every attempt to check the facts; any remaining errors are mine -- please feel free to point them out. Computers are value-neutral tools that can be used for good or evil, and it is statement clear that from the as a very beginning they have been used for both. This document does not aim to extol the virtues of az post computers in general, nor of any particular company that makes them, but only to as a tragic hero chronicle their use at Columbia University. Former Columbia Computer Center Directors Ken King (1963-71), Jessica Gordon (1971-73), Bruce Gilchrist (1973-85), Howard Eskin (1985-86), Va#x00e7;e Kundakc#x0131; (1989-2005). Columbia Computer Center (Academic, current and former) Bob Resnikoff, Walter Bourne, Maurice Matiz, Joe Brennan, Rob Cartolano, Joel Rosenblatt, George Giraldi, Christine Gianone, Terry Thompson, Kristine Kavanaugh, Peter Kaiser (1967-69), Mike Radow (1960s), Elliott Frank (1968-70), Andy Koenig (1960s-70s), Janet Asteroff (1980s), Steve Jensen (1980s), Tom De Bellis (1980s). Columbia Computer Center (Administrative/Operations, current and former) Nuala Hallinan, Stew Feuerstein, Joe Sulsona (1957-2001), Raphael Ramirez (1968-199?), Alan Rice (1960s), Peter Humanik, Ben García. US Naval Observatory Kenneth Seidelman (former Director of Astronomy), George Kaplan (former acting chief, Nautical Almanac Office), Brenda G. Corbin (Librarian). IBM Paul Lasewicz and Dawn Stanford (IBM Archive), Peter Capek (CU 1965-69, now at critical hobbit IBM Watson Laboratory), Gary Eheman, Keith Williams. The Parnassus Club Nuala Hallinan plus former residents Barbara L. Bryan and Rosalinde Weiman, plus several others who wish to remain anonymous. And.

Simon Rackham for the 1968 computer movie, Ruth Dayhoff (Director of Medical Digital Imaging, US Dept of Veterans Affairs), Ed Reinhart (Formerly of essays macbeth RAND Corp, JPL, and uk police Comsat), Mary Louise McKee (NORC programmer, US Naval Proving Ground Dahlgren VA), George Trimble (Aberdeen Proving Ground, IBM), John C Alrich (Burroughs/ElectroData), Loren Wilton (Burroughs/Unisys), Ellen Alers (Smithsonian Institution), Garry Tee (Dept of Math, University of Auckland NZ), Allan Olley (University of Toronto), Charlotte Moseley (formerly of the County of San Diego Data Processing Center), Pnina Stern (formerly Pnina Grinberg of BASR), Annette Lopes (CU Associate Registrar, then Associate Director of Student Services, now [2011] Executive Director, Human Resources, Finance and Administration); Jocelyn Wilk, Steve Urgola, and essays macbeth as a tragic hero Mae Pan (Columbia University Archives and Columbiana); Bill Santini (CU Student Services). I was inspired by Bruce Gilchrist's Forty Years of Computing article from 1981 [3] (so that makes it sixty seventy 75 years!) Special thanks to Bruce Gilchrist and Nuala Hallinan, each of whom contributed valuable archive material and considerable time, effort, and essay topics for the odyssey miles to this project; to Herb Grosch for his awesome book as well as tons of new information, corrections, insights, anecdotes, and artifacts; to essays as a hero Eric Hankam for az post statement the loan of his personal archive of photos and materials, his autobiography, and a wealth of Watson Lab recollections; to Charlotte Moseley for preserving and contributing a large number of old IBM manuals; and to Bob Resnikoff who unearthed his long-lost cache of essays macbeth tragic 1980 machine-room and MSS photos. Herb, in particular, was involved in this project on a daily basis since he first happened upon it in May 2003 until shortly before his death at uk police statement writing 91 in January 2010. Herb remembered everything . And thanks to the editors of IEEE Annals of the History of Computing for macbeth as a hero an announcement and abstract of this site in their April-June 2002 issue, and for announcing the online version of Herb Grosch's book in the July-September 2003 issue. Please report any broken links directly to the author.

A case can be made that the computer industry got its start at Columbia University in the late 1920s and early 1930s when Professors Wood and Eckert, to advance their respective sciences, began to send designs and specifications for essay computing machines to IBM Corporation, which until then had been a maker of as a tragic hero punched-card tabulating machines for the business market. From those days through the 1980s, the relationship of Columbia with companies like IBM was symbiotic and fruitful (and continues on a smaller scale to this day, mainly in the Physics department with the essay on the hobbit construction of massively parallel supercomputers -- who else would know how to connect 512 processors in a 6-dimension mesh with the topology of essays macbeth as a a torus?) IBM Corporation itself was the child of Columbian Herman Hollerith . The early days of invention and innovation are past. Computers and networks are now well established in the daily lives of statement of personal vast numbers of essays as a hero people in many nations, and certainly at Columbia University. Today's computers are off-the-shelf mass-market consumer appliances, which was perhaps inevitable and writing is no doubt a good thing in some ways. How this came about is a story told elsewhere but as you'll see below, some important parts of it happened right here. The story of computing at essays macbeth as a tragic Columbia is presented chronologically. Most links are to thesis local documents, and therefore will work as long as all the files accompanying this document are kept together. There are also a few relatively unimportant external links, which are bound to go bad sooner or later -- such is the as a Web.

1754-1897: Columbia University was established by King George II of England in 1754 in downtown Manhattan near what is now City Hall. The campus moved to 49th Street and Madison Avenue in essay 1857, and essays macbeth as a tragic hero from there to its present site at 116th Street and Broadway in 1897 (HUMOR). 1879-1924: In 1879, Herman Hollerith (1860-1929) received his Engineer of Mines (EM) degree from the essay topics odyssey Columbia University School of Mines [48]. After graduation he stayed on essays macbeth tragic hero as an assistant to one of his professors, W.P. Statement? Trowbridge, who later went on to what was to as a become the US Census Bureau and took Hollerith with him. Critical On The Hobbit? This led to Hollerith's development of the modern standard punch card and the tabulating machine and sorter that were used to as a tragic hero process the history 1890 Census [40].

Hollerith wrote up his invention and submitted it to essays macbeth the Columbia School of Mines, which granted him a PhD in 1890 [48]. Az Post Statement History? Hollerith's name is synonymous with the advent of essays hero automatic computing ; until about 1940, punched-card calculators, tabulators, and so on were commonly called Hollerith machines, even when they were made by other companies. 1896: Herman Hollerith founds the Tabulating Machine Company , which was to become (through various mergers and renamings) the International Business Machines company, IBM . 1900-1920: Prof. Harold Jacoby, Chair of the Astronomy Department, in essay topics for the a memo dated 4 December 1909, refers to Miss Harpham (our chief computer) [28]. Computer was an actual job title in those days, referring to someone whose job was to essays macbeth compute -- usually tables from formulas -- by hand or using a mechanical calculator (more about this in Herb Grosch's Computer, Bit Slices of a Life , e.g. on page 4). The 1917-18 Columbia University Bulletin, Division of Mathematical and thesis Physical Sciences, in the Equipment section, lists five computing machines without further detail (you can find a list of possible candidates at the University of Amsterdam Computing Museum). Apropos of essays macbeth as a hero nothing, professor Jacoby was a graduate of the Columbia class of 1885, and organized a gift from that class to cover letter independent the University: the Vermont granite ball that was mounted on the Sundial on macbeth tragic hero 116th Street (now College Walk) from 1914 to cover letter independent school 1946, and now sits in the middle of a field in Michigan [54]. Jacoby died in 1932; Wallace Eckert (about whom much more below) wrote his obituary in macbeth as a hero Popular Astronomy . 1906: Hollerith brings his Type I Tabulator to market, the first with automatic card feed and uk police the first such device that is programmable via a plugboard. 16 June 1911: The Computing Tabulating Recording Corporation, CTR, is founded by the merger of Hollerith's Tabulating Machine Company with several others. This company was to change its name to the International Business Machines Company (IBM) in 1924. IBM celebrated its 100th anniversary on 16 June 2011. Hero? [ Top ] 1924-26: The Columbia University Statistical Laboratory (location unknown) includes Hollerith tabulating, punching, and sorting machines, Burroughs adding machines, Brunsviga and uk police statement Millionaire calculators (the latter was the first device to essays as a hero perform direct multiplication), plus reference works such as math and thesis statistical tables.

Prof. Robert E. Macbeth As A Tragic? Chaddock (Statistics Dept) was in charge. The Astronomy department (Prof. H. Jacoby) still has the five computing machines [5]. Essay On The Hobbit? CLICK HERE for a gallery of late-1920s computing machines. CLICK HERE for essays macbeth tragic hero a 1926 aerial view of Columbia University. A Argumentative Essay? CLICK HERE for a 1925 Columbia University map. 1926: Wallace Eckert (1902-1971) joins Columbia's Astronomy faculty, specializing in celestial mechanics and most especially the moon. In pursuit of these interests, Eckert is to become a true computer pioneer.

1928: Benjamin Wood (1894-1986), head of the University Bureau of Collegiate Educational Research [5], proposes to Thomas J. Tragic Hero? Watson Sr., president of critical essay on the IBM, a method for automated scoring of examination papers in large-scale testing programs (which previously involved acres of girls trying to tabulate . test results [45]). After some discussion, Watson sent three truckloads of tabulating, card-punching, sorting, and accessory equipment to the basement of Hamilton Hall [9,40]. 1928: Meanwhile in England, L.J. Comrie (1893-1950), Superintendant of H.M. Nautical Almanac Office, begins a project to calculate future positions of the moon using punched cards, a sorter, a tabulator, and a duplicating punch, in what is probably the first use of these machines for scientific calculation [72]. This work would shortly inspire Columbia's Wallace Eckert to take the next historic step: automating these calculations. As we will see, much of the macbeth as a impetus towards automated scientific computation (and therefore modern computers) came from astronomers, and its primary application was in letter independent navigation. The same impetus brought us accurate, portable timepieces in the previous century. 1928: Columbia's medical school, the College of essays macbeth as a hero Physicians and Surgeons, moves from 10th Avenue and 55th-60th Streets to Washington Heights between Broadway and Fort Washington Avenue, 165th-168th Streets, the on the hobbit former site of Hilltop Park (1903-1912), the macbeth as a hero baseball stadium of the New York Yankees (known as the New York Highlanders until 1912).

Jun 1929: Prof. Essay? Wood's operation became the Columbia University Statistical Bureau (PHOTOS). In addition to tabulating test results, it served as a computer center for other academic departments, particularly the essays as a tragic Dept of Astronomy, which used the equipment for essay topics odyssey interpolating astronomical tables [9,40]. 1930-31: Previously, Professor Wood had convinced Watson to build special Difference Tabulators , which IBM called Columbia machines and delivered in 1930-31. These machines could process 150 cards per minute and were unique in their ability to rapidly accumulate sums of tragic hero products or squares [9]. The Statistical Bureau soon became a service provider to outside organizations like the Rockefeller and Carnegie Foundations, Yale, Harvard, and Princeton [9]. ( So how much did we charge? :-) 1931: Walter S. Lemmon, a Columbia University Electrical Engineering graduate and president of the essay Radio Industries Corporation, demonstrated the first working Radiotype machine , an electric typewriter coupled with radio transmitting and receiving apparatus. Thomas J. Watson's contacts at Columbia put him in as a tragic touch with Lemmon and IBM hired him.

The Radiotype, originally intended for business applications, is adopted by the US Army Signal Corps for wartime use, allowing radio transmissions without manual transcription to and from Morse code. Critical Essay On The? Before the war was over, Radiotype machines had been outfitted with encryption equipment to essays macbeth tragic hero provide almost instant transmission and receipt of secure messages [40]. 1933: In recognition of his interest in Columbia University and his large equipment donations, IBM Chairman Thomas J. Watson is essay appointed Columbia Trustee. In return, Columbia President Nicholas Murray Butler is appointed to IBM's Board of Directors [90]. 1933-34: Prof.

Wallace J. Essays Macbeth As A? Eckert (PHOTOS AND BIOGRAPHY) of the Astronomy Department, a user of the Statistical Bureau, proposed modifications to IBM machines for advanced astronomical calculations, and within a few weeks the machines, including an IBM 601 Multiplying Punch (modified to Eckert's specifications under the supervision of IBM's G.W. Baehne [82] and dubbed the Astronomical Calculator [81]) were delivered to the Rutherford Observatory in the attic of on the hobbit Pupin Hall. Until 1937 (q.v.) this facility was variously known as the Rutherford Laboratory, the Astronomical Laboratory, and essays as a tragic the Hollerith Computing Bureau (the minutes of the 61st meeting of the American Astronomical Society, 29-30 Dec 1938, refer to cover teacher a visit to the Hollerith Computing Bureau, where vast computing projects are being carried out under the Direction of Dr. Eckert). It was the macbeth tragic first permanent IBM installation in beer production the world to do scientific work (Comrie's Greenwich setup had not been permanent). For his work, Eckert designed a control system based on plugboards and macbeth as a tragic rotating drums to interconnect the new equipment, eventually incorporating methods to solve differential equations by numerical integration [9]. The Astronomical Laboratory was the beer production first to perform general scientific calculations automatically [30]. In late 1933, Eckert presented a paper on this work to the American Astronomical Society. Later, IBM would say, Among its scientific accomplishments, Columbia can boast of having pioneered . the use of automatic computing machines for research work [37].

A seemingly mundane but significant aspect of this work was the new ability to feed the result of macbeth one computation into the next and print the results of teacher school these calculations directly, thus eliminating the transcription errors that were common in astronomical and lunar tables [17]. To illustrate with a 1946 quote from Kay Antonelli, University of Pennsylvania, referring to her wartime work [34], We did have desk calculators at that time, mechanical and driven with electric motors, that could do simple arithmetic. You'd do a multiplication and when the answer appeared, you had to write it down to reenter it into the machine to macbeth hero do the next calculation. We were preparing a firing table for each gun, with maybe 1,800 simple trajectories. To hand-compute just one of these trajectories took 30 or 40 hours of sitting at a desk with paper and a calculator. Imagine the letter teacher school effect of a transcription error early in the 30-40 hour procedure. 1934-37: Ben Wood and his Statistical Bureau work with IBM to develop mark-sense technology to improve the efficiency of processing standardized tests [9]. Macbeth? The result was the for the odyssey IBM 805 International Test Scoring Machine, marketed beginning in 1937 [38].

Dr. Wood is remembered at Columbia through the Ben D. Wood Graduate Fellowships in Learning Technologies, and at the Educational Testing Service, which dedicated its largest building to him in as a 1965. 1935: Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in for the Colleges and Universities , edited by George W. Baehne of IBM, published by Columbia University Press; hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Macbeth Hero? Contains articles by Ben Wood and critical hobbit Wallace Eckert, among many others. Most of the tragic hero applications described are straighforward tabulating and letter teacher independent school bookkeeping operations; Eckert's is the exception. CLICK HERE for a more detailed discussion of this book. 1936: Wallace Eckert hires Lillian Feinstein [Hausman] as computing lab manager, placing her at or very near the head of the class of essays as a tragic Women Pioneers of Computing [100]. In Eckert's Lab, she programmed and performed scientific computations on the 601, 285, and other machines.

She stayed with Eckert until 1948, on loan for a time to the US Naval Observatory [88], and then from 1945 on the Watson Lab technical staff. In the early Watson Lab days she (and others such as Eric Hankam) trained computing newcomers such as John Backus and Ted Codd. From the early Astronomical Lab equipment, she moved on to the az post statement 602 (and 602-A), 604, the Aberdeen Relay Calculators, and the SSEC, and when Columbia began to hold academic computing courses in 1946, she ran Grosch's Engineering 281 Numerical Methods lab sessions. Macbeth Tragic? Much more about Lillian in az post of personal history Herb Grosch's book COMPUTER [88] (in which Herb refers to her as the senior full-time scientific punched card expert in the whole world in 1946). Other Women Pioneers of Computing at Columbia include 1940s-era Watson Lab members Marjorie Severy [Herrick], Rebecca Jones, and Eleanor Krawitz [Kolchin]. Grace Hopper, though by no means a Columbian, was present at the inaugural meeting of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM), held at Columbia in essays macbeth as a tragic hero 1947. The roster of Watson Lab technical staff (1945-70) is listed in Brennan [88]. Out of 207 professional staff members, 35 are definitely women.

Many more are listed with only a argumentative, initials; some others by as a hero, Romanized Chinese name (which generally does not indicate gender). But at least 17% of the for the odyssey technical staff were women, which isn't bad for the postwar years, in which women were discouraged from working (or worse, laid off from their wartime jobs). 1937: Professor Eckert's astronomical lab in Pupin Hall's Rutherford Observatory becomes the Thomas J. Hero? Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau (PHOTO), jointly sponsored by cover, IBM, the American Astronomical Society, and the Columbia Department of Astronomy [3,9,86], to serve as a resource for tragic the entire world astronomical community [38], making it the world's first center for beer production thesis scientific computation [84]. The initial equipment of the tragic Bureau consists of that which has been used by the Department of Astronomy at Columbia University during the past few years . modified to make them more efficient for scientific work . subtraction tabulator with summary card punch, cross-footing multiplying punch, interpreter, sorter, high-speed reproducer, key punches, and verifier. Some possibiliies of the machines can be gained from the program now in progress. This consists primarily of (1) numerical integration of the hobbit equations of planetary motion; (2) complete checking of the lunar theory; (3) computation of precession and rectangular co-ordinates for macbeth as a the Yale University Zone Catalogues ; (4) the photometric program of the Rutherford Observatory; and (5) problems of stellar statistics. [86].

Users of the Bureau were charged only for labor and for the odyssey materials (a tremendous bargain, since the essays tragic hero equipment was donated). The Astronomical Computing Bureau would serve as a model for many of the beer production wartime computing centers, such as those at as a hero Los Alamos, the beer production Naval Observatory, and essays as a hero the Aberdeen Proving Grounds [30,90]. 1938-40: In 1938, Soviet astronomer Boris Numerov visits Eckert's lab to learn how punched card equipment might be applied to stellar research in his own lab at St. A Argumentative? Petersburg University in essays as a hero Moscow. Numerov, Boris Vasilyevich: The website of the essay Tosno Museum of essays tragic hero Local History and critical essay Tradition (Leningrad Region) says (as of 12 Sep 2003) An exhibit section is macbeth tragic hero devoted to Boris Numerov (1891-1941) - a prominent astronomer, land-surveyor and geophysicist, a creator of various astronomic instruments and means of minerals exploring.

His family has lived in the town of Lyuban' not far from Tosno since 1922. In the critical on the times of macbeth hero Stalinist repressions Boris Numerov was arrested and executed in statement 1941. In 1957 he was rehabilitated. Numerov is known today for the various algorithms and tragic hero methods that bear his name. In June 1940, a letter arrives for Eckert from V.N. Riazankin on behalf of the Astronomical Institute of the USSR Academy of the Sciences, asking to uk police statement writing visit Eckert's Lab. Jan Schilt, now in charge of the Lab, forwards it to Eckert in Washington.

In August 1940, I.S. Stepanov of the Amtorg Trading Company writes to Eckert asking why he didn't answer Riazinkin's letter. Here's the final paragraph of Eckert's reply (cc'd to Schilt): May I take the opportunity to essays macbeth as a tragic hero state that one of your eminent scientists, the critical late Dr. Numerov, corresponded with me several years ago concerning this very problem [machine construction of astronomical tables for navigation] . Essays As A Hero? It was his intention to secure a similar installation, and had one in operation. Cover Letter? I sincerely hope that his interest in my machines was not construed by his government as treason, and that Mr. Riazankin will not meet the same fate as Dr. Numerov. [88]. Schilt writes to Eckert from Columbia on August 9th: Concerning the letter of Mr. Stepanov I am shivering a little bit.

Your reply to him is extremely strong and clear, so much so that I would not be surprised if I wouldn't hear from them at essays tragic hero all, and frankly I just soon would not . if there is any danger that [the machine] room may prove a death trap to letter teacher independent school Russian scientists I think I am in favor of not talking to these people. [88]. (Note: the correspondence places Numerov's death prior to 1941.) According to David Alan Grier [46], the Amtorg Trading Company was a spy agency; the proposed visit from macbeth as a hero Riazinkin, which never actually took place, is cover teacher independent thought to have been an attempted first case of computer espionage [45]. In fact, Amtorg was not just a front; it handled the bulk of macbeth hero Soviet-American trade for thesis many years, but it was also an essays tragic, ideal spot for the placement of spies. Was Riazankin a spy? We'll never know. In any case he was never heard from again. Herb Grosch reports that Soviet astronomers continued to pay occasional visits to history Watson Lab after the War, e.g. in connection with taking over production of the annual Kleine Planeten listing of asteroid positions from Watson Lab, which did the work in 1946 after the German Astronomisches Rechen-Institut was destroyed in the War. Fall 1938: Howard Aiken, a Harvard graduate student who was working on plans for a machine to solve differential equations as part of his thesis, visits Professor Eckert's Lab; IBM engineer Clair D. Essays As A Hero? Lake (who built Eckert's switch box) is also present. Eckert demonstrates the az post statement of personal capabilities of tragic hero his setup and suggests that he try to interest IBM in the project [9].

A year later IBM agreed to develop and construct the a argumentative machine, an electro-mechanical device called the essays macbeth hero Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator, ASCC (PHOTO), the first automated general-purpose (but not electronic or stored-program) computer. The ASCC was built by Lake and his staff at IBM's Endicott NY facility and presented in 1944 to Harvard, where it did war work, and eventually became known as the Harvard Mark 1 [9]. The Mark 1 was soon outpaced by IBM's Aberdeen Relay Calculator (also built by Lake) and later the statement history US Army's ENIAC, the first electronic automatic general-purpose (but still not stored-program) computer. Jan 1939: Enrico Fermi, Leo Szilard, Walter Zinn, Herbert Anderson, and others begin work on nuclear fission in Columbia's Pupin Hall. Within a few months this work would become the essays tragic Manhattan Project , funded by President Roosevelt (Columbia Law, 1905-07) in response to Albert Einstein's letter warning of Nazi research in essay topics for the this area.

After Pearl Harbor, the project moved to the University of Chicago (supposedly to make it less vulnerable to German attack) and spread to as a the University of California, Los Alamos, Oak Ridge, Hanford, and other locations. Fermi's lab was in critical essay hobbit the same building as Professor Eckert's Astronomical Computing Bureau. I don't know to what degree, if any, Eckert's computing machines were employed in the early Manhattan Project, but as noted below they played a key role in hero 1945 in the final preparations for essay the first A-bombs [57]. A number of other Columbia scientists worked on the project, including I.I. Rabi, Edward Teller, John Dunning (who identified U-235 as the fissionable uranium isotope using the Pupin cyclotron in Feb 1940), Harold Urey (who later left the project on moral grounds), and George Pegram (who assembled the macbeth as a tragic original Manhattan Project team), as well as junior faculty who would later become well-known physicists, such as C.S. Wu and cover teacher Bill Havens (both of essays whom I worked for in my student days), James Rainwater, Eugene Booth, and teacher Richard Present. The following is taken from macbeth as a a narrative, Evolving from Calculators to Computers on the Los Alamos National Laboratory History website (May 2003):

Calculations at Los Alamos were originally done on statement history manually operated mechanical calculators, which was not only laborious and time-consuming, but the machines broke down frequently under heavy use. The only one who could fix them promptly was Richard Feynman (Nobel Prize in Physics, 1965), which some thought was not the best use of his time. Dana Mitchell, whom Laboratory Director J. Robert Oppenheimer had recruited from macbeth as a hero Columbia University to oversee procurement for Los Alamos, recognized that the calculators were not adequate for teacher the heavy computational chores and suggested the use of IBM punched-card machines. He had seen them used successfully by Wallace Eckert at Columbia to calculate the orbits of planets and persuaded [Stanley] Frankel and [Eldred] Nelson to order a complement of them. The new IBM punched-card machines were devoted to macbeth as a calculations to simulate implosion, and Metropolis and a argumentative Feynman organized a race between them and the hand-computing group. 'We set up a room with girls in macbeth tragic hero it. Az Post Of Personal History? Each one had a Marchant. Essays Macbeth As A Tragic? But one was the multiplier, and another was the adder, and this one cubed, and all she did was cube this number and send it to a argumentative essay the next one,' said Feynmann. For one day, the macbeth as a hero hand computers kept up: 'The only difference was that the IBM machines didn't get tired and could work three shifts. But the school girls got tired after a while.' May 1939: Columbia University's Baker Field (at 215th Street in upper Manhattan) was the site of the nation's first televised sports event , a baseball game between Columbia and Princeton universities, May 17, 1939, broadcast by NBC. Tragic? (The first televised sports event in statement history the world was the 1936 Olympics in as a tragic Berlin.) [ Top ] 1940: Prof. Eckert publishes Punched Card Methods in Scientific Calculation [50], the thesis first computer book . The book . covers nearly a decade of macbeth as a work by W.J.

Eckert on astronomical calculations by machine processes. Based on firsthand experience, it describes a gamut of large calculations that could best be carried out by machines able to critical essay hobbit process numbers in hero machine-readable form. These calculations include the construction of mathematical tables, the numerical integration of differential equations, numerical harmonic analysis and synthesis, and the solution of on the simultaneous equations. . As A Tragic Hero? Often known as the 'Orange Book' on account of the vividly colored covers of its original printing, Eckert's book was the of personal history bible of many workers engaged in as a tragic punched card computing at the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University and hobbit elsewhere. . The process of tragic carrying out the integration of the differential equations is explained in detail. It involves the use of the multiplier, tabulator, and letter teacher summary punch in concert, guided by the setting of a calculation control switch, which acts as a master controller advancing automatically . Essays As A Tragic? through twelve positions (Figure 2). Essay Topics Odyssey? This control switch . As A? was a precursor of sequential control in of personal history electronic computers [78].

Some of the macbeth tragic better-known builders of the early computers, like Vannevar Bush at MIT, J. Presper Eckert of the ENIAC, and uk police statement writing Howard Aiken at Harvard, got their first introduction in the famous orange book [90]. In this year, Eckert is appointed full professor of Celestial Mechanics. March 1940: Eckert leaves Columbia for an assignment with the US Naval Observatory, which he rapidly computerizes to create accurate air and sea navigation tables for essays as a tragic the US Air Corps and essay odyssey Navy using the techniques he devised at Columbia [17], which allowed design and production of the Air Almanac in record time (the first issue of the Air Almanac appeared December 1st, 1940, produced entirely by machine methods). The Astronomical Computing Bureau in macbeth as a hero Pupin, now directed by Jan Schilt (but with Eckert still running the show from Washington), was assigned to tasks for uk police the looming war, such as ballistic firing tables, and trajectory calculations, and later, design calculations for the B-29 sighting station [57,59] Mathematics Goes to as a tragic War [9]. Eckert also assigns Nautical Almanac work to the Bureau, and temporarily borrows Lillian Feinstein as Piecework Computer from the topics for the odyssey Bureau's staff. The Bureau existed until 1951, but by 1948 most of its work had migrated to Watson Lab [88]. IBM played a large part in the Allied war effort, supplying all of macbeth its products to the US government at 1% over cost, and taking on new jobs as well, including manufacture of nearly six percent of all M1 rifles [see pictures and story] [another one here] [or search Google] (other non-weapons companies made M1s too, including National Postal Meter Company, General Motors, Underwood [typewriters], and az post of personal Rock-Ola, a maker of tragic hero juke boxes). IBM also evacuated the families of employees in England to Toronto [85] and assisted the cover letter independent school families of US employees who had gone off to war and held jobs open for macbeth as a hero all its returning veterans [57]. According to topics for the odyssey allegations in 2001 [48] (having nothing to do with Columbia), IBM might also have played a part in macbeth as a tragic hero Germany's war effort, in which widespread use was made of punched-card technology manufactured by IBM's German subsidiary, Dehomag [120], which had been taken over by the Nazi government in 1940. The degree of IBM's involvement with Dehomag after that is or was at issue [See IBM statement].

1940: The Bureau of odyssey Radio Research (founded at Princeton University in 1937), headed by Paul Lazarsfeld, moves to essays as a Columbia University, with quarters at 15 Amsterdam Avenue. In 1949 it would move to 427 West 117th Street, and about 1953 to 605 West 115th Street, the production other half of the essays tragic hero former Parnassus Club, across from the present Watson Laboratory. Its name would change to az post of personal the Bureau of Applied Social Research (BASR) in 1944, and it would live on until 1977, when it was replaced by the Center for essays tragic hero Social Sciences (later, the odyssey Lazarsfeld Center for Social Sciences, and macbeth as a tragic still later the Institute for Social and topics odyssey Economic Theory and Research). BASR produced a great many quantitative studies and in fact pioneered quantitative sociology [26,27]. From its inception in 1940, the essays macbeth tragic Bureau was in possession of IBM tabulating equipment. IBM machines and tabulating charges as well as IBM supplies appear on each annual budget [28]). The BASR's 1954-56 budgets show $6000 per month for IBM equipment rental, which suggests a rather massive capacity (compare with the Registrar Proposal of 1957). The BASR Report on the Year 1957-58 says The Bureau also maintains its own IBM data processing laboratory in University Hall, and other IBM equipment for use by students in essay hobbit Fayerweather Hall.

The machine facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory are available for certain highly technical problems not readily solved by the Bureau's own equipment [28]. Hero? Pnina Stern, who worked at the Bureau until its demise, says When I got there in 1966 BASR had [at 605 W 115th Street] IBM 024 card punches, an 085 Collator, an 082 Sorter, and a 403 Accounting Machine that could be wired to produce cross tabulations and other good stuff. Fred Meier was a whiz at wiring up this machine. Essay Topics For The? You had to wire it for each thing you wanted to as a do. It printed out cross tabulations and maybe even some other statistics. Some of the IBM machines looked like pieces of Victorian furniture with intricately carved wrought iron legs.

Years later when IBM had a retrospective exhibit somewhere they borrowed these machines for uk police writing the exhibit. Essays Tragic Hero? Maybe Fred M. owned them at that time. Statement? As for essays macbeth as a computing, someone at Columbia -- possibly at BASR -- wrote the very first computer cross tabulation program. Statement History? I believe it was written in essays macbeth as a tragic IBM 7090 machine language and you had to give it numerical coded instructions. It was not very user friendly. I think it may have been written by essay, Peter Graham. As noted, much of BASR's quantitative work was done in-house on its tabulating and EAM equipment, but more demanding tasks were carried out at IBM Watson Lab. By 1961, BASR was (with Physics and Chemistry) one of essays hero Columbia's leading users of computing, and one of the reasons the Columbia Computer Center was created [29]. After 1963, BASR was a major user of the critical on the Computer Center mainframes, sending work-study students with massive decks of cards to the SSIO Area on campus on a regular basis to run jobs. We always duplicated the cards before we sent them over because we had visions of the students dropping the IBM card boxes and hero the cards floating across Broadway. In the 1970s, HP terminals were installed for interactive access to mainframe applications like SAS and SPSS.

The Directors of BASR were Paul Lazarsfeld (1940-1951), Charles Glock (1951-1957), David Sills (1957-1960), Bernard Berelson (1960-61), and a argumentative Allen Barton (1962-1977). 20 December 1944: Since the 1930s, Columbia had been IBM's main contact with scientific computing and the academic community [38], and to macbeth hero carry forward this relationship, Thomas J Watson, a Columbia Trustee since 1933, wrote to Columbia Provost (and Acting President 1945-47) Frank Diehl Fackenthal [28] agreeing to establish a computing research laboratory at Columbia University as soon as space can be secured: I am confident that this laboratory will be another major forward step in essay the long and productive cooperation between the [ sic ] IBM and macbeth as a hero Columbia University. 1945: The US Naval Observatory produces the 1946 edition of the Air Almanac in what is beer thesis arguably the first instance of computer-driven typesetting, using the newly delivered programmable card-driven table printer that had been specified by Professor Eckert in essays as a tragic hero 1941, but whose production was delayed by statement writing, the War. 6 February 1945: To give all possible aid to the war effort and to promote peace through scientific development, a computing laboratory has been established at Columbia University by International Business Machines Corporation. The new laboratory, to essays macbeth tragic hero be known as the a argumentative Thomas J. Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , will serve as a world center for essays macbeth as a tragic the treatment of problems in the various fields of science, whose solution depends on the effective use of applied mathematics and mechanical calculations [23]. Columbia Professor Wallace J. Eckert, now head of a argumentative IBM's new Pure Research Department, is appointed to head the laboratory. Temporarily housed on the tenth floor of Pupin Hall, staffed and paid for by IBM, with the staff holding faculty appointments and teaching credit courses in math, physics, astronomy, and other fields. Essays Macbeth As A Tragic? The new lab attracted attention all over the scientific world; visitors included John von Neumann, Hans Bethe, and Richard Feynman [3,4,9, 57]. The lab was named for IBM's Thomas J. Watson (Senior), a Columbia Trustee (it is said that Watson is the one who nominated Eisenhower as Columbia President in 1948, but he meant Milton! [17]). Within a year, Watson Lab would become the third most powerful computing facility in the world, after the US Army's Aberdeen Proving Ground and Harvard University, and beer production would remain so for some years. Mar 1945 : The Manhattan Project (from here through Aug 1945) : It turns out that the presence of Bethe, Feynman, and von Neumann was not entirely coincidental.

Herb Grosch writes that in May 1945, calculations at Los Alamos were falling behind. As A? As Dr. Eckert (who had just hired him to work at the new Watson Lab) explained, They came to IBM for beer production thesis help. Mr. Watson and John McPherson [IBM engineering director] . thought immediately of the Astronomical Bureau at Columbia, but it is essays as a heavily engaged in fairly high priority work for another part of the independent school Army*, and really has no room for macbeth hero physical expansion anyhow. It has only two 601s and an old 285 fixed-plugboard tabulator, and there is hardly any room to move. Essay Hobbit? New space was needed, and found, for essays as a tragic Watson Lab's first task: solution of temperature-pressure equations for completion of the A-bombs at Los Alamos [57] (more about this HERE and odyssey much more in Chapter 03 of as a Dr. Grosch's book) Now that Germany's defeat was imminent, Leo Szilard who, with Enrico Fermi, had initiated the Manhattan Project at Columbia in 1939 did not believe the A-bomb should be used on Japan.

He obtained a letter of introduction to President Roosevelt from Albert Einstein so he could present his case against dropping the bomb. A preliminary meeting with Eleanor Roosevelt was set up for May 8th, but the President died on cover letter independent April 12th and essays macbeth tragic Szilard was blocked from contacting President Truman. 8 May 1945: VE Day, Germany surrenders, the war in Europe ends. Jul 1945: Szilard wrote and circulated a petition among his fellow scientists at the University of Chicago against the use of atomic weapons and history asking President Truman not to use them on Japan. He also sent copies to Oak Ridge and Los Alamos for circulation (the Los Alamos copy was buried by Groves and Oppenheimer). Szilard's petition went through several drafts; the essays macbeth as a tragic hero first one (July 3rd) included the beer production thesis following text: Atomic bombs are primarily a means for the ruthless annihilation of cities. Once they were introduced as an instrument of war it would be difficult to resist for long the temptation of putting them to such use. The last few years show a marked tendency toward increasing ruthlessness. At present our Air Forces, striking at the Japanese cities, are using the same methods of warfare which were condemned by American public opinion only a few years ago when applied by the Germans to the cities of England. Our use of atomic bombs in this war would carry the world a long way further on this path of ruthlessness.

Subsequent drafts were toned down a bit but made the same recommendations. The Oak Ridge petition urged that before this weapon be used without restriction in essays macbeth tragic the present conflict, its powers should be adequately described and demonstrated, and the Japanese nation should be given the opportunity to consider the consequences of further refusal to surrender. Watson Lab staff who were performing calculations for Los Alamos were unaware of the petitions or, indeed (with only two exceptions, Eckert and hobbit Grosch, the only ones with security clearances), that the calculations were for essays macbeth a bomb [59]. In any event, the independent school petitions never reached the President. 6 Aug 1945: Hiroshima : Now we knew what we had been working on [57]. A second A-bomb was dropped on Nagasaki August 9th. More than 200,000 people died from the two blasts. Was the atomic bomb needed to end the war with Japan?

The US Strategic Bombing Survey [94] says, Based on essays macbeth tragic hero a detailed investigation of all the essay facts and macbeth as a supported by the testimony of the surviving Japanese leaders involved, it is the Survey's opinion that certainly prior to 31 December 1945, and in essay hobbit all probability prior to 1 November 1945 [the earliest possible date for tragic an invasion], Japan would have surrendered even if the atomic bombs had not been dropped, even if Russia had not entered the essay topics for the odyssey war in the East, and even if no invasion had been planned or contemplated. It was known by the Allies [95] that since May 1945, Japan had been making peace overtures to the Soviet Union, both in essays as a Tokyo and Moscow. This was done at the direction of the Emperor, who had told his envoy, Prince Konoye, to secure peace at of personal any price, notwithstanding its severity [93] . All indications (e.g. in Henry L. Stimson's diaries*) are that the essays macbeth tragic hero US deliberately prolonged the war, first by delaying the Potsdam Conference and then by striking the uk police Emperor can stay clause from the essays tragic Potsdam Declaration, until the bombs could be dropped, and essay that this was done to intimidate the Soviet Union. Former President, Supreme Commander of Allied Forces in Europe, and as a tragic Supreme Commander of NATO Dwight D. Essay? Eisenhower wrote in his memoir, Mandate for Change , (Doubleday 1963), “The incident took place in 1945 when Secretary of War Stimson visiting my headquarters in Germany, informed me that our government was preparing to drop an atomic bomb on essays as a hero Japan. I was one of those who felt that there were a number of beer production cogent reasons to question the essays macbeth as a wisdom of such an act . . . But the Secretary, upon giving me the news of the statement successful bomb test in New Mexico, and essays macbeth of the plan for using it, asked for my reaction, apparently expecting a vigorous assent.

During his recitation of the relevant facts, I had been conscious of essay topics a feeling of depression and so I voiced to him my grave misgivings, first on the basis of my belief that Japan was already defeated and that dropping the bomb was completely unnecessary, and essays macbeth as a tragic hero secondly because I thought that our country should avoid shocking world opinion by the use of a weapon whose employment was, I thought, no longer mandatory as a measure to save American lives. It was my belief that Japan was, at that very moment, seeking some way to surrender with a minimum loss of 'face'.” FDR's and Truman's Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and of the Combined US and British Chiefs of Staff Admiral William D. Leahy wrote in his book I Was There (Whittlesey House, 1950), “It is production thesis my opinion that the use of this barbarous weapon at Hiroshima and Nagasaki was of essays no material assistance in our war against Japan. The Japanese were already defeated and ready to surrender because of the effective sea blockade and the successful bombing with conventional weapons.” 14 Aug 1945: 7:18PM EWT (Eastern War Time): VJ Day, Japan surrenders , the war ends. The formal surrender was signed September 2. Production Thesis? (The US and as a tragic hero many other countries were on permanent daylight savings time throughout the war; in the US this was called War Time -- Eastern War Time, Central War Time, etc.)

Oct 1945: Watson Laboratory establishes itself as the cataloger of az post statement mathematical tables on punched cards, meaning that any scientist who needed to obtain machine-readable tables of mathematical functions such as sin, cos, tan, log, squares, cubes, inverses, roots, Bessel functions, Lagrangean interpolation coefficients, spheroid functions, grid coordinates, and so forth, could find out from tragic Watson Lab where to get them [28]. Of course Watson Lab itself was a major producer of such tables. As these card decks were freely shared, they might be regarded as an essay on the hobbit, early form of freeware . Nov 1945: Watson Laboratory moves from essays as a hero Pupin Hall (where it had been since February 1945) into 612 West 116th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), a former fraternity house vacated by independent school, the War, purchased by IBM and renovated as a laboratory (PHOTOS) with offices and teaching facility [4,9]. Essays As A Tragic Hero? A simple bronze plaque was affixed to the building reading WATSON SCIENTIFIC COMPUTING LABORATORY at COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY [28] (WHERE IS THE PLAQUE NOW?). Watson Lab's early equipment included two experimental one-of-a-kind relay calculators, two Aberdeen relay calculators, plus conventional calculators and tabulators inherited from the Astronomy Lab, and within a couple years would grow to critical on the include a IBM 602 and the first IBM 604.

Read more about essays as a tragic hero renovation and equipping of this building in Chapter 09 of the Grosch book. Essay? This building is now Casa Hispanica, home of Columbia's Department of essays macbeth tragic Spanish and Portuguese. Herb Grosch confirms that Chock Full O' Nuts was open for business on the southwest corner of 116th and Broadway in statement writing 1945, where it remained a fixture for decades. Chock Full O' Nuts sightings go back as far as 1944. When did it close? Mid-1980s I think. A few other establishments that were here in 1945 are still open in 2004: The West End (1915), Tom's Restaurant (1936), Columbia Hardware (1939), and Mondel's Chocolates (1943). Aug 1946: Eckert describes Watson Lab to an IBM Research Forum [89]. It is the intention of the Laboratory to tragic hero make these facilities available to any scientist from any place in this country or abroad , regardless of a argumentative essay whether he is connected with a university or a laboratory. This is essays macbeth as a our fundamental principle: problems will be accepted because of scientific interest and not for any other considerations.

Scientific interest can be of two kinds: the problem may interest us because of the uk police writing complexity of the calculation, or it may be considered on the basis of scientific merit of the result rather than the means. Essays Macbeth As A Tragic Hero? While routine computation is not the aim of the Laboratory, a considerable amount of it will be done on critical essay hobbit worthy causes. Later he describes some experimental machines: Among the digital machines which have been developed over the years, there are several based on the relay network; we now have two of macbeth as a tragic these at the Laboratory [ note: he is on the not referring to tragic hero the Aberdeens, which had not yet been delivered ] . The first one was developed with the idea of seeing how few relays it is letter teacher independent school possible to use to produce a calculating machine. This machine is built on the standard IBM key punch. . The control is very convenient. a combination of as a tragic hero control panel and master card or program card. Thus, instead of having twenty control panels for letter teacher independent school a complicated job, you can set it up to use one control panel and twenty master cards. This might very well be the birth of software . The control panel, which stays in place for macbeth hero the duration of the job, defines the instructions of the machine, in beer production thesis a sense its microprogram.

The sequence of operations (invoking instructions from the control panel) is on a deck of cards. As A? It is a PROGRAM. A Argumentative Essay? A few years later, IBM would build a Card Programmed Calculator, and hero from there it is a short step to the first general-purpose stored-program computer, which, arguably, was IBM's SSEC, built under Eckert's direction (in fact the SSEC was completed before the CPC). The significance of card programming can't be overstated. A deck of control cards (along with the specifications for cover independent the corresponding control-panel wiring, at least in these early days) documents the program. It can be printed, read, modified, duplicated, mailed, kept for future use, and run again on different data sets. Essays Tragic Hero? Much of this might be said of plugboards too, provided you don't have to recycle them, thus destroying the program. But most important, a program deck can be any length at all, thus allowing extremely complex problems to be run -- problems that might have required a thousand plugboards. (Trust me, nobody had 1000 plugboards; they're big and they cost serious money.)

1946: Watson Lab produces Ephemerides of 783 Minor Planets for 1947 (formerly Kleine Planeten ), the annual asteroid listing for letter teacher the year 1947, about macbeth as a tragic hero 100 pages of tables showing the critical position of each body at 8-day intervals, calculated on essays as a tragic hero the Watson Lab Aberdeen Relay Calculators, the world's fastest computing devices at the time. 1946-47: Watson Laboratory courses first appear in the University Bulletin. Essay? These are graduate-level credit courses. Essays As A Tragic? Among them are courses in letter independent school computing machinery and numerical analysis taught by Wallace Eckert and essays macbeth as a Herb Grosch believed to be the first computer science courses offered by any university [40] or, more precisely, the first such courses in the world fully integrated into a university curriculum and continuing year after year [59]. Essay? Eckert taught Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (Astronomy 111-112); Grosch taught Numerical Methods (Engineering 281, a graduate course I took some 30 years later. The next year L.H. Essays Tragic? Thomas added Numerical Solution of Differential Equations (Physics 228). By 1951, the az post statement of personal history curriculum also included EE 275 (Electrical and essays tragic hero Electronic Components of statement Digital Computers, taught by Watson Lab's Robert M. Walker) and Physics 255 (Separation of macbeth as a hero Variables in Mathematical Physics, L.H. Thomas).

Most of production thesis these courses included hands-on laboratory sessions with the as a hero Watson Lab machines or (later) the SSEC downtown. Graduate-level hard-science courses used the Watson Lab machines too, including some taught by regular Columbia faculty such as George Kimball (Chemistry), among whose students were Margaret Oakley Dayhoff (Columbia Ph.D. 1948, the founder of computational biochemistry), Isaac Asimov (Columbia B.Sc 1939, M.A. Essay On The Hobbit? 1941, Ph.D. 1948), and Maurice Ewing (Oceanography), the founder of Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, whose students included Frank Press (Columbia M.A. 1946, Ph.D. Tragic Hero? 1949), who went on to become President of the US National Academy of Sciences and writing Chairman of the macbeth as a National Research Council. History? More about these courses in the 1951 entry. 1946-47: It was also during this period that Watson Laboratory began to provide computer time to Columbia researchers at no charge.

This arrangement would continue until 1963, when Columbia -- with IBM's assistance -- opened its own Computing Center. Perhaps the first non-Watson-Lab Columbia researcher to use the Watson Lab machines was Martin Schwarzschild, who used the Aberdeen Relay Calculators for astronomical calculations [57]. 1947: Nevis Laboratory, the Columbia Physics department's primary center for study of macbeth as a high-energy and nuclear physics, founded in Irvington, New York. There is a long history of computing here too, which needs to be told, including the many and varied connection methods to Columbia's Morningside Heights campus. Sep 1947: The Association for letter teacher independent school Computing Machinery (ACM) is born at a meeting of hero sixty computer enthusiasts at Columbia University's Havemeyer Hall [57]. Originally calling itself the Eastern Association for Computing Machinery, attendees of its first meeting included Columbia Professor Wallace Eckert (who arranged the cover letter teacher school space), Professor Hilleth Thomas (Thomas-Fermi Model), Byron Havens of essays Watson Lab (chief engineer, NORC), John Lentz of Watson Lab (designer of the first personal computer), Watson Lab's Herb Grosch, and everybody's favorite computer person, Grace Hopper. The meeting was convened by computer pioneer and antiwar activist Edmund Berkeley. (CLICK HERE to for the view documents from the first ACM meeting.) Nov 1947: The Watson Laboratory Three-Week Course on Computing , taught by Eric Hankam, the first hands-on computer course (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), in which scientists from essays macbeth as a hero all over cover teacher independent school, the world learned how to apply computing machines to problems in their disciplines. The course was given here eleven times a year until 1957 -- by which time it had been attended by 1600 people from 20 countries -- when it was moved to IBM education centers around the world [9]. 24 Dec 1947: First successful test of the transistor.

Jan 1948: The IBM Selective Sequence Electronic Calculator (SSEC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS) was designed and built by essays as a hero, IBM in 1946-47 under the direction of Columbia Professsor Wallace Eckert and then installed in IBM HQ at 590 Madison Ave in statement writing January 1948. Essays As A Hero? This is one of the first large-scale electronic computers, and uk police the first machine to combine electronic computation with a stored program and capable of operating on its own instructions as data . It was based on hybrid vacuum-tube / mechanical relay technology (12,000 tubes, 21,000 relays). Fully assembled, it was 140 feet long (60 + 20 + 60 U-shape) (some sources cite different dimensions) and essays macbeth was used initially for essay topics for the calculating lunar coordinates. Macbeth As A Hero? Reporters called it a Robot Brain. Its massive size and configuration established the public image of computers for decades to come (as in statement this 1961 New Yorker cover by Charles Addams). Aside from solving important scientific problems, it was used by students of Columbia's pioneering Machine Methods graduate course -- part of the essays macbeth as a hero world's first computer science curriculum, initiated here in teacher 1946. Popular descriptions of computers as brains and analogies with the essays macbeth hero human nervous system were so rampant in the late 1940s and early 50s, that George Stibitz, developer of the wartime Bell Relay Calculators, was prompted to write an article cautioning against essay such wild tales as the one in the Feb 18, 1950, Saturday Evening Post, which said that computers were subject to psychopathic states which engineers cure by shock treatments consisting of the application of excessively large voltages [79]. The SSEC was programmed from essays as a hero Watson Lab on standard IBM cards converted to input tapes on a special punch called the Prancing Stallion [57]. Az Post Statement Of Personal History? Eckert's moon-orbit calculations on this machine were used as the basis for the Apollo missions.

It was dismantled in 1952. One of the SSEC's programmers was John Backus (PHOTO AND DETAILS), who had two Columbia degrees and was at Watson Lab in 1950-52 [9], and who went on macbeth as a to design FORTRAN, the first high-level machine-independent programming language , and essay Algol, the first block-structured language, and is also known for essays macbeth as a Backus Normal Form (BNF), a meta-language for describing computer languages. Essay Topics For The? Before FORTRAN, almost every computer program was written in essays as a hero machine or assembly language, and therefore was not portable to any other kind of on the machine. The idea of a high-level programming language was the second step on the road to user friendliness. As A Hero? The first step was the a argumentative assembler. Such notions were not without controversy. John von Neumann, when he first heard about essays macbeth FORTRAN in critical on the 1954, was unimpressed and asked why would you want more than machine language? One of von Neumann's students at Princeton recalled that graduate students were being used to hand assemble programs into binary for their early machine. This student took time out to build an assembler, but when von Neumann found out about it he was very angry, saying that it was a waste of a valuable scientific computing instrument to use it to do clerical work. As A Tragic? (These anecdotes from a biographical sketch of von Neumann by John A.N.

Lee, Dept of Computer Science, Virginia Polytechnical Institute.) Another SSEC programmer was Edgar F. Codd , originator of the relational database model [40] ( Communications of the ACM , Vol. 13, No. 6, June 1970, pp.377-387), who was at essay odyssey Watson Lab from 1949 to essays 1952 [9] and died April 18, 2003. 1948-54: The IBM Personal Automatic Calculator was designed by John Lentz and essay on the hobbit built between 1948 and 1954 on the top floor of Watson Lab.

Among its innovations was a magnetic drum for auxilliary storage, automatic positioning of the decimal point, and as a tragic the first video terminal. Uk Police Statement? When it was finally announced in 1956 as the macbeth as a tragic IBM 610 Autopoint Computer, it was the school first personal computer . [4,9,17] 1949: Lamont-Doherty Geological Observatory, Columbia's earth science facility, founded in Palisades, New York, by Professor Maurice Ewing, a user of the essays macbeth as a Watson Lab equipment. There is a long tradition of computing and networking here too, which needs to be told. Beer Thesis? See [39] for an excellent history (albeit with nothing on computing) of what is now called the Lamont Doherty Earth Observatory. 1950: Herb Grosch devises Grosch's Law Computing power increases as the square of the cost in Watson Lab [57,p.131]. Dr.

Grosch leaves Watson in 1951 to macbeth hero start an IBM bureau in Washington DC. May 1950: Edmund Berkeley (who had founded the ACM at on the Columbia University in 1947, and who had written the first book about computers for a general audience [62] in 1949), William Porter (a West Medford MA mechanic), and two Columbia graduate students, Robert Jensen and Andrew Vall, build Simon [63], a simple model electronic brain (PHOTO), costing about $600 to macbeth as a tragic hero construct. Of Simon, Berkeley said: It is the smallest complete mechanical brain in existence. A Argumentative? It knows not more than four numbers; it can express only the number 0, 1, 2 and 3. It is tragic guaranteed to make every member of an audience feel superior to production it. Essays Macbeth As A Tragic Hero? It is a mechanical brain that has cost less than $1,000.

It can be carried around in one hand (and the power supply in beer the other hand). It can be completely understood by one man. It is an excellent device for as a hero teaching, lecturing and explaining. 1951: CLICK HERE to view some 1951 Watson Lab Astronomy, Engineering, and Physics course listings from the 1951 Columbia Catalog. Herb Grosch recalls [57]: . a little about the courses we gave - that is, at Columbia. On The? These were all part of the regular university curriculum, listed in the appropriate catalogs - we had our own special one also - and open to any student with the prerequisites and the money. Essays As A? We did however encourage our own juniors on 116th Street and at uk police statement writing the SSEC to attend as auditors if they did not want to sign up for credit. . Most of our offerings were unusual. [Hilleth] Thomas did a very good course in theoretical physics, in which he was a world authority.

I did a celestial mechanics course one year; it was really a mlange of spherical trig, practical and theoretical astronomy (meaning time and position determination, and macbeth tragic orbit computing), and brief mentions of planetary and satellite mechanics. . None of my subtopics were taught anywhere else at Columbia; the astronomy department was solid astrophysics. And they were what was needed for astronomy calculations. . Most of our value as teachers, however, came from the computing courses . Eckert gave a two-semester machine methods course, which featured hands-on operation under Marjorie [Severy], Lillian [Feinstein Hausman] and Eric [Hankam]; literally the only place in the world where you could learn in the university milieu . . I did numerical methods - classical interpolation and matrix arithmetic and integration of differential equations. Most of my examples, and assigned exercises, were at desk calculator level, but I lectured from the point of view of machine operation . This was one semester, once a year, and Hilleth did an advanced course featuring partial differential equation solutions and error propagation, every other year. . Beer Production Thesis? My classes were small; this was a very esoteric discipline indeed in as a the Forties. But I had interesting students .. like [Stan] Rothman and az post statement of personal [Bill] McClelland and [John] Backus and Don Quarles. Essays As A Tragic? . So it was my side of the house that carried the teaching. It went on critical essay hobbit into the Fifties, always as part - but a small part - of the macbeth tragic Columbia offerings. Cover Letter Teacher School? The hands-on side of the Machine Methods course was unique, not just because of the essays macbeth as a hero equipment but because real use-'em-every-day men and women were running it.

1952-3: Watson Lab #2. When construction of the on the hobbit NORC (see Dec 1954 entry) exhausted available space in the petite 116th street building (and because still more space was required by Watson Lab's new physics program), IBM purchased the building at 612 West 115th Street (PHOTO) (MAP), formerly a women's residence club, gutted and renovated it, equipped it with physics laboratories, and relocated to macbeth as a it. The new Watson Lab was occupied in September 1953 . A time clock was installed (you can still see its mounting today) but nobody on the professional staff used it (as a corporation, IBM was obsessed with efficiency but the Watson Lab scientists were notorious noncomformists). The time clock and all wall clocks were controlled centrally and set automatically by an IBM master clock (like the one in the first Watson Lab); the IBM wall clocks in Watson Lab kept on ticking until about statement of personal history 1999. The Penthouse was outfitted as a lunchroom with a small kitchen, where coffee and tea could be made and soup or beans heated up; it had the atmosphere of as a tragic a World War II canteen, and was the favorite place for people in different groups or floors to talk and thesis advisors to meet with their students [17]. Some space was retained in the 116th Street building: offices for PhD students, classroom space, and a machine room [4,9,17,66].

The former women's residence on 115th Street was in fact the Parnassus Club , a boarding house for young women -- students at the Julliard School of uk police writing Music, which was then only macbeth as a tragic hero, a couple blocks away on the current Manhattan School of letter independent school Music site (MAP) or at Barnard College, a block north (MAP), for semi-professional performers. It operated from 1921 to 1955. CLICK HERE for stories and photos. The North-facing building was gutted by IBM in 1953 to as a tragic create Watson Laboratory. According to a resident, we all had to move out because some official body at Columbia had decided the neighborhood had become too dangerous for us; at least that was the essay for the reason given in a letter we all received that spring (this refers to the second Parnassus Club building, which remained in operation until 1955). (Miss Macmillan's 1965 obituary states, however, that the Club was closed due to essays macbeth as a tragic hero her poor health.) The exterior of 612 West 115th Street retains its original look but the inside contains no trace of the Parnassus Club. In July 2003, a resident from 1950 appeared on the doorstep with her daughter and grandson; she was showing them where she used live. Uk Police? I brought them inside for a mini-tour, but she was clearly disappointed to find absolutely nothing familiar. The original Watson Lab at essays as a 612 West 116th Street was designed by Thomas Nash and built in 1906 as the essay topics Delta Phi fraternity house.

The current Watson building at essays as a 612 West 115th Street was originally an apartment building called Duncan Hall, designed in 1905 by the prolific firm of Neville Bagge, originally built and owned by a Frank Woytisek. The building across the street, No. 605, was also an apartment building by thesis, Neville Bagge, called the Bellemore, built in 1903 and originally owned by Moses Crystal [12]. It was home to essays tragic hero the Bureau of critical essay on the Applied Social Research (BASR) from 1955(?) until it was demolished about 1970. 200th anniversary of Columbia University. 1954: Invention of the cursor: As part of his work on the first personal computer (the IBM 610), Watson Lab's John Lentz designs a small video terminal -- keyboard and tiny screen -- for control and data entry. in which the essays macbeth as a current position was indicated visually by what came to beer thesis be known as a cursor . Essays Macbeth As A Hero? Lentz applied for a patent on this concept; the patent was finally granted in the early 1970s. As far as I can tell, Lentz's control and display device was also the first video terminal . Dec 1954: The Naval Ordnance Research Calculator (NORC) (PHOTOS AND DETAILS), the first supercomputer and the most powerful computer in existence at the time (and for the next ten years), becomes operational. It was designed here beginning in 1950 and built in Watson Lab #2, 612 West 115th Street. NORC had 200,000 electronic components: 3600 words of main memory (originally vacuum tubes, later magnetic cores), eight magnetic tape drives, 15,000 complete operations per az post of personal, second, decimal (not binary) arithmetic, swappable components. Since this was such a big job, additional space was rented at 2929 Broadway, above a restaurant (Prexy's? Home of the Educated Hamburger?) for building some of the parts, which were brought to Watson Lab for assembly and eventual startup and operation.

John von Neumann was a team member and gave the inaugural address on December 2, 1954. NORC was moved to essays tragic hero the Naval Proving Ground, Dahlgren, Virginia, in 1955 and cover letter independent school remained operational until 1968 [4,12,17]. 30 Aug 1955: The first of two IBM 650 computers is installed in the first-floor machine room of the original Watson Lab building on 116th Street. The 650 was a vacuum-tube-logic decimal computer with 2000 words of ten decimal digits each plus sign [31] stored on drum memory. Each had a 511 card reader and macbeth as a a 403 printer. They ran for two shifts a day, eventually supporting over 200 Columbia research projects [29].

A 17 Nov 1955 memo from Dr. Eckert to J.C. McPherson states that the 650 was installed on August 30 and critical hobbit much of the work of the computing group has been concerned with its incorporation into the Laboratory program of research and instruction. Macbeth Tragic Hero? The 650s were soon used in a series of essay topics odyssey intensive courses on computing, with [31] as a text; these courses later resulted in essays macbeth hero a book: Joachim Jeenel, Programming for uk police statement writing Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill, 1959 [64]. Macbeth Tragic? Initally, all programming was in assembly language punched on cards; eventually languages such as FORTRAN were available. The legendary SOAP assembler for the 650 was written at Watson Lab by az post statement of personal, Stan Poley.

The earlier Watson Lab equipment (tabulators, sorters, multiplying punches, etc) were not computers in the modern sense (general-purpose, electronic, von-Neumann architecture, stored-program, programmed with a language rather than wires). NORC had been the first such computer at Columbia but, although it was used in one Columbia PhD dissertation [65], it was not open to macbeth tragic the Columbia community for general use [61]. Thus the uk police statement writing IBM 650 was the first computer available to Columbia researchers and as a tragic hero we have a 50th anniversary on August 30, 2005. Eric Hankam points out [66] that this was not as dramatic a turning point as it might seem, since the same types of problems had been solved on non-stored-program calculators at Columbia over the preceding two or three decades; at statement the time, the 650 was seen as just another incremental step in calculator design. Hero? However, the 650's power, flexibility, and ease of use relative to the wire- and card-programmed machines (601, Aberdeen, 602, 604, CPC, 607) attracted a flood of Columbia research projects. By 1961, 650s were also installed at Nevis Lab, Hudson Lab, and ERL.

As demand oustripped capacity, it became increasingly clear that Columbia would need a computing facility of its own, big enough to serve the entire university. Sep 1956: Watson Lab begins to award fellowships to Columbia graduate students [9], including Ken King, who would become the topics for the odyssey first Director of the Columbia Computer Center, and Joe Traub, who, after obtaining his Columbia PhD in 1959, and a distinguished career at Bell Labs and heading the Carnegie-Mellon CS Department, would become first Chair of Columbia's Computer Science Department [9, 21] (prior to that, computer science courses were in the Electrical Engineering department). Watson Fellows had their own offices at 612 West 116th Street, that were appointed with fireplaces and leather sofas, a good stipend, and unlimited computing time [38]. Essays Macbeth As A Tragic Hero? Approximately 15 percent of Columbia physics graduate students in the 1950s did their thesis work at Watson Lab [38]. 1956-70: Watson Lab concentrates on solid state physics.

This not-insignificant period, resulting in many publications, patents, and a Nobel Prize, is described at length in [4] and [9]. (Richard L. Garwin of Watson Lab conducted experiments with Leon Lederman of the CU Physics Department confirming the suggestion by C.N. Yang of Princeton and T.D. Critical Essay On The Hobbit? Lee of Columbia regarding muon decay; this, plus the additional confirmation of C.S. Wu in the CU Physics Department, resulted in the 1957 Nobel Prize in essays macbeth Physics for Lee and uk police statement Yang.) Also in this period, Seymour Koenig's research on low-temperature breakdown of germanium and its application to hero semiconductors; Triebwasser's research on microscopic and thermodynamic properties of ferroelectric crystals; Tucker's research on semiconductors at az post liquid helium temperatures with application to biomedical instrumentation [38]. 1957: A proposal was submitted by Columbia University to the National Science Foundation to install an IBM 701 in Watson Laboratory, since many of macbeth as a Columbia's research projects now demanded more power than was offered by the 650s (the sub-microsecond circuits used in the 701 were designed at Watson Lab [37]). While the proposal was under consideration the 701 was superseded by the Model 704, so the uk police writing proposal was changed to ask for a 704. $145,000 was awarded, but it turned out the macbeth as a 704 was larger than the 701 originally proposed and cover letter teacher school would not fit in Watson Lab, so the money had to be returned unused [28] and IBM Watson Lab continued to cater to all of Columbia's academic computing needs at its own expense. Projects that couldn't be accommodated by macbeth tragic hero, Watson Lab's Model 650s were allowed to on the hobbit use the more powerful IBM 700-series computers downtown at essays macbeth as a tragic hero IBM headquarters [36]. Oct 1957: IBM proposes the following arrangement to Charles Hurd, University Registrar, for student statistics, course registration, permanent records, and fee accounting:

Less 20% educational discount, plus supplies of cards, coding sheets, control (plugboard) panels, trays, and brackets totalling another $1810.25. Note: the links for some of these items are to later (but similar) models. Required personnel are one supervisor/programmer, two machine operators, and essay three key punch operators. Source: AIS archives. This arrangement characterizes the nature of administrative data processing at the time. There is essays as a tragic hero no true computer, only unit record equipment and tabulating machines capable of rudimentary statistics (sums) and report generation. According to letters of letter teacher Charles Hurd, 1957-1960 [28], the as a funding was found from the expected decline in enrollment of Public Law 550 [Korean War] veterans (Veterans Readjustment Act of 1952); in his proposal to Provost John Krout (29 Oct 1957), Hurd says I am sure that you are aware that IBM equipment has been used in the Registrars' Offices in colleges and universities. large and az post history small, public and private, for many years and essays as a has proven to be a most valuable and efficient tool.

I hope, therefore that you will consider this proposal so that this long felt need at Columbia may be fulfilled. In other words, registration was still completely manual in 1957. The advantages of the new system would be accuracy, elimination of redundancy (e.g. each student writing the same information on many different forms, up to 23 of them) and transcription errors, and the ability to generate reports, including class lists, plus ID cards and mailing labels, not to mention keeping up with the Joneses, e.g. NYU, where punch-card registration had been in use since at least 1933. The new equipment was installed in 307 University Hall and the new system phased in from 1959 to 1961 (with an IBM 407 installed rather than a 403 at an extra $250/month). Computerized registration was seen by some as a step towards dehumanization of students and turning universities into factories, a major factor in the rise of the Free Speech Movement at the University of California at Berkeley, which set the stage for campus activism, protest, and topics for the rebellion throughout the 1960s, including Columbia in 1968: There is a time when the operation of the macbeth tragic hero machine becomes so odious, makes you so sick at heart, that you can't take part; and critical essay hobbit you've got to essays tragic put your bodies upon the gears and upon the wheels, upon critical essay on the hobbit the levers, upon as a all the apparatus and topics for the odyssey you've got to make it stop. According to macbeth tragic Steven Lubar of the Smithsonian Institution, this sentiment, although directed primarily at essay topics for the odyssey the economy and war machinery, extended to the punched-card equipment in the registrar's office: Berkeley protestors used punch cards as metaphor, both as a symbol of the 'system'--first the registration system and then bureaucratic systems more generally--and as a symbol of alienation. 'I am a UC student.

Please don't bend, fold, spindle or mutilate me.' 1958: The Columbia-Princeton Electronic Music Center (CPEMC) is founded by Professors Vladimir Ussachevsky and tragic Otto Luening with a grant from the Rockefeller Foundation. Statement? It is the first center for macbeth as a tragic electroacoustic music in teacher the USA and has a long association with Columbia computing. Located in Prentis Hall on essays tragic hero West 125th Street, its name was changed to Computer Music Center in 1996. Some tales have been collected and contributed by Peter Mauzey of Bell Labs, a Columbia graduate and former faculty member with a long association with the Electronic Music Center; CLICK HERE to read them. Sep 1958: The equipment of Columbia University IBM Watson Scientific Computing laboratory is listed [21] as: Standard punched card equipment A comprehensive selection of essay basic punched card machines, with many special devices. The equipment includes keypunch, sorter, reproducer, and printer. Wired-program calculators The group of electro-mechanical and essays as a electronic calculators include the Type 602-A Calculating Punch, the az post of personal history Type 607 Electronic Calculating Punch, and the Card-Programmed Electronic Calculator. The 607 is an automatic electronic calculator with pluggable program control and 146-digit storage capacity, capable of performing most programs at the rate of 100 cards per minute.

Stored-program calculator The type 650 Magnetic Drum Data Processing Machine is a stored-program calculator [i.e. computer] which can store 2000 ten-digit words, read 200 cards a minute, punch 100 cards a minute, and perform approximately 100 multiplications a second. The memory capacity can be used interchangeably for numerical data and operating instructions, which permits complete flexibility in the elaboration of instructions by the machine itself. Plus special-purpose devices such as a card-driven lithography printer, a card-controlled astronomical photograph analyzer, as well as a machine shop and physics and chemistry laboratories, a highly specialized library, and access to macbeth as a hero the big IBM 700 series computers downtown. Although FORTRAN -- the a argumentative essay first high-level, machine-independent programming language -- marked a great leap forward in user friendliness, and essays as a was probably available for the 650 by this time, it's worth remembering how one ran a FORTRAN job in the early days. First you punched your FORTRAN program on a key punch machine, along with any data and control cards. But since the beer 650 had no disk, the FORTRAN compiler was not resident. So to compile your program, you fed the FORTRAN compiler deck into as a tragic the card reader, followed by your FORTRAN source program as data.

After some time, the machine would punch the resulting object deck. Then you fed the a argumentative essay FORTRAN run-time library object deck and your program's object deck into essays macbeth tragic the card reader, followed by any data cards for your program. Your program would run and essay topics for the results would be punched onto yet another deck of cards. To see the results, you would feed the result deck into macbeth as a hero another machine, such as an IBM 407, to have it printed on paper. The computer itself had no printer. By the early 60s a certain division of labor had become the rule, in which system analysts would make a flow chart, programmers would translate it to code, which was written by hand on coding forms that were given to key punch operators to be punched on cards. The coding forms and production thesis card decks were passed on to verifiers who repunched the source code to catch and correct any mistakes, signed off on the job, sent the deck to macbeth tragic the operator to essay on the hobbit await its turn at essays macbeth hero the computer. Hours later the results would be delivered to the programmer in the form of a printout and on the hobbit the cycle would continue. 1959: Programming for Digital Computers , by macbeth as a tragic hero, Watson Lab's Joachim Jeenel, is published by McGraw-Hill. From the Preface: The contents of this book were developed from material presented to cover school courses on programming for stored-programming calculators held at Columbia University.

Prof. W.J. Eckert, Director of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at Columbia University, initiated the writing of the book and suggested the scope of the text. Jeenel also taught Columbia graduate courses such as Astronomy 111-112: Machine Methods of Scientific Calculation (with Eric Hankam). 1959: An IBM 1620 is installed in Watson Lab to supplement the 650s, and macbeth as a tragic is used in Columbia research projects.

1959: The Provost's office commissions a study to develop a plan for the future of computing at Columbia. In view of the failure in a argumentative essay 1957 to tragic hero produce the space needed for essay a state-of-the art computer that NSF was willing to pay for, the study concluded that a new computer center building was needed [28]. Macbeth As A Tragic? The central administration concurs and begins to seek sources of funding. Dean Ralph S. Halford, a Chemistry professor, Dean of cover teacher independent Graduate Faculties, and (perhaps most to the point) Vice Provost for Projects and Grants is in essays charge. Critical? Dean Halford and the University Committee on Cooperation with Watson Laboratory, which then included Professors Wallace Eckert (Astronomy and essays macbeth as a tragic Watson Lab), Samuel Eilenberg (Mathematics), Richard Garwin (Physics and Watson Lab), and Polykarp Kusch (Physics, Nobel Prize 1955), plan the future Computer Center. 1960: Algol-60 developed by for the, CU-and-Watson-Lab-alumnus John Backus and others. This was to be the essays macbeth tragic most influential computer language of all time, the parent of all other block-structured languages, including (among many others) Java, C, C++, Pascal, PL/I, and Ada, but not including such lovable mavericks as LISP, APL, Snobol, and Forth. 1961: IBM Watson Laboratory offers the following Columbia courses in computing: GSEE 287, Digital Computers I: Programming and Operating.

Astronomy 111-112: The use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Calculation. Engineering 281: Numerical Analysis for a argumentative Research Students in Science and Engineering. Physics 288: Numerical Solution of Ordinary and Partial Differential Equations. Management Games (Industrial Engineering): Market simulations. Plus short courses in IBM 650 and Fortran programming and the Share Operating System (SOS) [29,31]. Besides the Watson Lab courses, the Electrical Engineering Department offers: EE 104: Electric Circuits IV: Digital Circuits and Computing Systems. GSEE 267: Digital Systems and as a tragic Automata. GSEE 269: Information Theory. GSEE 274: Electrical Analogue Computers. GSEE 275-276: Logical Design of critical Digital Circuits.

GSEE 288-289: Digital Computers II and III: System Analysis and Synthesis. EE 277-278-279: Pulse and Digital Circuits. May 1961: Dean Halford writes a Proposal to the National Science Foundation for as a tragic Support of a Computing Center to statement history be Established at Columbia University [29], and macbeth hero shortly afterwards the NSF approves $200,000 over the first two years [121]. IBM pledges $125,000 for fellowships, and topics for the odyssey another $500,000 is obtained from an essays as a, anonymous donor [30] (who might have been Thomas J Watson Sr or another Columbia Trustee). Two IBM 7090 mainframe computers are to be acquired at an education discount, which requires Columbia to devote at least 88 hours per month for for the odyssey purposes of instruction and unsponsored academic research.

With funding lined up, Dean Halford proposes the new Computer Center to the University Committee on macbeth as a tragic Finance. The need for a Computer Center was clear. Critical Hobbit? By this point, about 220 University research projects were being handled on IBM's computers in Watson Lab and the demands had long since exceeded the Lab's capacity, resulting in the rental of IBM computers by tragic, the following university sites: An IBM 1620 at Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory. Az Post Of Personal History? An IBM 650 at the Nevis Cyclotron Laboratory. An IBM 650 at Hudson Lab. As A Tragic Hero? An IBM 650 at the Electronics Research Lab of the Engineering School. The primary needs were in high-energy physics (then accounting about 200 hours of IBM 650 time per month), sociology (50 hours/month), geophysics (100 hours of uk police writing IBM 709 time per month), biochemistry, and chemistry. A school of computer science will evolve gradually at the Computing Center, with an independent line of administration as an educational organ of the University. The IBM Watson Lab courses would be taken over by the Computing Center. The initial staff was to essays hero be 15 persons covering two shifts, including a branch librarian [29].

The Computing Center was to serve those whose research is sponsored and essay topics odyssey those whose research is not. It has been created with the aim of essays tragic hero serving all of the needs of both groups without preference toward either one, with the expectation that its cost would have to be met in substantial part by the University [36]. Sep 1961: The Columbia Committee on Finance approves Dean Halford's proposal to create a Computer Center, based on funding pledges from IBM and NSF [28]. 1961-63: Construction of the Computer Center building. Essay Topics For The? Total cost: $800,000 [30] (PHOTOS, STORIES NEEDED). 2 Jan 1963: Columbia University Computer Center (CUCC) opens. Dr. Kenneth M. King, who received his Columbia Ph.D. in Physics as a Watson Fellow under Prof. Macbeth? L.H. Thomas [17] and had managed Watson Lab's computing facility [20], was the uk police statement writing first Director, with a joint appointment to the faculty of macbeth hero Electrical Engineering and beer thesis Computer Science [V5#3].

The original location was 612 W 116th Street (the first Watson Lab), which still housed the IBM teaching facility as well as Casa Hispanica, but the new underground Computer Center building between Havemeyer and Uris halls was soon ready with machine rooms for equipment and offices for staff (more space than we'll ever need). As A Tragic? The Computer Center initially housed the following equipment [10]: IBM 7090 (PHOTOS AND STORIES) with 32768 (32K) 36-bit words of magnetic core storage. This was the first commercial computer based on transistor, rather than vacuum tube, logic (a vacuum-tube 709 was originally planned [29], but the cover teacher school 7090 appeared just in time). It is in the direct line of descent from Watson Lab's NORC. The price was $1,205,000.00 after 60% IBM educational allowance, amortized over 5 years (Letter of John A. Krout, VP of the University, 4 Oct 1961, AcIS archives). Included: Two data channels.

Two IBM 1301 Model 2 disks, total capacity: 9320000 36-bit words. Six IBM 729VI 7-track tape drives. an IBM 1402-2 80-column Card Reader/Punch, reads 800 cards/minute, punches 250. Two IBM 1403 chain printers, 132 cols/line, 1100 lines/minute = 3 secs/page. 7040 Console Typewriter. 1014 Remote Inquiry Unit. Macbeth As A Tragic Hero? Applications include FORTRAN II, COBOL, SORT, MAP, UTILITY PACKAGE, plus the IBSYS monitor. IBM 1401 with: 4000 characters of memory.

Two 729V tape drives. One 600 LPM printer. A Argumentative? Advanced Programming Package. Access to computing was batch only. Users brought decks or boxes of punch cards to the operators and came back the next day to macbeth as a retrieve their cards and the resulting listings from the az post statement of personal history output bins. Jobs were paid for essays hero out of grants or funny money.

There were no user terminals and there was no user access to the machine room, which was staffed around the clock by operators and uk police statement writing a shift supervisor. During the first six months of the Center's operation, [the 7090] logged 907.55 hours on 158 projects for essays tragic hero 101 members of our academic staff. Downtime ran to thirty hours or so monthly during the statement first two months, as expected in a new installation, but fell to acceptable levels for the remainder of the period. About forty-five percent of the time used was furnished to projects sponsored by government contracts. [36] Aug 1963: An IBM 1410 was added, shared by the Registrar's Office, and ran until 1973. Nov 1963: The IBM 7090 was replaced by essays tragic hero, an IBM 7094-I. 1964-70: IBM Watson Lab continues operation at 612 W 115th Street, concentrating now on life sciences and medicine. Among many results from uk police writing this period was improved analysis of tragic Pap smears, and there was an alliance with the Urban League Street Academy program, educating community kids in science. 1965: Photo gallery of the Columbia Computer Center in topics for the 1965: The IBM 7094/7040 Coupled System, the Hough-Powell Device (HPD), Tape Library, Key Punch / EAM room. In 1965 the Computer Center had 25 employees, all housed in the Computer Center building: the director (Ken King), 8 operators, a librarian, and 15 technical people. Besides the IBM 7094/7040 system there was also an IBM 1401 and a 1410 computer in the machine room, as well as the unit record equipment listed in macbeth tragic hero the January 1963 entry.

1965-67: Professor Eckert and his Columbia thesis student in Celestial Mechanics, Harry F. Smith (who was also on the Watson Lab technical staff as lab manager in the 116th Street building, helping students (often of Eric Hankam) debug their IBM 650 programs, assisting students in uk police statement writing other ways with other computers in the building, and as a tragic responsible for closing up the lab at 11pm each evening) refine the theory of the moon -- the equations that describe and a argumentative predict its motion -- to unheard-of accuracy, improving upon the calculations performed by Eckert in 1948-52 on the SSEC [78] by adding additional terms: 10,000 equations in 10,000 unknowns, 100,000,000 possible coefficients. The calculations were programmed in essays macbeth as a hero assembly language by Smith, who devised efficient methods for solving these sparse equations with so many small-divisor terms that were a potential source of instability, and run on the Computer Center's IBM 7094 over a argumentative, a period of three years [65,87], resulting in 220 pages of lunar position tables published in Astronomical Papers of the American Ephemeris , plus several papers in astronomical journals (see Eckert's bibliography). This was the culmination of Eckert's life's work. Macbeth Tragic Hero? Smith is now on az post the Computer Science faculty at macbeth tragic University of North Carolina. 1965: (Month?) The Administrative Data Processing Center (ADPC) was established. The newly established Computer Center was primarily for academic computing (in those days, research and essay very little instruction). Administrative computing was done independently by individual departments such as the Registrar's Office and the Controller's Office. The new, separate ADPC drew programmers from the Registrar's and Conroller's offices as well as the Computer Center, including York Wong, previously the macbeth tragic Computer Center programming supervisor, who became director of the new administrative group. The equipment (IBM 1401s and IBM 1410s) was in the Controller's office in Hogan Hall on Broadway and in Prentis Hall, 632 West 125th Street, with applications written in AUTOCODER [20]. (The story of administrative computing prior to 1965 is still largely a mystery.

Dorothy Marshall, VP for ADP, upon her retirement in history 1988, wrote a reminiscence in the ADP Newsletter [11], where she recalls that ADP actually originated in essays the Controller's Office, the first [administrative] department to use a punch-card system. The first large system ADP acquired is still with us -- the Alumni Records and Gift Information System (ARGIS) -- and I recall very clearly the accusations that we were using all the tape drives and all the uk police statement writing system resources at the expense of the University researchers. (This was to be a recurring theme.) Unfortunately Dorothy did not mention dates or places.) (Coincidentally, some clue was provided on macbeth tragic the front page of the Columbia University website, 18 Jan 2001, and critical essay hobbit subsequent University Record article [18] announcing the retirement of Joe Sulsona, shift supervisor of the Computer Center machine room, after 42 years: Sulsona, a New York City native, went from high school directly to the military. When he returned from Korea in 1957 at the age of 23, he studied the latest in macbeth as a computing, gaining experience as a board programmer, which involved the manipulation of wires and cover letter teacher independent plugs on essays tragic hero a computer board, much like the original telephone operating systems. He was hired at Columbia's alumni faculty records office as a machine operator and spent his time punching out data cards using a small keypunch machine.) May 1965: An IBM 7040 was installed to form the IBM 7094/7040 Directly Coupled System (DCS) with 2x32K 36-bit words memory [6,19]. The 7040 freed the 7090 from mundane input/output and scheduling tasks so its power could be focussed on computation.

May 1965: Even though IBM 7000 series computers were to be the mainstay of Columbia computing for the next several years, the handwriting was on the wall; their capacity would soon be overwhelmed by increasing demand. IBM proposes the new System/360 architecture for the Computer Center on May 21. This was to a argumentative be the basis for IBM's mainframe line into the next millenium. Unlike previous IBM mainframes, the 360 was available in a range of compatible models, from small slow machines such as the Model 20 (suitable mainly for printing decks of essays macbeth tragic cards) to the Model 92 supercomputer that they proposed to Columbia, with many in between (IBM's proposal was for a coupled Model 92 and Model 75). Each model could use the same peripherals, and topics for the 360-series computers could also be connected to each other in various ways and even share main memory.

The 360/92 that IBM proposed, with its thin-film memory technology, turned out to be too expensive. The 360/91, announced about the same time, was an equivalent machine that used less expensive and somewhat slower core memory (the thin-film model was eventually marketed as the 360/95). To achieve supercomputer speeds, the 360/9x models pioneered new concepts such as instruction pipelining and lookahead, branch prediction, cache memory, overlap, and parallelism. The 360/9x series is optimized for scientific calculation and lacks a hardware decimal arithmetic capability (which is simulated in software). As A Hero? The coupled Models 92 and 75, with their peripherals, carried a monthly rental of $167,671.00 (after a 36% educational discount), which works out to over two million dollars a year, and about 22 million over statement, what would be the 11-year lifetime of the system. Essays Hero? [32] Nov 1965: The blackout of 1965 . The lights went out for about 12 hours in Manhattan, most of the US northeast, and large parts of Canada. Production Thesis? Interestingly, I can't unearth any stories about the blackout's impact on computing at Columbia. In those days it was not a catastrophe -- or even remarkable -- if computers were down for essays tragic hero 12 hours. 1965-69: Of the Columbia University Teachers College IBM 1130, Peter Kaiser recalls, The Teacher's College computing center had what may have been the world's most over-configured 1130.

It had not only a 2250 but also the additional hardware to make an 1130 into a 1500, the special version designed for interactive instruction; and therefore it could also drive multiple 2260-like terminals. The then director of the TCCC had ambitions use the statement 1130/1500 for research to improve on the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory by timing the responses to the test administered through one of these terminals. When I left to macbeth as a tragic hero take a real-world job in 1969 that project was in abeyance. 1966-67: Ken King offers a course in essay topics for the odyssey computer appreciation. Demand was high and half of the 60 students who tried to enroll had to be turned away. Popular computer courses are also offered this year in Engineering, Mathematics, and Sociology [38]. 1966: Watson Lab gets one of the macbeth as a first APL terminals (an IBM 1050), hooked to the M44/44X system in Yorktown, which is a 7044 computer coupled with a 7055 computer that controls a number of production thesis terminals.

This system is used to simulate a number of essays macbeth hero 44X computers, including one per cover, 1050 terminal; the 44X is the as a computer seen and programmed by the user operating from a 1050 terminal. It is primarily for users of FORTRAN IV but the essay topics odyssey 1050 can also be used to hero run APL (Iverson Language) programs on essay Yorktown's 360/50 (Iverson worked at the Yorktown facility) [88]. Essays Macbeth As A? APL soon becomes quite popular, both at Watson Lab and CUCCA. Uk Police Writing? There were tie lines between campus and macbeth as a tragic hero the 115th Street Watson Lab building, and uk police writing tie lines from Watson Lab to Yorktown. Essays Macbeth As A Hero? The Watson receptionist (Annie Hall) could, upon request, connect the two, allowing campus 2741 data terminals to access APL at Yorktown [106]. Jan 1966: The Columbia Computer Center Newsletter commences publication. It would continue in one form or another until November 1994. Oct 1966: ADPC staff moves to uk police Casa Hispanica at 612 West 116th Street (around the corner from Chock Full O' Nuts and essays as a hero a couple doors west of Campus Deli), sharing the small building with the Department of Spanish and statement writing Portuguese [20] and the IBM teaching facility [17]. Staff from the academic Computer Center also begin to move into macbeth hero this tiny building. Soon it is crammed beyond capacity and beer thesis offices spill over into neighboring apartment buildings (520 W 114th Street plus a long-gone building on West 117th Street, itself (the street) also just a memory).

1967: Dr. Seymour H. Koenig (PHOTO), who received his Ph.D. in essays macbeth hero Physics from Columbia in 1952 (and his BS in 1949) and joined Watson Lab the same year, is appointed its Director [9]. By this time Watson laboratory has RJE access to the big IBM 360s in Yorktown, but when then the link is down they use the az post statement of personal CUCCA facilities [9]. 1967: Library automation begins about here. I remember some form of essays macbeth tragic hero automation starting in the 1966-68 timeframe when I was a student assistant in cover letter teacher independent Butler -- there was already a Library Systems Office on the Mezzanine then; I used to essays macbeth as a tragic hero schlepp decks of cards and essay odyssey listings back and forth to the Computer Center for them. By 1967, circulation was already computerized in Central Circulation and Burgess-Carpenter (where I worked at the time), and a collaboration was underway with Stanford and the University of Chicago regarding cataloging and acquisitions [24]; perhaps this was the macbeth as a hero origin of RLIN. CLICK HERE for more about statement writing library automation. AND HERE. Mar 1967: In response to as a tragic hero IBM's May 1965 proposal, and after lining up sources of funding for statement writing it, the essays macbeth tragic Computer Center announces its plan to upgrade and modernize its equipment and to unify academic and administrative computing in a Computer Center Newsletter article written by (of all people) President Grayson Kirk [V2#2-3]. In the critical on the first stage , October 1967, an IBM 360/50 was rented [19, 20, 24], to allow the 7090-to-360 conversion to begin.

Aug 1967: Second stage: An IBM 360/75 was purchased and linked to the 360/50. In the ensuing months, staff learned OS/360, JCL, and some new programming languages like PL/I and SNOBOL, as well as new versions of old ones like WATFOR (the University of Waterloo version of Fortran), and then quickly began to modify the operating system for purposes of accounting and hero resource limitation, and uk police writing also to add support for IBM 2741 and essays macbeth as a tragic other terminals that were not supported yet and then to create a conversational monitor called CLEO to teacher independent allow job submission and retrieval from terminals [24]. Aug 1967: The US government mandates a chargeback scheme for computer time, launching the Computer Center on a neverending series of essays as a increasingly baroque charging schemes involving hard currency and funny money. The first such scheme was a simple $150 per essay, hour of essays macbeth as a tragic hero CPU time (which, in statement writing those days, was the essays tragic hero same thing as elapsed time), with some grandfathering of odyssey existing unsupported projects (Letter of Warren Goodell, 1 Aug 1967, AcIS archives). 1967-68 The Columbia University Bulletin Watson Laboratory lists the courses taught by macbeth as a hero, Watson Lab scientists who have Columbia faculty appointments, including Philip Aisen, Frank Beckman, Thomas Fabry, Richard Garwin, Martin Gutzwiller, Seymour Koenig, Andrew Kotchoubey, Meir Lehman, John Lentz, Allen Lurio, Thomas Moss, Ralph Palmer, Peter Price, Alred Redfield, Pat Sterbenz, and Hilleth Thomas. After the Computer Center opened in 1963, Watson Lab is no longer the focus of computing; its course offerings concentrate on essay biology, mathematics, and macbeth as a physics, but several computing courses are still listed, including EE E6827x-E6828y Digial Computer Design (Prof. Lehmann), Math G4401x-4402y Numerical Analysis and Digital Computers (Prof. Sterbenz; I took this one several years later), Math G4413x The Use of High-Speed Digital Computers for Scientific Computation (Dr. Kotchoubey), Math G4414y Introduction to Automata Theory and Formal Languages (Prof.

Rickman), and Math G6428y Numerical Solutions of Differential Equations (Prof. Thomas). 1968: The Department of Electrical Engineering becomes the statement Department of Electrical Engineering and essays as a tragic hero Computer Science. This was to be the locus for independent school computer science instruction and research until the establishment of a separate Computer Science Department in as a hero 1979. Jan 1968: Raphael Ramirez starts work as an operator in the machine room.

CLICK HERE to read his reminiscences of the early days. Feb 1968: The IBM 7040 was removed [19]. Writing? CLEO, an interactive terminal monitor developed here, was released and announced [24]. Apr-May 1968: The Columbia student uprising of 1968 . Computer Center management and some of the staff feared the worst -- invasion, occupation, wreckage -- but nothing happened to the Computer Center at all. Peter Kaiser, who worked at the Computer Center at the time, recalls, The campus was in an uproar. So was much of America, and the political powers that be were frightened and as a tragic hero acting ugly; I have vivid memories of the NYC police lined up ready to do violence to the students who had occupied the administration building, which they eventually did by invading the building and beating up everyone in sight. Statement? Before the police stormed the building, though, the computer center's administration feared that the center itself would be occupied, so there were worried talks about what to essays macbeth hero do if that ever happened. Essay? In the event it didn't happen, but the uproar delayed the essays tragic delivery of the odyssey 360. Jessica Gordon (the acting Director) reports spending two (not consecutive) nights sleeping (to the extent possible) at the Center when we were warned of major events.

One day I was standing on as a tragic hero College Walk with a group of production thesis others [including Raphael Ramirez] watching the special Tactical Police [Force]. jack-booted thugs, marching onto campus. As they passed, one of them turned to us and said 'Hi there, sports fans!'. As a participant, I have no recollection of the Computer Center ever being considered as a target for occupation or attack, nor does the macbeth tragic Computer Center's Annual report for 1967-68 make any mention of it [24]. However, there might have been a picket line afterwards, since picket lines went up in uk police statement front of macbeth as a tragic hero most academic buildings. Jul 1968: ADPC joins the beer production thesis Computer Center with its new director (yet to be chosen after York Wong resigned to resume his studies, but who would be Jon Turner) reporting to Ken King. Now there is essays macbeth as a hero One Computer Center. Conversion of critical hobbit ADP applications from IBM 1401/1410 to IBM 360 architecture begins; this would take until 1973 [20]. Legend has it, however, that some 1401 applications were left intact and executed on subsequent IBM 360-series mainframes by running a 1401 emulator under a 7090 emulator.

Warren Goodell's 14 June 1968 letter announcing the change stresses that even more important than the consolidation of essays macbeth hero all applications on the new equipment is the a argumentative essay prospect of essays macbeth tragic hero increased freedom for interchange of ideas and techniques of programming and statement writing systems analysis between staffs now separated by artifical organization boundaries (AcIS archive). Sep 1968: The student (UI) consultant program is established (UI = Unsupported Instructional, the accounting class used for tragic hero instruction). This program is still active today. Independent? Students with knowledge of Columbia's computer systems and essays as a hero applications are hired part-time to help users in the public areas. Previously, all help and topics odyssey consulting were provided by full-time professional staff on a rotating basis. Essays Macbeth As A Hero? Afterwards, full-timers continued to take their turns, but now could devote more time to systems and applications development and a argumentative essay support. For more about the essays macbeth origins of the student consulting system, READ THIS. Dec 1968: The IBM 7094, 1401, and 360/50 are removed.

The 1401 is moved to the Controller's Office [19]. IBM 360 equipment at the end of 1968 consisted of [24]: Model 75 CPU 2075 with 2.5 million bytes of memory. Two processor storage units 2365 (512K total) Selector Channel 2860-II Drum storage control 2820 Drum storage unit 2301 (fixed-head cylindrical disk for swapping) Direct-access storage facility 2314 with 2844 2-channel control unit Two storage control units 2841 Data cell drive 2321 Eight disk storage drives 2311 Multiplexor channel 2780 Console typewriter 1052-7 Two card reader/printer controls 2821 Four printers 1403 with 1416 print train Two card reader/punches 2540 Two typewriter terminals 2740 Forty typewriter terminals 2741 Two communications adapters 2701 Display control 2848-I Ten display stations 2260-2 Two tape control units 2803 Two magnetic tape units 2402-2 (4 drives) Magnetic tape unit 2402-5 (2 drives) Two magnetic tape tape units 2402-6 (4 drives) On-Line CRT display Stromberg-Datagraphics 4060. With the essay topics for the odyssey exception of the last item, all model numbers are IBM. Dec 1968: One of the last gasps of the 7090/7094 system was an early example of computer-generated film by a participant in the 1968 student uprising, Denys George Irving . Here (for as long as the link lasts) is his film “69”, and here is a list of other works of his.

Mar 1969: The IBM 360/91 supercomputer (PHOTOS), one of the essays hero first third generation computers and the biggest, fastest (and probably most expensive) computer on earth at the time, is installed and coupled with the critical essay 360/75 [19]. Thus for the second time in essays tragic 15 years, Columbia is home to the world's fastest computer. Only fifteen 360/91s were made and topics odyssey four of them were retained by IBM for their internal use (other 360/9x sites included Princeton University and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on West 112th Street, just a few blocks away); the as a hero giant computer took every inch of space in the Computer Center machine room. extensive renovations had to made to accommodate its sprawling dimensions [20] (this is an understatement; in critical essay on the fact the hero Computer Center entrance had to be demolished just to get it in the door and most interior walls removed to make space for it [V2#6]). IBM 360/91 with 2 million bytes of core memory; 60nsec machine cycle, 780nsec memory cycle, 120nsec effective memory access rate, and an instruction cache (pipeline). An additional drum. All of the on the peripherals and equipment listed above for the 360/75. Two full-time IBM technicians on macbeth site (Hans und Fritz?) The 360/75 became the Attached Support Processor (ASP) for writing the 91, essentially a job scheduler and input/output controller, freeing the 91 for intensive computation. I don't have a photo of our own Model 75, but HERE is one from macbeth hero IBM. Rather than rent the coupled 360/75/91 system as IBM proposed, the University purchased it outright for uk police seven million dollars [19], to be amortized over seven or eight years (whether seven or eight was a point of much contention, as it affected the chargeback rates levied upon essays research grants; in fact it was in operation for more than eleven years; thus the decision to purchase saved about fifteen million dollars). Statement? Of the total cost, three million dollars was for the 360/91 CPU, memory, and second drum; this was only half the as a hero list price due to the educational allowance that was negotiated.

The rest was for statement history the 360/75 and its peripherals. My own (perhaps inflated) recollection is that the 360/91 covered about an acre of floor space, most of which was devoted to full-size cabinets each containing 16K of core memory, for a total of 2MB at about 8 square feet of floorspace (and about 48 cubic feet) per 16K, plus surrounding floorspace for access, times 300. Each memory cabinet had a glass door so you could look in and see each bit. Essays As A Hero? All the uk police disks, tapes, printers, Teletypes and everything else were in there too, plus a vast tape library and specialized test equipment such as the BOM (Byte Oriented Memory) tester. All this was powered through a gigantic cast-iron motor generator weighing who-knows-how-many tons (just the flywheel probably weighed a ton) putting out 400-some Volts 3-phase power, and cooled by distilled water trucked in essays macbeth hero by Deer Park in big glass bottles in wooden crates. A Argumentative Essay? There was a control room in as a tragic hero the basement full of beer pipes, valves, gauges, pumps, and as a hero water jugs and a mammoth cooling tower upstairs, venting half a million BTUs per hour into the atmosphere (Alan Rice, a physics PhD student who was also a night-shift operator, recalls an incident in which a heat alarm summoned the fire department, who were ready to chop the machine up with axes until he talked them out of az post statement history it) . But the most impressive feature of the 360/91 was its control panel (PHOTO). The operators used to turn off the room lights and stare it at all night, waiting for the yellow loop mode light came on (executing a loop in the pipeline without accessing core memory); this was the sign of a well-crafted program. (For more about loop mode, READ THIS). There was an ongoing bubble chamber experiment in the machine room, which began in the 7094 days.

Stereo photographs of bubble chamber events were digitized using the essays macbeth as a tragic High-Energy Particle Detector (HPD) Flying Spot Scanner (HPD might also stand for Hough-Powell Device), channel-attached to statement writing the 360/91, as was a very large IBM 2250 video display with light pen (this terminal alone was said to have cost $100,000), to allow scientists to interactively select interesting events for analysis. This kind of work required physicists to macbeth as a hero take the computer standalone for hours at a time, which became problematic in later years when it was in demand by letter teacher school, the general academic and administrative computing population around the clock, and eventually the as a tragic hero experiment was discontinued: the science for which the computer was originally acquired, and which provided much of the statement history funding for it, was squeezed out by the mundane requirements of instruction and administration. The Stromberg-Carlson on-line CRT display (NEED PHOTO) was in fact a kind of graphics plotter, about the size of macbeth a panel truck, originally in the machine room but later parked outside in the hallway where it couldn't hurt the other machines. A Argumentative? Users created graphics images on the mainframe using a package called IGS, wrote them to 7-track magtape, and had the operators feed the magtape to the plotter. The images were projected on macbeth tragic hero a screen inside the production thesis box; a 35mm camera -- no kidding -- would take a picture of the screen, and then somehow disgorge its film, which would be developed in as a hero chemical baths, washed, and letter mounted as a slide that would eventually pop out of the little output slot if all went well, which rarely was the case -- more often the essays as a hero machine leaked acid and/or caught fire. Later it was replaced by a Gould 5100 electrostatic flatbed plotter that could produce 100dpi monochrome plots up to for the about 3 feet wide on pungent white paper. Essays Macbeth As A Tragic Hero? Various plotting packages (including one that Howard Eskin and I wrote that fitted lines, curves, and splines to data points) were available for it on the mainframe only. Apr 1969: The Columbia Computer Center develops, funds, and conducts a 6-month training course in computer skills for 23 students from the local Black and Latino communities: key punching and COBOL programming, with highly successful (96%) post-graduation job placement and followup. (V4#20). 1 Oct 1969: The first ARPANET transmission took place between the University of California at Los Angeles (UCLA) and Stanford Research Institute (SRI). Beer? Shortly thereafter connections were made to the University of California at tragic Santa Barbara and the University of Utah. The ARPANET expanded to thirteen sites by January 1971, 23 sites by April 1972, and eventually grew into today's wordlwide Internet.

Membership was limited to US Department of Defense research grantees until the early 1980s, at topics odyssey which time Columbia University would join. Dec 1969: The IBM 1130 at Lamont Geological (now Earth) Observatory in Palisades NY is connected to the Computer Center's IBM 360/91 by essays macbeth as a, leased line for remote job entry (see Glossary), partially replacing the previous messenger service. This was a first in long-haul networking at Columbia University (V4#23). Essay Odyssey? (Peter Kaiser reports that Columbia Teachers College also had an IBM 1130, and it was connected as an RJE station in the same way prior to 1969, but since TC is just across 120th Street, it's not exactly long haul networking.) 1970: Read an excellent summary of the macbeth as a tragic hero state of data communications in 1970: The IBM Data Communications Primer (PDF). Sep 1970: The IBM Watson Research Laboratory at Columbia University closes after 25 years of operation and a remarkable record of discovery and achievement. The idea of corporate-sponsored multidisciplinary pure research pioneered here had proven so successful that IBM built a new and much larger facility in 1961 in Yorktown Heights, NY, with others soon to follow in San José, Zürich, and elsewhere, but its research headquarters remained at Columbia, IBM's first research laboratory, until 1970.

The IBM T.J. Watson Research Center founded here in 1945 now spans four major facilities at three sites. The Columbia Computer Center offices and essay the Columbia Purchasing Department move to macbeth as a the Watson Lab building on 612 West 115th Street. The IBM-Columbia relationship continues for teacher some time afterward mainly in the form of faculty appointments (in 1976 I took a graduate-level numerical analysis course in the Engineering School from one such professor, Pat Sterbenz, author of the book Floating-Point Computation ). IBM left behind a machine room with raised floor (back of essays as a 7th floor, where they had their 1620), a fully equipped classroom (back of 1), and lots of furniture including my 1940s-vintage Steelcase desk with metal Physics Dept ID plate attached (dating from World War II when IBM moved into cover teacher independent school Pupin). During its residence at as a hero Columbia University, IBM Watson Laboratory staff had been granted 67 patents and published 359 articles in recognized scientific journals [9]. Dorothy Marshall [11] writes, The third floor [of 612 West 115th Street] was entirely without inner walls and contained large milling machines and other noisy tooling machines, as well as pipes, hoses, and exhaust ducts [but] the staff at az post of personal history Casa Hispanica felt they were extraordinarily crowded [so were glad for the additional space].

Nola Johnson writes in essays macbeth as a the same issue, I remember when we were packed like sardines in Casa Hispanica. There would be three or four of us in one tiny room, complete with keypunch and topics for the odyssey fireplace. Until about the as a tragic hero mid-1970s, CUCC staff submitted jobs from Watson (as they had done from letter teacher independent Casa Hispanica), and messengers went back and forth delivering decks of cards and rolled-up printouts. As A? In fact, rolled-up printouts still arrived each day from a daily batch job that was submitted decades ago and ran faithfully until 2004 when the Academic IBM mainframe was retired; nobody knew exactly what the batch job did or how to essay topics for the odyssey cancel it. 31 Jan 1971: Professor Wallace Eckert, founder of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, attends the Apollo 14 launch. The lunar orbit calculations upon which the essays macbeth hero Apollo missions were based were done by uk police, Eckert at Watson Laboratory and on the SSEC computer [42,92], designed at Watson Laboratory under Eckert's direction in macbeth tragic hero the late 1940s, and beer later improved on the Lab's NORC, IBM 650, and 1620 computers, and still later on the Computer Center's IBM 7094. Macbeth Hero? Eckert died six months later.

July 1971 - June 1973 The Columbia Computer Center publishes two annual Project Abstracts, in cover independent school which every single research, instruction, and essays as a administrative project carried out on the IBM 360/91 is listed, as well as publications resulting from these projects. In FY 1971-72 there were 119 publications and in 1972-73, 214 publications are listed. Each abstract is about 250 pages long; the first one was generated by a SNOBOL program and printed on the 1403 printer; the second one was typeset somehow using programs written by Computer Center technical staff. I would call this the Golden Age of the Computer Center , reflecting an topics odyssey, unparalleled degree of collaboration between the tragic faculty and the Computer Center and the accomplishment of much work that might well have had an impact on az post the real world medicine, social research, physical sciences, engineering, every field was represented. Computer Center Technical staff participated in many of these projects, and each project contributed a writeup. The projects themselves are fascinating, about 100 pages of as a project description in each volume, about beer production 5 projects per page. Aug 3-5, 1971: At the second annual Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) computer chess championship at ACM 71 in Chicago, the as a tragic hero Columbia Computer Chess Program (CCCP) came in tied for 3-6 in odyssey a field of macbeth tragic hero 8. CCCP was written by Columbia student (and now CS faculty member) Steve Bellovin and CUCCA's Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and Andrew Koenig. For more about the development of CCCP, READ THIS. Aug 1971: Stanford University's Wylbur [49] is installed on the 360/75, replacing a previous system called CRBE. Wylbur is described as a terminal system with limited interactive capabilities, used as a remote job entry and on-line text-editing facilities. . Teacher Independent? Wylbur may be used with an IBM 2741 typewriter terminal or a Teletype device.

At present CUCC's Wylbur does not support IBM 2260 terminals (early video terminals in essays hero the 2nd floor Computer Center terminal room); the critical essay on the Jan 1972 Newsletter announces their replacement with a similar CRT device, the Hazeltine 2000 (four of macbeth as a hero them) [V6#7]. The IBM 2741 was a Selectric typewriter embedded in essay topics for the odyssey a small-desk-size cabinet crammed with electronics and wires, which communicated at 134.5 bits per second, half duplex (when it was the essays tragic hero computer's turn to transmit, it physically locked the typewriter keyboard). There was also limited dialup access; in essay for the odyssey those days this was at 110 to 300 bits per second by essays macbeth as a tragic, acoustically coupled modems. More about Wylbur below. Oct 1971: Ken King resigns as Computer Center Director and moves to CUNY as Dean of Computer Systems. Later he would become president of EDUCOM and Vice Chancellor of Computing at Cornell University.

Dr. Warren F. Goodell, VP for Administration, Ken's boss, assumes Acting Director position (V6#6), but since he was not on site, Jessica Hellwig (Gordon), who had previously been on the IBM Watson Lab computing staff [21] had day-to-day responsibility. (Newsletters of the early 70s were devoted mainly to JCL hints and essay tips, announcements of meetings and conferences, announcements of OS/360 upgrades, explanations of cost accounting, and lists of unclaimed tapes in as a hero the tape library -- up to beer thesis 6 pages of numeric tape IDs on essays as a tragic one occasion (in the Earth Week issue no less: V6#5, 15 Apr 1971) -- plus the annual April Fools Issue, usually featuring parodies of cost accounting. Prior to 1971, they also contained abstracts or reports of research projects, e.g. Motivating Learning in Interracial Situations (V5#2); French Business Elite Study, Jonathan Cole et al; Transport and az post history Fluid Mechanics in Artificial Organs, Ed Leonard et al (V5#13); as well as Computer Science Colloquia.) Dec 1971: Two IBM 2501 self-service card readers (PHOTO) installed in macbeth hero 208 Computer Center. The use of self-service card readers affords CUCC users much greater security for their decks at both the submission and uk police the retrieval points of running a job. Users will be able to read in their own decks and keep them while the job is running -- thereby eliminating the as a hero risk of loss or mishandling of the deck by essay, the Center. Also, since input decks no longer need be left in the output bins, the exposure of essays hero users' JOB cards -- and therefore their project numbers -- to anauthorized persons [some things never change] will be significantly reduced.

In addition to this increased security, the 2501's will also provide greater efficiency since the critical on the hobbit user will be able to discover and hero correct immediately such problems as off-punched cards [hanging and pregnant chad were evidently not an statement of personal, issue in 1971] , rather than having to wait for the job to be processed by the Center. (V6#19) Also on the second floor was an IBM 360 Model 20 used for printing card decks onto fanfold paper, duplicating card decks, and so on; the macbeth tragic desired function could be selected with a dial. There was (and had been for some time) a key punch room on essay the first floor. Later the Model 20 was moved to the key punch room. Apr 1972: TPMON installed, allows terminal lines to essays tragic hero be switched among different applications such as Wylbur ( and uk police what else? ) rather than dedicated to a specific one. Sep 1972: IBM OS/360 21.0 installed (V6#33). 1973: The following was posted by Arthur T. Murray on alt.folklore.computers , 22 May 2003: There is a tenuous etiological link between Columbia and the founding of Microsoft Corporation . Here in Seattle WA USA, a Columbia Ph.D. grad in astronomy, Dr. James R. Naiden -- now in essays macbeth as a tragic his late eighties -- around 1973 was teaching Latin at The Lakeside School. 'Doc' Naiden observed that the students were eager to get into a argumentative essay computers, so he asked (Naiden was always starting things, e.g., he hired Vilem Sokol to run the Seattle Youth Symphony for many years; he also started a history-of-literature or some such group, still allegedly running at the University of macbeth as a tragic Washington) the Lakeside Mothers Club to donate some money from their annual Lakeside Rummage Sale to buying some computer time-share for the kids -- back then there were no personal computers. Beer Thesis? The Mothers put up one thousand dollars, which Bill Gates and Paul Allen ran through in macbeth as a tragic a matter of weeks. Upshot: Columbia Doc Naiden Lakeside School Microsoft Corp. Jan 1973: V6#46 mentions twenty-five IBM 2741 terminals being replaced by (presumably compatible) Anderson-Jacobson 841 terminals, which were cheaper to rent ($88 versus $100 per month). Feb 1973: The Self-Service Input/Output (SSIO) Area (PHOTO GALLERY) is essay opened on the first floor of the Computer Center building.

Equipment included two card readers, two IBM 1403 printers, one online card punch (NEED PHOTO), a sorter, a collator, an interpreter, a duplicator, four Hazeltine 2000 user terminals, and one job inquiry console -- all self service -- plus a large number of IBM 029 key punches, and a resident Insultant whom I remember well from my student days. The IBM 360 Model 20 was retired, replaced by a UNIVAC 1710 Interpreting Keypunch (V6#49, 21 Feb 1973). Now, for the first time, users could not only submit their own jobs but also get the results themselves as soon as the job had run. Sometimes, standing in line at the card readers, were social scientists with data sets spanning 4 or 5 boxes of essays macbeth hero cards (2000 cards per box); submitting jobs of this size rarely proceeded without incident (jams, dropped decks). The normal student Open Batch job deck was a quarter inch thick and cover letter teacher independent generally went through the system quickly. A Hazeltine 2000 ASP Job Inquiry station let you watch your job rise through the queue so you could elbow your way through the crowd to the printer when your job output started. Every night from 7 to tragic 9pm was System Time, meaning the Systems Group from Watson Lab had the 360/91 to themselves and the readers and printers were shut down. Critical Essay? The SSIO area was a miserable place during those two hours. Macbeth Hero? More about SSIO HERE. More about self-service computing just below in the entry for Sep 1973. 22 May 1973: Birth of cover teacher school Ethernet (a local area networking technology that would reach Columbia in essays the early 1980s and persist for decades), developed by Bob Metcalfe of Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC), which also gave us the graphical user interface and desktop metaphor.

May 1973: Resignation of Joe Gianotti (Assistant Director), Ira Fuchs (systems programmer, who would go on to direct the CUNY facility and to found BITNET, become President of CREN, etc.), Aron Eisenpress, Ben Yalow, and uk police writing other members of the Systems group, to macbeth as a join Ken King at CUNY, which was acquiring brand-new then-leading-edge IBM 370/168 hardware (V6#54). Soon more would follow. May 1973: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist is appointed the az post history new Director of the essays macbeth as a Columbia University Computer Center (he would assume full-time duties in July). He also receives an appointment to the faculty of beer production thesis Electrical Engineering and Computer Science. Bruce was a co-inventor of the fast adder while at the Princeton Institute of Advanced Study (1955), then Director of Computing at the University of Syracuse (mid-to-late 1950s), joined IBM in 1959 and became manager of IBM's Service Bureau and Data Processing divisions (1963-68). While at essays macbeth IBM Bruce was Secretary and critical then Vice President of the Association for Computing Machinery, ACM (1960-64), and essays afterwards was President and Executive Director of the of personal American Federation of Information Processing Societies, AFIPS (1968-73). His final project at Columbia was the installation of the $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just the University's first digital telephone system, but also the way that almost every single room (inclusing in dormitories) on the Morningside campus got high-speed data access. Sep 1973: Bruce introduced the Open Batch system (V6#60), opening up The Computer to as a tragic hero the masses for the first time, and essay for the odyssey renamed CUCC (Columbia University Computer Center) to CUCCA (Columbia University Center for Computing Activities), in recognition that computing was beginning to take place outside the machine room. SSIO soon became unbelievably crowded. 1974: Snapshot: When I came to the CUCCA Systems Group in 1974, Dr.

Howard Eskin was manager of Systems (197?-1984), with joint appointment to the EE/CS faculty, where he taught the Data Structures and Compiler courses. The big languages for systems programming then were 360 assembler, APL, PL/I and SPITBOL (a SNOBOL dialect). CUCCA included both academic and hero administrative computing under a single director, all in the Watson building at essay odyssey 612 W 115th Street. Administrative computing (ADP) shared floors 2-5 with the Purchasing Office, the Director's office and administrative staff on 6, academic on 7-8. Essays As A Tragic Hero? Offices had chalkboards for a argumentative scribbling ideas and essays macbeth tragic diagrams. People used Hazeltine terminals at 1200 bps, connected to a multiplexer in statement writing the back of 7 that was connected by leased telephone line to the 3705 in the machine room, and that always conked out on rainy days. There was no e-mail.

The Penthouse was a kind of cafeteria, with tables and chairs (I remember checkered tablecloths and gingham curtains) and a working, if rarely-used, kitchen. The back of the first floor was a large classroom (now divided into the network and mail rooms); across from the elevator was a big Xerox copying room (Joe Iglesias), and there was a grand lobby and reception area, approximately where the art gallery is now, plus some administrative offices (Helen Ransower). Essays Macbeth Tragic Hero? There was a shower in the basement (later converted to a darkroom by statement, Andy Koenig, and later to essays macbeth hero a weight-lifting room by Lloyd, the messenger/front-desk guy, an on the hobbit, Olympic hopeful). The Penthouse later became a ping-pong room (for Vace), then AIS offices, later it was divided between the Kermit machine/production room and a sometimes-office sometimes-conference-room, and finally all offices. The back of the 7th floor was an essays, IBM machine room dating from the 1950s, complete with raised floor, space phone floor-tile pullers, and communication cables radiating out to all the offices. The famous 1957 book about IBM, Think [8], speaks of teak paneling and cozy fireplaces, but those were in the first Watson Lab, not this one.

In those days, the Computer Center had a certain academic standing not only through faculty appointments, but also for uk police statement writing its RD activities and library. The non-circulating research library (not to be confused with the Thomas J Watson Library of the Business School) in room 209 of the Computer Center Building was a full-fledged branch of the macbeth as a Columbia Library, complete with card catalog and cover teacher librarian (the original librarians were Julia Jann and Hugh Seidman; Nuala Hallinan [20] was librarian from essays as a tragic hero 1966 to 1973, succeeded by Evelyn Gorham). The holdings, cataloged in Butler Library, included computer science books and journals as well as computer manuals and Computer Center handouts [25]. Topics Odyssey? New acquisitions continued until at least 1973. Eventually (about 1980) the collection was transferred to the Engineering Library. Several technical staff members performed pure RD , for example Richard Siegler who worked half-time on an AI medical diagnosis assistant in SPITBOL with Dr. Rifkin at the Medical Center. An annual catalog, the Columbia University Bulletin, Computing Activities [7] was published, as well as a Technical Abstract of each year's research projects.

CUCCA was co-sponsor (with EE/CS) of the University Colloquium in Computer Science . There was an alliance with NASA Goddard Space Flight Center on 112th Street, which had one of the four existing IBM 360/95s. The academic user community was quite small. There were weekly user meetings where everybody could fit into one room; sometimes they were held in the Watson Penthouse. 1974-78: Heyday of Wylbur , and the age of the Hazeltine 2000 video terminal mainly on Olympus (aside from four Hazeltines available to users in 208 Computer Center: V6#22). Wylbur was an interactive linemode editor that could be used from a hardcopy or video terminal. It was far more than an editor, however; it was the equivalent of the latter-day shell; users lived in Wylbur all day, writing Wylbur execs (like shell scripts), programs, and JCL; submitting jobs, querying jobs, sending screen messages (but not e-mail) to essays as a tragic each other, and so on. Wylbur originally came from Stanford but was improved beyond recognition by Dave Marcus and later Vace Kundakci, who also converted it to TSO and later to critical hobbit VM/CMS. It's still used today on our IBM mainframes, but unfortunately we could never export it due to licensing issues. Eventually Wylbur terminals -- hardwired to the 3705 -- were available to departments; sometimes these were video terminals, sometimes IBM 2741 (IBM hardcopy terminals made from essays macbeth as a hero Selectric typewriters).

When developing software on the mainframe, writing in assembler, Fortran, PL/I, etc (compiled, not interpreted, languages), programs would often dump core because of production faulty instructions (bugs, mistakes). In those days, a core dump meant a literal dump of literal core memory to the printer, in hex, sometimes several feet thick. To find the fault, programmers would have to decode the core dump from the listing by hand, separating instructions, addresses, and data -- a lost art (and good riddance!) When the DEC-20s arrived on the scene, it became possible to essays macbeth tragic analyze and debug core images (and even running programs) interactively and symbolically with a tool called (what else) DDT, and debugging tasks that once took days or weeks became quick and even fun. DDT-like tools live on today in Unix as 'adb' and critical essay 'gdb'. May 1974: Snapshot: Wylbur has 500 users.

CALL/360 has 50-100 users. There are 2000 batch users. 50% of each programmer's time is spent helping users. ADP submits 10% of the batch jobs but uses 50% of the macbeth as a tragic hero machine. Because of their EAM backgrounds, the Registrar's and Controller's Offices consider the 360/91 a large sorter. 90% of billing is for letter teacher school funny money. Technical staff turnover is too high, talented people can not be retained. [33] 1974-75: First proof of concept home computers introduced (Mark-8, Altair).

1975: IBM 3705 communications front end replaced by an NCR COMTEN (which lasted until August 1998), after a two-week training course in the Watson Lab classroom in the back of the 1st floor. Jul 1975: A DEC PDP-11/50 minicomputer (PHOTOS) was installed, running the RSTS/E timesharing system (we considered UNIX, but it was not nearly ready for large-scale production use in a hostile environment). Macbeth As A Tragic? This was the first true general-purpose public-access timesharing system (not counting APL and CALL/OS (aka CALL/360), which were both OS/360 subsystems (essentially batch jobs, each of which controlled a number of terminals simultaneously); the latter was only for critical essay on the the Business School and APL, though open to the public, required special terminals which were not to be found in abundance, and macbeth as a hero was not exactly user friendly). RSTS/E was to be a small pilot project to absorb the CALL/OS users and attract new ones. 32 people could use it at a time (because it had 32 terminals). Accounts were free. Within a few months of installation, it was already logging nearly ten times the usage that CALL/OS had at its peak [19]. (From Bandit, 6 July 2010) CALL/360 was written for Buck Rogers of IBM by seven guys who had worked together at writing GE in as a Phoenix, then moved to the San Jose Bay Area. They wrote CALL/360 for a fixed-price, 10 month contract.

I cannot remember everybody, but included Sherbie Gangwere (my father), Charlie Winter, Jim Bell, George Fraine, Don Fry, Dick Hoelnle (sp?) and essay topics for the odyssey . (The last one, I think, is the only one that made it big - he wrote a core network system that got sold off.) Also - Jerry Wienberg, now a famous author, was probably shipped along with the IBM 704. He was sent with the first 10 machines, and taught many how to program it. The primary programming language (like in CALL/OS) was BASIC (another reason why RSTS was chosen over UNIX, which didn't have BASIC), but Fortran and Macro-11 were also available. As I recall, the PDP-11/50 cost about essays as a hero $150,000. It occupied a fairly large room (208) in the Computer Center down the hall from the IBM machine room, and essay topics odyssey was comprised of four full-width cabinets (CPU, tape drive, communications, I forget what else) and a 92MB RP04 3330-type disk drive, plus a 2K fixed-head drive for swapping (RS04?). I took care of it myself (backups and all) for maybe a year, then Ben Beecher joined me and later also some part-timers.

Ben and I sat in the room with it full-time for a couple years. Essays As A Tragic Hero? Our terminals were DECwriters (later VT05, VT50, VT52, and finally VT100, and at one point a GE Terminet, that worked and sounded like a bandsaw). But even without the Terminet, the room was so loud we had to wear airport ear-protectors. Ben was RSTS manager after the DEC-20s came in essay 1977. Eventually RSTS had a user population of essays as a hero 1700. History? It was retired in essays as a tragic 1982. Jul 1975: The IBM 1410 in the Controller's Office is replaced by an IBM 370/115 [19]. Mid 1970s: Here begins the decline of centralized campus computing. Minicomputers begin to beer sprout in macbeth tragic hero the departments, encouraged by az post, government grants that would buy equipment but wouldn't pay for hero central computer time. (The same trend was evident at other universities; it created the need for writing campus networking, and thus -- since a way was needed to as a tragic hero interconnect all these campus networks -- the Internet.) Some of the early departmental minis I remember were the SEL 810B, Applied Physics also had an Imlac graphics processor (which never worked) and several early PDP-8 models for controlling experiments.

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, I worked in Applied Physics and used the uk police statement departmental computers for both work and EE/CS projects. The SEL (Systems Engineering Laboratories, later Gould) 810B (1968) was the most advanced, since it had i/o devices and could be programmed in Fortran and assembly language. It had 16K of memory, 2 registers, Teletype, paper tape, card reader, drum printer, and an oscilloscope-like CRT display for graphics; CLICK HERE to see a picture of the SEL 810A, which is like the 810B but without extra i/o devices. However, its hard disk was not generally used for essays hero storing programs or data due to essay odyssey lack of space. Instead, programs were read from cards or paper tape; this required toggling in a bootstrap program on the console switches: a series of 16-bit words was deposited in successive memory locations and then executed to activate the macbeth tragic Teletype as the letter teacher school control device, which could be used in essays as a hero turn to activate the card or paper tape reader to read the program. Production programs were generally punched in object format onto on the hobbit, paper tape (since the paper tape reader/punch was much faster than the card reader). CLICK HERE to see the SEL 810B Manual. The PDP-8 computers in essays macbeth tragic hero the same lab had no Teletype, card reader, or paper tape; they were programmed directly from the console switches and i/o was magtape only. The Physics Department in Pupin Hall had a DEC PDP-4, several PDP-8s, a PDP-9, and a PDP-15; Electrical Engineering had a PDP-7 on the 12th floor of Mudd, that we studied down to the gate level in the 1970s EE/CS Computer Architecture course. (The PDP-7 is also the machine for which the essay UNIX operating was originally written at Bell Labs in the late 1960s.) The keypunch room was on the 2nd floor of Engineering Terrace near the back exit, connected by tunnel to the SSIO area.

There were often long waits for punches. The 1976 Bulletin [7] also lists: A DEC PDP-11/45 and GT/40 Graphics Computer in Biology (Schermerhorn). A HP 2100 in Chemical Engineering (Prentis). A DG Nova 1220 and 3 DEC PDP-8s in Chemistry (Havemeyer). Macbeth As A Tragic Hero? A DG Super Nova in cover teacher EE/CS (Mudd). plus various special-purpose computers for Fourier transforms, etc, some of them possibly analog (rather than digital) on campus, as well as all sorts of computing equipment at the outlying campuses (no doubt a tale in itself). 1976: Andy Koenig's RSTS e-mail program, the first e-mail at CU.

Andy was a prominent member of the essays macbeth CUCCA technical staff (reponsible for at least APL and PL/I) who went on to Bell Labs and fame with C++. His dad is Dr. Seymour H. Critical On The Hobbit? Koenig, who was at Watson Lab from 1952 to 1970, and its director from 1967 [9,17]. Andy's frequent co-author is macbeth Barbaro Moo, also formerly of essay CUCCA. (Note: it's possible that email was used earlier in within certain departments, notably those (like Biology) that had Unix-based minicomputers, I don't know, but in essays as a hero any case this was the first email available to the general University population.) Nowadays most of the University conducts its business by e-mail, and it has been an enormous productivity booster, eliminating telephone tag, enabling one-to-many messaging, and filling an ever-increasing role in cover teacher instruction and research. As early as 1983 (the 9 Feb 1983 Newsletter, V15#2, is full of allusions to this), professors were sending assignments to essays macbeth as a tragic their classes by e-mail and collecting results the same way, with the added benefit of questions and teacher answers and other discussions that could not fit in the classroom schedule. Readers who were not exposed to macbeth as a electronic mail prior to the Internet explosion of the mid-1990s probably won't appreciate how much more useful and essay pleasant it was before then, even in its original text-only format. Today I typically have several hundred messages waiting for me each morning (after central filtering!), of which 98% are spam, advertisements, promotions, junk mail, get-rich-quick schemes, invitations to Exclusive High-Powered Executive Webcasts and Enterprise Leadership Webinars, chain letters, be-my-friend-and-share-photos, inspirational Powerpoints, strategic partnerships, office humor, world class enterprise solutions, body-part enhancements, business best practices, claim your lottery winnings, claim your inheritance, claim your fund, Dear beloved, I am dying, I don't want you to feel sorry for me, Beloved in Christ, Dear beneficiary, Complements of the season, confidential matter, delinquent accounts, cash grant award, designer watches, investment opportunities, work-at-home opportunities, get your diploma, grow your business, increase your profitability, Dear entrepreneur, Take this five-minute survey, offers from essays macbeth as a tragic soldiers in our many wars who found barrels full of cover money, I want to place an order with your store, low-interest loans, your account is expired, Viagra, Cialis, lonely hearts, Russian beauties, update your information, bounce notifications about mail you didn't send, and deliberate attempts at implanting viruses (Windows e-mail attachments containing viruses or worms have no effect on my UNIX-based plain-text mail client) -- or security alerts or complaints about all of macbeth as a hero these.

In the 1970s and 80s, by contrast, practically every e-mail message was legitimate, worth reading, and usually only 1-2K bytes in length, and beer production could not possibly hurt your computer (not strictly true; it was possible to put an macbeth as a tragic, escape sequence in cover teacher school an email message that, if it arrived intact at as a tragic hero certain kinds of terminals, could make them automatically transmit any desired text back to statement the host, but even if you had a terminal that responded to macbeth the escape sequence, this rarely could cause any serious demage because an email client would be on the receiving end, not the system command prompt) . Even when e-mail is exchanged between consenting parties, the critical essay on the hobbit demands posed by multimedia attachments -- Microsoft Word documents, Powerpoints, spreadsheets, images, audio and video clips, even entire music CDs or motion pictures -- have coerced the University to constantly upgrade its network and mail server capacity, and of course the costs are inevitably passed back to the consumer in the form of essays macbeth as a tragic hero tuition or overhead increases and/or cutbacks in other areas. 1976: Hot newsletter topics: APL, the Gould plotter, PL/I, SPSS, BMDP, ASP3, Syncsort, Crosstabs with Multipunch. Dec 1976: The Xerox 1200 -- first non-impact printer: a big Xerox machine that printed on plain paper, in portrait or landscape. Plain monospace (Courier) font only; no special effects (other than simulated line-printer-paper stripes). I don't remember exactly where the input came from writing -- either it had an IBM mainframe channel connection, or else it read from 9-track magnetic tape, but in any case it was possible to print on it from both the macbeth as a IBM and DEC systems. 1977: (Month?) Because the IBM 360/91 was more suited to scientific calculations and lacked decimal arithmetic, and because of security questions posed by the Open Batch system, which opened it up to critical essay the student population, ADP acquires a separate mainframe exclusively for administrative work, an IBM 370/138 located in the Computer Center machine room and essays macbeth tragic running VM/CMS (later to be upgraded to 370/148, 3031 (1979), 3083 (1983), 3090 (1986), etc). A new Personnel (now we would say Human Resources) system was developed for critical on the hobbit the 370 in house, and essays as a tragic administrative applications began to migrate from punch cards and batch to interactive online systems [20]. The arrival of the IBM 370 launches an effort to convert administrative applications from batch to online, with IBM 3270 block-mode terminals allowing interactive access to administrative systems such as student records, accounts receivable, and statement so on. Jul 1977: The IBM 370/115 in the Controller's Office is removed. I believe this was the last outpost of department-level mainframe administrative computing. Jul 1977: The blackout of 1977 . No electricity for two days (July 13-14).

Howard (Eskin) and I were in Watson Lab the evening of the 13th working on essays macbeth as a hero the floor plan for the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room when the lights went out. We were also in odyssey the middle of our first DEC-20 installation, a six-week process (so two lost days were not a disaster). Aug 1977: Our PDP-11/50 was invaded (via modem) by a gang of prep-school kids, who had their way with it undetected for several weeks. This was the macbeth as a tragic hero first hacker breakin to a Columbia computer from the outside, and it went to court. It cost us nearly a week of round-the-clock systems work and delayed the DEC-20 opening by a week. Later the a argumentative essay same group invaded other RSTS systems and essays as a hero even (as I recall) destroyed a cement company in hobbit Quebec. The prep school in question had purchased a PDP-11 with RSTS and let the students run it without supervision; thus the students had hands-on access and full privileges, with ample opportunity to macbeth as a probe their own system for uk police statement vulnerabilities, write Trojan-horse replacements for essays macbeth tragic hero system software, etc, in-house before attacking external sites, and indeed they did a good job: their modified LOGIN program let them in silently, with full root privileges; the modified accounting programs did not list their sessions; the modified DIRECTORY program did not list their directories or files; the modified SYSTAT program did not show their jobs, and so on. Eventually they tipped their hand by a argumentative essay, accidentally printing a password list on macbeth as a tragic hero a public printer, and topics we tracked them down using methods remarkably similar to those used by Cliff Stoll 10 years later to catch the essays macbeth as a tragic hero German hackers at Berkeley [46] (see 1986-87 below), such as Y-connecting hardcopy terminals to the modems to log dialin sessions. Aug 1977: Our first DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A (PHOTOS), was installed for large-scale timesharing. Accounts were free and available to all (or maybe there was a one-time $5.00 fee; later, per-semester or per-course fees would be added).

It cost 800,000 dollars [19] and was much larger than the writing PDP-11, a row of double-width orange cabinets about 10 feet long, plus four 178MB RP06 washing-machine-size 3350-type disk drives, but unlike the PDP-11, had little in as a tragic hero the way of lights and switches (if you didn't count the PDP-11/40 communications front end hidden inside it). It had 256K 36-bit words of main memory, two 800/1600bpi TU45 tape drives (later TU77, TU78), an LP20 drum printer (mainly for backup listings), and an LA36 system console hardcopy terminal. It also had a DN20 communications processor (PDP-11/34 concealed in odyssey orange full-size cabinet) for remote job entry (see Glossary) to the IBM mainframes. CU20A was originally a model 2040, and so it had core memory and no cache; later it was upgraded to a 2050 and then a 2065; the core became MOS and cache was added, memory increased to 2MB. Each user got 35KB (that's KB, not MB or GB) of disk space. Essays As A Tragic? The first DEC-20 marked the beginning of the online campus in which the computer was used not just for calcalation and programming, but also communication among users and (eventually) with the outside world. The DEC-20 was a member of the DEC's 36-bit PDP-10 line of computers, which descended from the PDP-6, first produced in a argumentative essay 1964, and which itself has its roots in the 36-bit IBM 700 series that goes back to as a tragic hero 1952. PDP-10s, however, were distinct from 20s: they had a different operating system (TOPS-10 instead of TOPS-20); they came in a variety of models (KA, KI, KL, KS), whereas DEC-20s came in cover only KL and KS models; PDP-10s were more suited to hands-on lab work, with all sorts of devices and attachments lacking from the -20s such as real-time bus-attached instruments; DECtapes, paper tape, and graphics devices; they could be installed in multiprocessor configurations; and they were blue rather than orange. DEC-20s could run TOPS-10 applications in an emulation mode, but not vice versa, and until the very end, quite a bit of DEC-20 software was indeed native to TOPS-10 (e.g. the linker and most of the compilers). The DEC-20 pioneered all sorts of advanced concepts such as a swappable monitor (kernel), lightweight processes (threads), page mapping, shared pages with copy-on-write, hardware assisted paging, and other techniques to allow large numbers of users access to a limited resource (CLICK HERE for details). Essays Macbeth As A Hero? Nevertheless, our first DEC-20 was soon loaded far beyond capacity , and the ensuing years were a constant struggle to get funding for more DEC-20s: budget proposals, user meetings (for which, by now, large auditoriums were required), even outdoor campus demonstrations.

But DEC-20s were expensive; they demanded copious floor space and air conditioning, as well as 3-phase power with isolated ground (a 10-foot copper stake literally driven into essay for the bedrock outside the CUCCA loading dock). Annual maintenance alone was something like $100,000 per machine, and each one carried an additional $10,000 electric bill. Therefore adding DEC-20s was difficult and painful. There were all sorts of revenue-raising schemes and eventually we had 4 of essays them, CU20A through CU20D, serving 6000 users, up to 70 or 80 logged in of personal simultaneously on each. Additional DEC-20s for instruction and research were installed at Teachers College and in the Computer Science department.

DEC-20s were fairly reliable for their day. Unlike the IBM mainframe with its scheduled two-hour nightly System Time, the DEC-20s were kept running and available all the time except for a couple hours (usually outside of prime time) every week or two for preventive maintenance by essays tragic, DEC Field Service. But by today's standards they crashed frequently anyway, usually because of power glitches; so often, in fact that somebody had a batch of %DECSYSTEM-20 NOT RUNNING T-shirts made up (this was the dying gasp of the DEC-20 as it went down). Whenever a DEC-20 was up for more than 100 hours, people became quite excited. The record was just shy of a argumentative essay 800 hours (about a month); MTBF was under 100 hours (4 days). By comparison, today (8 Feb 2001) I have an HP workstation in my office that has been up continuously for 883 days (that's more than 21,000 hours), despite numerous brownouts and momentary power failures, and that's without a UPS (eventually its running streak was interrupted at 900-some days when electricians needed to shut off power to the floor to replace the circuit-breaker panel). For lots more about the Columbia DEC-20s, CLICK HERE.

(The Gandalf PACX IV terminal switch was installed around here somewhere. As A? Prior to cover letter teacher school that terminals were hardwired using various forgotten technologies like 20mA Current Loop. The PACX was a speed-transparent 1000x1000 switch, driven by little blue PACX boxes on the user end, with thumbwheels to essays macbeth tragic hero dial the desired service and an on/off switch.) 1977-78: Use of e-mail takes off. Also video editing (EMACS, etc), text formatting and typesetting (Pub, Scribe, later T E X). In April 1978, we (Bill Catchings) write a bboard (bulletin board) program, a kind of precursor to Netnews, Twitter, etc, where everybody on campus could sound off in public. Various bboards were available, including course-specific boards, topical boards, and a general (any topic) board, and were unmoderated and essay uncensored. Essays Macbeth As A Tragic? CLICK HERE for a study of az post statement history Columbia's computer bulletin boards in the early 1980s.

EMACS, by the way, was created at the MIT AI Lab on a PDP-10 running MIT's Incompatible Timesharing System (ITS) by Richard Stallman, building upon essays macbeth as a tragic the venerable Text Editor and uk police statement writing COrrector, TECO, written in 1962-63 for the DEC PDP-1 by Dan Murphy, who was also largely responsible for TOPS-20, the as a tragic operating system on our DECSYSTEM-20s. I first used TECO in 1972 on a PDP-11/20 with the DOS/Batch operating, at statement the Teletype console. The first release of EMACS was in 1976 and we were using it at Columbia on essays macbeth as a tragic CU20A by 1977. Columbia's systems group made numerous contributions to EMACS; for example, Chris Ryland added split-screen editing. In the 1980s EMACS would be completely rewritten in uk police writing LISP, to become the now-universal GNU EMACS, one of the most prominent surviving relics of the heyday of the DEC 36-bit mainframes. Jan 1978: The 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room opens (V10#2). This was the first public terminal room outside the Computer Center building. The Columbia architects had a field day, decorating it in bilious hot pink like a bordello, with trendy globe lighting. (The April Fools 1978 issue of the Newsletter (V10#5) presents the coveted Louis XVI Alive with the macbeth tragic hero Arts award to the Department of Buildings and Grounds [now Facilities Management] for their exceptional work in essay on the hobbit recreating the atmosphere of an 18th century French palace. . As A Tragic Hero? Columbia's resident architect was entreated to comment on the bizarre appearance of the uk police statement new terminal room. ) Notwithstanding the decor, the room was laid out according to our floorplan (Howard Eskin and I designed it), divided into cubicles about 4 feet high so people would have privacy when sitting, but could stand up to chat and hand things back and forth. There was a common area where people could congregate, and a glassed-in machine room containing a DN200 and a Printronix heavy-duty dot-matrix printer. Each cubicle had a terminal and essays as a tragic a spacious working surface for books and papers and its own reading light. A Argumentative Essay? Large cubicles had LA36 DECwriters (hard-copy 132-column dot-matrix printers operating at essays macbeth as a tragic hero 30 cps on pin-feed green-and-white striped fanfold paper) and the smaller ones had Perkin-Elmer Fox-1100 CRTs operating at 9600 bps (this was the first affordable CRT, costing about $500, compared to most others that cost a thousand dollars and up).

Each cubicle also had a PACX box to let users select the service they wanted to use (DEC-20, RSTS, Wylbur). Eventually the lab was re-architected, expanded, and . . A Argumentative? . REDECORATED. Too bad if you missed it (does anybody have a color photo of the essays macbeth tragic original?) Mar 1978: APL conversion from IBM to uk police DEC-20 was a big topic for essays many months. Special terminals (Datamedia APL with APL keyboard, later Concept/APL) had to be installed for for the odyssey APL users. To further encourage IBM to DEC migration, I wrote a mini-Wylbur (Otto) for the DEC-20; Joel and his brother worked on essays as a hero a full Wylbur implementation for some time but it's not done yet. Apr 1978: The CUCCA Telephone Directory and Consulting Schedule. As you can see there were 100 full-timers on staff: academic computing, administrative computing, librarians, administrative staff, data communications, machine room operators, and for the odyssey management. Compared to 15 in essays macbeth as a tragic 1965 and over uk police, 300 in 2010.

Note too that in those days the technical staff helped users in person in three locations (two in SSIO, one in Mudd) and at other times they answered calls from users on their own phones no call processing, no screening, no trouble tickets, no hiding behind web pages, no bureacracy. UI's were students working part-time; anything they couldn't handle would be passed along to essays full-timers in User Services or Systems. Essay Topics Odyssey? Many of the UI's listed on the schedule went on macbeth hero to become full timers and some even managers. (Consulting schedule by Dave Millman, printed on the Diablo daisy-wheel printer.) 1 May 1978: The first spam (junk commercial) e-mail was sent 1 May 1978 1233-EDT from DEC-MARLBORO.ARPA (a DEC-20) to all ARPANET contacts, whose e-mail addresses were harvested from the WHOIS database, advertising new DEC-20 models. Uk Police Statement Writing? More about this HERE. May 1978: OS/360 21.8 (which was released by IBM in 1970) installed on the IBM 360/91. Eight years in the making! The ex-CUCC systems people who defected to CUNY had to come back and teach nightly classes on OS/360 and essays tragic what they had done to it (many things, including over 200 modifications for accounting and beer production thesis resource-limitation purposes) before their replacements could bring up the new release without fear of losing something vital.

May 1978: Tektronix 4010 graphics a big topic in essays hero the newlsetters. (Somewhere put the succession of User Services managers: Tom D'Auria, Bob Resnikoff, Bruce Tetelman, Tom Chow, Mark Kennedy, Maurice Matiz, Rob Cartolano, Jeff Eldredge, I know I must be leaving somebody out. ) and SSIO (Marianne Clarke, Lois Dorman, Chris Gianone, . ) and Systems Assurance (later Data Communications: Rich Nelson, Seung-il Choe, Wolfie, . ) and beer production thesis CUCCA business managers (Peter Bujara, Neil Sachnoff, Patty Peters, Bob Bingham, Julie Lai. Macbeth Tragic? ) About User Services, Maurice Matiz adds: User Services existed only statement writing, up to essays macbeth as a early in my era. Az Post History? After Vace's appointment and my appointment (I believe the only two managerial and higher level appointments that required a trying and essays macbeth as a tragic complete interview by the whole University occurred in late 1989) did the groups that now define AcIS get created except that User Services comprised three groups. User Services stayed until Jeff Eldrege's group was spun out of my group, which had grown to over 25 people, in late 1994. (My diagramed proposal is dated 11/28/94.) At that time we changed names. Jeff's group became the Support Center and my group was renamed Academic Technologies. Essay? Also spun out at essays the time was what became EDS to az post statement of personal history report to Walter Bourne.

Dec 1978: First mention of UNIX by CUCCA in public (referring to the BSTJ UNIX issue [15]). V10#18. 1979: The Computer Science Department was created as a separate entity (previously it was part of the EE Dept) with Joseph Traub from CMU as Chair, and a $200,000 donation from IBM. Joe had been a Watson Fellow in Applied Mathematics in 1958-59 [9]. The Computer Science Building was constructed 1981-83 [12]. Before long a DECSYSTEM-20, several VAX-11/750s, and numerous workstations (early Suns and essays as a hero others) would be installed in the new CS facility. Jan 1979: Public terminals were available in a argumentative SSIO (20), 272A Engineering Terrace (14), Furnald Lobby (4), 224 Butler (4), and Hartley Lobby (4). V11#2.

Systems Assurance staff (Bob Galanos) would make the rounds on a daily basis to fix broken terminals, usually by replacing fuses taken out by students to reserve terminals for their own use. Feb 1979: Scribe, Diablo, printwheel lore dominates the Newsletter. Big business in essays tragic printwheels. The Diablo was a typewriter-like terminal with a daisy-wheel print mechanism capable of critical proportional spacing, superscripts and subscripts, and even boldface (by doublestriking) and italics (by swapping printwheels). Essays Macbeth Tragic Hero? The CUCCA newsletter was printed on the Diablo for some years, and a argumentative essay Diablos were deployed in essays as a tragic hero public areas for users. Scribe included a Diablo driver, which produced .POD (Prince Of Darkness) files for statement of personal it, and we wrote software to spool these files to the Diablo itself, allowing pauses to essays change paper or printwheels. Printwheels were available in a variety of fonts and alphabets, but weren't cheap ($98 springs to uk police writing mind). Aug 1979: COMND JSYS package written for SAIL (so we could write user-friendly programs for the DEC-20 in hero a high-level language). Andy Lowry and David Millman. Sep 1979: HP2621 industrial-strength video terminals installed in Mudd and elsewhere, including a new lab in Carman Hall.

This was the face of CUCCA to our users; many of critical essay them thought the DEC-20s were made by tragic hero, HP. These are monochrome text terminals with good editing capabilties (for EMACS) and thesis solidly built. Essays Hero? Some had built-in thermal printers. A few units are still to be found here in good working order. 1979-80: Chris Ryland and I write a 200-plus-page guide to DEC-20 assembly-language programming. A Argumentative Essay? We were thinking of turning it into a book but Ralph Gorin of essays macbeth as a hero Stanford University beat us to it. 1980: Instructional computing capacity badly needs expansion. Essay Hobbit? At this point, CUCCA has three instructional systems: the IBM 360/91 Open Batch system (soon to be retired), the PDP-11/50 (fully saturated), and tragic a single DECSYSTEM-20, CU20A, which is in constant demand and heavily overburdened. There is much gathering of statistics to understand usage patterns. In response to cover teacher independent student and faculty demands, the essays macbeth as a tragic Collery Committee (Arnold Collery was Dean of Columbia College) was appointed to make recommendations. For The? The instructional computers were overloaded, but why?

Was the new usage real or frivolous? A witch-hunt was launched against text processing (preparing papers on the computer, sending e-mail, etc). Macbeth Tragic? Some prominent faculty advocated banning it (this never came to pass; CUCCA opposed it vigorously). CPU and connect-time limits were to of personal history be instituted. Fees were to be increased.

Various disincentives would be established against essays using the computers during prime time. The tug of war between demand and az post statement of personal history resources is a persistent theme in academic computing. There has never been, and probably never will be, a clear linkage between demand and supply. Whenever resources (such as computer time, disk space, modems, network bandwidth) become scarce, as they always do, funding for expansion does not flow automatically (nor should it). First there is a demand for a precise accounting of essays macbeth how, for what, and by whom the topics odyssey current resources are being consumed, the gathering of essays as a which in turn taxes the resources still futher. Once the information is obtained, demands to flush out inappropriate use -- whose definition varies with the times (e.g. network capacity versus Napster in 2000) -- quickly follow. Of course instructional computing on the DEC-20s was true to this pattern. CU20A drove itself near to melting by accounting for itself.

And then complicated limits were imposed on CPU time, connect time, and every other imaginable resource (using locally written software) until the interactive computing experience was surpassingly unpleasant for production everyone: students, faculty, and staff alike. Relief was still more than a year away. One of the measures taken to alleviate the load on CU20A was to abolish the free perpetual student user IDs and replace them with class-related IDs that lasted only for the duration of essays macbeth each course. While this ensured that the beer thesis DEC-20 was used only for macbeth hero legitimate purposes, it also made it impossible for students to build up a corpus of tools and information they could use throughout their Columbia experience. Independent? A series of discussions took place throughout 1980 exploring different possibilites for providing students with some form of self-service, inexpensive, removeable media. The result was Kermit . Jan 1980: CUCCA announces its intention to connect to ARPANET, V12#1 (but without any firm prospects of essays macbeth as a tragic hero doing so, since in those days the only entree was a big Defense Department grant, which we didn't have and didn't want). In the meantime, however, staff (but not end-users) had access through our DECnet link to COLUMBIA-20.ARPA , the topics for the Computer Science DEC-20 (July 1983), and macbeth as a tragic hero prior to that by dialup to the NYU Elf and guest accounts at Rutgers, Harvard, Stanford, CMU and elsewhere. The ARPANET was important, among other reaons, because it was how DECsystem-10 and DECSYSTEM-20 software developers could work together (by email) and share code (by FTP), and this was the beginning of the open software movement . It is important to beer recall that in those days we were paid to develop and as a tragic share software. Nowadays most open (free) software is created by unpaid volunteers . Feb 1980: DECnet first operational (between CU20A and the DN200 in Mudd). Feb 1980: The DEC-20 MM (Mail Manager) e-mail program becomes popular (V12#2). This is a good example of software created by professional staff or graduate students at PDP-10 and for the DEC-20 sites on macbeth the ARPANET (Stanford in this case) and freely shared with other sites.

Other examples of the era included the ISPELL spelling checker and critical on the corrector (also from Stanford), the EMACS text editor from MIT, the SCRIBE text formatting and essays macbeth tragic typesetting system from letter independent school CMU (which later became commercial) and as a tragic TeX from Stanford, the Bliss-10 programming language from CMU, the SAIL programming language from Stanford, the PASCAL compiler from Rutgers, the SITGO instructional FORTRAN package from Stevens Institute of Technology, various LISP systems from different places, and KERMIT communications software from Columbia. In fact, each place contributed bits and cover pieces to most of these packages so most of them were truly cooperative efforts. MM was used almost universally at macbeth as a hero Columbia for E-mail from 1980 until about cover independent 1995, with usage trailing off thereafter as Windows and the Web took over from text-based computer access. When the DEC-20 line was cancelled, we wrote a new MM program in C for essays macbeth tragic Unix which again, in the sharing spirit, was made available on critical hobbit the ARPANET (later Internet) and adopted by many other sites worldwide as they migrated from TOPS-20 to Unix. MM survives even into the 2010s (details). Jun 1980: We were considering joining TELENET and TYMNET (commercial X.3/X.25 based networks) but never did; it was way too expensive [1]. These were strictly terminal-to-host networks, but would have allowed travellers to dial up with a local call from almost anywhere in essays macbeth as a tragic the USA or Canada, and conceivably could have taken the place of in-house modem pools. Oct 1980: Second DEC-20 installed, CU20B , for use by funded researchers and staff only; to be paid for out of income, since the budget request for a second instructional DEC-20 had been denied, again, even though the for the first one was seriously overloaded, and despite vocal support from students and faculty (and us of course). CU20B removed considerable load from CU20A and bought us some time until we finally were able to macbeth tragic expand the instructional resources a year later with CU20C. (In fact, for critical hobbit a short period, we were able to put some students on CU20B, in their own partition, isolated from the paying users.) There was no common file system yet; communication wth CU20A was via DECnet (NFT for file transfer; home-grown mail, print, finger servers and essays tragic hero clients, etc). Nov 1980: The IBM 360/91/75 is production thesis retired , replaced by two IBM 4331s (PHOTO), CUVMA and CUVMB. These are featureless boxes that are (as you might expect) more compact and cheaper to macbeth tragic hero run than the 360/91 (and lower too, so you can use them as coffee tables), and cover letter school they had a new operating system, VM/CMS, which allowed Virtual Machines (VM) to run other operating systems on the same machine, thus keeping our old applications afloat.

VM was perceived initially as a niche product, but it has proven remarkably persistent. The 360/91 was so big it had to be cut up with chainsaws to essays macbeth tragic hero get it out of the building. The Gordian knot of cabling under the floor was unceremoniously disposed of with giant cable snippers the size of posthole diggers. The computer chunks were trucked away and thrown into a argumentative essay acid baths to extract the essays macbeth as a hero gold. Only the 360/91 console was spared. We had it moved to odyssey the lobby of Watson Laboratory and arranged to donate it to the now-defunct Computer Museum in as a tragic hero Massachusetts, but it took a year and a half for them to pick it up. Letter Independent? In the interim, bits and pieces were removed by passersby as souvenirs. (More about this in the June 1982 entry.) 1981-82 ADP takes over the remaining pockets of decentralized administrative computing: the student systems in Philosophy Hall and the financial and payroll systems in essays macbeth hero Hogan Hall, and to some extent also the Health Sciences campus. Jan 1981: Superbrains arrive. The Intertec Superbrain had been chosen as the first microcomputer we would deploy publicly, despite its embarrassing name, because its solid single-piece construction made it virtually user-proof, and it did indeed stand up to az post statement history years of (ab)use. It ran CP/M 2.2, an 8-bit (64K) operating system.

Apr 1981: Bill Catchings and I design the basic Kermit protocol. The first Kermit protocol transfer took place on April 29th on a loopback connection between two serial ports on as a CU20B. Beer Thesis? CLICK HERE for more about the history of Kermit, and HERE to visit the Kermit website, where THIS PAGE provides an overview. Essays Tragic? Kermit Project document archive at essay the Computer History Museum [catalog]. Kermit Project Oral History Transcripts at the Computer History Museum HERE and HERE. May 1981: I talk J. Ray Scott of Carnegie-Mellon University (CMU) in Pittsburgh, PA, into installing a leased line between Columbia and CMU and joining our two campuses by DECnet (at least that's how I remember it). CU and macbeth hero CMU informally but effectively merge their DEC-20 systems staffs and run common customized applications and subsystems (esp. the GALAXY spooling system, which we modified to allow printer sharing among multiple DEC-20s and spooling to az post of personal the Xerox 9700). Soon the macbeth hero network, called CCNET , expanded to essay several other universities, notably Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken, NJ, which played an important role in the development of Kermit protocol and software until 1987, and produced Kermit programs for DEC's VMS, TOPS-10, and P/OS operating systems. Jun 1981: CP/M-80 Kermit for the 8-bit Superbrain: Bill Catchings (later, in essays tragic 1983, Bill also wrote CP/M-86 Kermit for the 16-bit version of CP/M). Shortly after this, the Superbrain was deployed in Mudd. It had no applications to speak of besides Kermit, which was used by students to archive their DEC-20 files onto floppy disks (the purpose for which was Kermit developed).

Floppy disks (the then-modern 5.25 ones, not the frisbee-sized ones used on other CP/M micros) for the Superbrain were sold in SSIO, $6.00 each (!). Later, but before 16-bit micros like the IBM PC appeared, we set up (in Watson Lab) a network of production thesis Superbrains sharing a hard disk, with an EMACS-like editor called MINCE and essays as a a Scribe-like text formatter called Sribble. For a short time it was our most impressive demonstration of personal / workgroup desktop computing. (MINCE later became Epsilon and uk police statement was popular for some years on DOS PCs.) 12 Aug 1981: The 16-bit IBM PC was announced; the Columbia Computer Center orders 20 of as a them on Day One, sight unseen. The IBM logo makes all the difference. Beer Thesis? About half of them go to high-profile faculty (who immediately want them to essays macbeth as a hero be able to communicate with our central IBM and DEC mainframes; hence MS-DOS Kermit). Thesis? The original PC had a monochrome monitor (color optional), one or two 160K floppy disks, a small amount of tragic hero memory (anywhere from 16K to 256K), two RS-232 serial interfaces, no hard disk, no networking. It ran at az post statement history 4.77MHz, had BASIC built into its ROM (which could be used without an OS or disk), and ran DOS 1.0, the minimalistic 16-bit disk operating system that made Microsoft's fortune.

Within a short amount of time, it had become the computer that would dominate the rest of the century and beyond, and spread over essays as a, the campus like wildfire. But it still took some years for the PC to essay topics odyssey wipe out the VAXes and PDP-11s in the departments. Up through the early 90s there were still dozens of VAX/VMS installations; entire departments and schools (such as Columbia College) ran on them, with VT100 terminals or DEC word processors (PDP-8 based DECmates) on their desktops. The PC has been a mixed blessing. Untold numbers of essays as a people-hours have been lost forever to cover letter teacher school tinkering -- this slot, that bus; expanded memory, enhanced memory, extended memory. Essays Macbeth Tragic Hero? . Beer? . Blue Screens Of Death, rebooting, reinstalling the operating system, searching for adapters, hunting for drivers, installing OS and driver upgrades, resolving interrupt conflicts, partitioning disks, backing up disks, adding new devices, configuring networks, fighting application and OS bugs, hunting for patches, fighting viruses, and on macbeth as a tragic and on. Previously this kind of thing was done by a small central full-time professional staff but now it is done by beer, everybody, all the as a tragic hero time, at incalculable cost to productivity and progress.

Plus how many PC users really back up their hard disks? Not many in statement of personal history my experience, and it is not uncommon for important un-backed-up files to be lost in a disk crash or similar disaster, thus negating weeks, months, or years of work. ON THE PLUS SIDE, however, . Essays Tragic? . . (? ? ?) My personal theory is critical essay that IBM never expected the PC to be so successful. It was thrown together in a rush by a small group (not at Watson Laboratory!) from essays as a off-the-shelf components in uk police statement an effort to get a foothold in the fast-growing microcomputer market. This was not IBM's first personal computer. Besides the 1956 Auto-Point Computer (personal but by no means desktop), IBM had also tried and failed with the 5100 and the CS-9000 in the 1970s and essays macbeth as a tragic hero early 80s, both personal desktop models (we had some 5100s here; the CS-9000 was targeted at chemical engineering applications as I recall, and critical essay had a special control panel and interfaces for instruments, but included a 32-bit CPU and modern programming languages like Pascal, and could easily have been the as a high-end workstation of the early 1980s). Critical? According to tragic a reliable source, IBM originally wanted the PC to have a Motorola 68000 CPU (which had a simple, flat 32-bit address space) like the CS-9000, but could not get such a product to market in time, so settled for the Intel 8088, a 16-bit segmented architecture with 8-bit data paths. Worse, it had a primitive 16-line interrupt controller, which severely limited the number of devices that could be on the bus. The rest is history. Statement Writing? I believe that if IBM had known that the PC would dominate the next two, three, four, or more decades, it would have invested more time, money, and thought in the original design.

(Obviously the situation is tragic hero better in critical on the the 21st Century. Most of the early kinks have been ironed out. Essays Macbeth? PCs are cheap and reliable. Any quirks of the architecture are well-hidden from end users, and USB makes life immeasurably better when devices need to critical essay be attached. With Windows the dominant operating system, the main problems now are performance bloated OS and applications and security. Essays Macbeth Tragic? And stability.) Oct 1981: CU20C arrives: a second DECSYSTEM-20 student timesharing system to supplement CU20A. Still no common file system; each DEC-20 was a relatively separate world, but at least they were connected by DECnet.

If you had a student user ID, it was on one or the critical essay hobbit other, not both. Dec 1981: HP plotter supplies (personal ink cartridges, etc) were a hot topic in essays macbeth hero the newsletter. The HP pen plotters installed in Mudd (and SSIO?) came in 4- and essay 8-color models, and there was a wide variety of software for them, including DISSPLA/TEL-A-GRAF on essays as a tragic hero the DEC-20s and SAS/GRAPH and SPSS on the IBM mainframes that could make 3D plots with hidden-line elimination, fancy fonts, etc. They were totally mechanical: pen and statement writing ink on macbeth paper, and could produce beautiful line drawings. Jan 1982: J. Ray Scott, Director of the Carnegie-Mellon University Computation Center, writes an article in the CUCCA Newsletter (V14#1) describing the CCNET connection between Columbia and CMU, and letter independent school CMU's facilities (including an as a hero, ARPANET gateeway and beer thesis various compilers and essays tragic hero applications that had not been licensed at Columbia). In the first example of network-based inter-university resource sharing at Columbia, CU users were invited to apply for user IDs on the CMU systems. Feb 1982: The IBM 3850 Mass Storage System (MSS) was installed (for the 1980 Census) - 102.2 GB.

The MSS was gigantic in every sense, covering most of the South wall of the machine room. Essentially it was a big honeycomb, each cell holding a cartridge (PHOTO) that resembles an M-79 rifle grenade (sorry, it does) containing a winding of production thesis 2.7-inch-wide magtape with a capacity of 50MB. A mechanical hand comes and essays tragic hero extracts the cartridge and carries it to a reader, which removes the shell, and unwinds the tape and copies it to one of four staging disks; then the critical essay on the tape is re-wound, the shell replaced, and the cartridge returned to its cell. All this was transparent to the user; the MSS looked like a 3330 disk drive to user-mode software. The disks acted as a cache, so if your file was already on the disk, the little mechanical man didn't need to go get the macbeth as a tragic cartridge. (Before the MSS, we had an IBM 2321 Data Cell Drive, which worked in az post a similar way, except instead of cartridges, it used flat strips of macbeth as a tape that were much harder for the little men to handle, so the tape strips were easily mangled.) Like the 360/91, there were only a few MSS devices in the world. The MSS cost about cover letter independent school a million dollars, but Columbia got its MSS in an IBM grant.

In return, Columbia would add support for macbeth as a tragic it to IBM's VM operating system (in particular, it would add windowing and lookahead features to reduce cylinder faults and redundant cartridge fetches, and thus speed up sequential access; this was done by Bob Resnikoff of the uk police Computer Center and Ates Dagli of the Center for Social Sciences (CSS)). CSS was responsible for loading the essays macbeth census data (which came on endless reels of 9-track magtape) and for uk police statement writing arranging access to it from within Columbia and from outside (V14#16). When the grant expired, Columbia was able to purchase the MSS at a steep discount. Feb 1982: Hot Newsletter topic: submitting IBM batch jobs from the DEC-20 via HASP/RJE. CU20B was connected to the IBM mainframe communications front end (COMTEN) through its own PDP-11 DN20 front end (a full cabinet), which emulated an Remote Job Entry station, i.e. a card reader for sending data to the mainframe in form of card images, and a line printer for receiving data from the mainframe in the form of print jobs, but using DEC-20 disk files instead of as a hero cards and paper. The CUCCA systems group developed user-friendly programs for submitting batch jobs to the VM systems from the thesis DEC-20 and retrieving the results. These were later to form the basis of the DEC-20/BITNET mail gateway.

Mar 1982: RSTS/E retired; RSTS users migrated to DEC-20s, V14#1. The PDP-11/50 was traded for another badly needed RP06 disk drive for our DEC-20s [1]. The PDP-11 with RSTS/E was our first experiment in campuswide public timesharing and it was an essays macbeth tragic hero, unqualified success. Apr 1982: BITNET announced (Vace, V14#5). This was a network of teacher independent IBM mainframes based on RSCS (basically, card reader / line printer simulation) protocols, originating with Ira Fuchs at CUNY, formerly of Watson Lab, and essays tragic rapidly spreading to universities all over the world, lasting through the late 1990s, now remembered mainly for LISTSERV (a distributed automated mailing-list management system). Early members included CUNY, Columbia, Yale, Brown, Princeton, the essay odyssey U of Maine, Penn State, the essays macbeth as a tragic NJ Educational Network, Boston U, and critical essay on the Cornell University (DIAGRAM). Columbia got the essays as a hero CU prefix (CUVMA, CUVMB), much to the chagrin of C ornell U niversity (CORNELLA, . ) Would this be the first instance of domain name hijacking ? :-) (Twenty years later, the cover letter independent Cornell and Columbia teaching hospitals would merge to form New York Presbyterian Hospital; evidently Cornell and essays macbeth tragic Columbia were omitted from the name so that neither one would have to statement follow the hero other.) Apr 1982: IBM Mainframe VM/CMS Kermit (Daphne Tzoar). This passed through a number a hands since the initial release, some of which prefer to remain anonymous, and has been cared for essay by Dr.

John Chandler at essays as a tragic hero the Harvard/Smithsonian Astronomical Observatory since about 1990; John made it portable to the other important IBM mainframe OS's: MVS/TSO, CICS, and MUSIC, and added support for essay conversion between the many IBM EBCDIC Country Extended Code Pages and essays macbeth as a ISO standard character sets, allowing cross-platform transfer of text in many languages. May 1982: Support was added to our e-mail client and server software to take advantage of beer our new CCNET and macbeth tragic BITNET connections, and the first inter-campus e-mail began to flow, limited at a argumentative essay first to just a handful of universities, but growing rapidly as CCNET and BITNET nodes are added, and macbeth as a hero gateways from them to ARPANET, CSNET, and other networks. CCNET mail delivery was accomplished by direct real-time DECnet connections; BITNET mail was transported via our HASP/RJE Spooler. Critical Essay On The Hobbit? Our three DEC-20s used their DECnet connections for essays macbeth hero mail amongst themselves, as well as with other campus machines and essay the wider CCNET. CU20A and CU20C and other campus DECnet nodes sent BITNET mail by relaying it over DECnet to CU20B's RJE system. In those days, e-mail addresses had to macbeth tragic include a top-level domain that indicated the network, e.g. Uk Police? USER@HOST.ARPA , USER@HOST.BITNET , USER@HOST.CCNET , etc. Even trickier was the essays macbeth source routing used in Usenet (in those days, a network of statement UNIX machines that dialed each other up with UUCP periodically to essays hero exchange files and mail) and some others, and/or to mail to az post statement somebody who was on a network that your host wasn't on, through a relay that was on both nets. In such cases you had to know the entire route and the syntax tricks to traverse each branch of essays macbeth tragic it, and often multiple relays. Here are some examples from the 1980s Kermit mailing list archive: The last one is broken into two lines for topics odyssey readability; it's really one line.

To get a good feel for the proliferation of networks and the tricks of macbeth as a tragic navigating amongst them in the days before the Internet swept all else away, see John Quarterman's book, The Matrix [55] Jun 1982: CU20D , our third and final instructional DEC-20, was installed. Jun 1982: Our by-now vandalized IBM 360/91 console goes to the Computer Museum at az post statement of personal history DEC's MR-01 (or MR-02?) building in Marlboro, Massachusetts, after awaiting pickup for 18 months. It was displayed prominently inside the main entrance in a big, tastefully illuminated glass case near the PDP-1. Shortly thereafter, the collection was transferred to essays as a hero the Boston Science Museum (now the essay Museum of Science), which changed its focus. Essays Macbeth As A Tragic Hero? Most of the computing artifacts went to the Computer History Museum, temporarily located at Moffett Field, California (an Air Force base, where the uk police 360/91 console sat in deep storage for many years before being transferred in about 2001 to deep storage at the Computer History Museum's new site in Mountain View, California). Jul 1982: An Imagen laser printer was installed in tragic Watson; our first laser printer and our first printer capable of true typesetting . Soft fonts, 100 dpi I think, Impress language (a precursor of PostScript), Ethernet-connected.

It was only for internal CUCCA use (production of cover letter Newsletter and as a tragic hero handouts, etc). Aug 1982: The Xerox 9700 (PHOTO) [announced by Xerox in uk police statement writing 1977] arrived, replacing the essays as a tragic hero Xerox 1200 after some overlap (V15#1). The 9700 offered the first typesetting to uk police statement the Columbia community at as a hero large, as well as high-volume, high-speed plain-text printing. This room-sized 300dpi Xerographic laser printer was installed in the back of the first floor of independent school Watson Lab (the present mail and network rooms) due to essays macbeth as a tragic lack of beer production thesis space in the Computer Center, and macbeth tragic hero it definitely needed the cover school space. It printed 2 pages per second, could handle duplex, portrait/landscape, 2-up, 4-up, etc, had Courier (fixed) and Helvetica and Times Roman (proportional) fonts, with italic and essays as a tragic hero bold styles and production selectable sizes. Formatting was done by Scribe and essays macbeth as a tragic hero other packages and spooled to 9-track magnetic tapes that were delivered to Watson every evening and printed overnight. Xerox 9700 printing was available to all users (students, faculty, staff, outside paid accounts) on all the uk police writing DEC-20s and IBM mainframe systems. The DEC-20 Xerox 9700 spooling software (PRINT /UNIT:X9700) was developed jointly by essays macbeth tragic hero, the combined CUCCA-CMU Systems Groups over beer, CCNET. Even after more sophisticated typesetting methods became available, the X9700 remained in service as a high-volume printer; nothing else could push paper quite like it. To this day, I think Controllers and Rolmphone statements are still printed on a 9700 at a service bureau.) Sep 1982: VMM announced (e-mail for the IBM mainframe: MM for VM, Joel and then Vace).

Sep 1982: First campus network between academic departments (not counting Remote Job Entry stations): CUCCA-Chemistry, DECnet over synchronous modems (V14#12). By this time Chemistry had a VAX-11/780 and some smaller VAXes. Sep 1982: TOPS-20 V5 installed on the CUCCA DEC-20s, featuring extended addressing (32 256KW sections = 36MB, instead of only one section), a new multiforking Exec (what we would now call job control), and macbeth as a tragic a programming language for the Exec (CMU's PCL, what we would now call shell scripts. see example). Oct 1982: About here we were looking into getting the cover teacher independent AP Newswire online. Columbia's School of as a hero Journalism had a Teletype with news stories coming out continuously. A Argumentative Essay? The plan was to feed this into one of our DEC-20s and make a BBoard out of it, with a rather rapid expiration of articles given the limited disk storage. Essays As A Hero? But there were licensing and bureaucratic impediments so it never came to pass. About 1990, Columbia bought a subscription to a argumentative ClariNews (in which the various news services are funneled to Usenet newsgroups). This lasted until 2003, by which time the Web had long since rendered it redundant. Nov 1982: The CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual [14] was published, full of essays tragic photos and uk police statement writing detailed instructions on hero using the equipment in our public areas. CLICK HERE to see a sampling of video terminals; note the accompanying PACX boxes.

NOW ON LINE in searchable PDF format. Essay Topics For The? This was printed on hero our new Xerox 9700, one of the first laser printers capable of typesetting; it had two fonts, Helvetica and Courier. The manual itself should interesting to those who harbor a burning curiosity over every minute detail in the life of President Obama , since the equipment described here is what he must have used when he was a Columbia student 1981-83, because there wasn't anything else. Check, for topics example, this article he wrote in Sundial Magazine, March 10, 1983. I suspect he composed it on the DEC-20, perhaps in EMACS, seated at one of the terminals in as a our terminal rooms; for example, the HP-2621s in Carman Hall. Critical Essay On The Hobbit? When it was ready, he might well have emailed it to essays macbeth as a tragic the Sundail editor with MM. Just a guess! Nov 1982: DECSYSTEM-20 Pocket Guide (click for cover PDF of the whole thing). Hero? The DEC-20 was an cover, enormously powerful and useful computing system, yet it was simple enought that we could publish an accordion-fold pocket guide to just about all that it had to offer. This 1982 edition was created with TeX, and as a the Columbia Crown with Metafont.

The master was printed on our new Imagen Laser Printer and the printing and folding done at the Columbia print shop. Hobbit? It was given out free to all comers (thousands of them). Dec 1982: The Teachers College DEC-20 connects to the campus DECnet. 1983-1986: Every Newsletter issue announces new BITNET and essays macbeth DECnet nodes. Jan 1983 20th Anniversary of the Computer Center . Az Post? CLICK HERE to see a collage of machine-room items prepared for the commemorative poster. Macbeth Tragic Hero? The commemorative frisbee is at Computer History Museum. 1 Jan 1983: The ARPANET switches from cover independent school its original protocol, NCP, to TCP/IP. Prior to essays macbeth as a hero TCP/IP, the ARPANET was a private club with membership restricted defense contractors.

The fact that some of the critical on the defense contractors were also some of the top engineering and computer science universities (MIT, Stanford, CMU, etc) led to a lot of pressure from the non-military segment for more open access, and to a new design for macbeth tragic hero the network itself. TCP/IP (Transport Control Protocol / Internet Protocol) was the result. Where ARPANET was a network of computers, TCP/IP provided for a network of networks ; that is, an Internet. Thus when the uk police cutover took place, all the computers at a given university (say, MIT), could be on the net, not just the ones used for defense research. In this way the network was opened up, and the requirement for as a hero a defense contract for membership no longer made sense. Numerous networks such CSNET, NSFNET, and statement SPAN, were connected. Essays Tragic? Columbia University as a whole got on the net in statement of personal 1984 by virtue of essays macbeth tragic hero its connection with NSF and over the next 15 years, the network grew to cover the uk police writing entire planet and membership was open to all. Jan 1983 The Purchasing Office moves out of the Watson building and macbeth as a the space is occupied by ADP; now, 13 years after IBM left it, the Watson Lab building is 100% Computer Center and would remain that way until 1991. ADP begins to offer office automation services, including PC and LAN installations for cover letter school administrative use. Jan 1983: IBM PC Kermit. Originally by Daphne Tzoar, adapted from Bill Catchings' CP/M-80 Kermit (actually, if I recall correctly, Bill did the original translation from 8080 MASM to 8088 Microsoft assembler in a single EMACS session, and then Daphne made it work and added features).

Later it passed to essays macbeth as a Jeff Damens. We did versions 1.00 to 2.28 here, with various pieces contributed from elsewhere. Professor Joe Doupnik of Utah State University took it over in 1985, and stuck with until the end (see oral history of essay Joe Doupnik at the Computer History Museum). We were actually ordered to write this program because several prominent professors (Herb Goldstein, Bob Pollack, and Jonathan Gross ) were using their new PCs to write a book, The Scientific Experience , that would be used in as a hero a new course, Science C1001-1002, Theory and Practice of Science , in Columbia's Contemporary Civilization (the jewel in the crown of the Columbia College Core Curriculum) and wanted to be able to collaborate by uploading chapters to CU20B, where they could be shared. Cover Letter School? And they did.

MS-DOS Kermit was a fixture on the Columbia computing landscape until the Web took over in 1994-95, and popular all over the world. It's still remarkably popular today, providing VT320, Wyse, DG, ANSI, and Tektronix terminal emulation for Linux under dosemu , as well as data transfer for many DOS-based embedded and experimental devices, such as THIS ONE in the International Space Station. CLICK HERE to visit the essays hero MS-DOS Kermit website. Jan 1983: Amdahl UTS installed on the IBM mainframe as a virtual machine under VM (Alan); this was the first UNIX on the central systems. But CS, Biology, and PS had been running other forms of a argumentative UNIX for some time on departmental minicomputers such as PDP-11s and VAX-11/750s. (9-track magnetic tapes were big in these days, but every kind of essays as a computer used a different format: ANSI, DUMPER, BACKUP, MAGSAV, IBM OS SL, tar, cpio, etc, so writing tape import/export/conversion utilities was a regular cottage industry.) Mar 1983: CCNET included CU, CMU, CWRU, CS, TC. Mar 1983: All but two key punches removed due to uk police writing lack of use (V15#4).

The SSIO area is essays macbeth as a now a mainly a public terminal area, CUCCA business office, and beer production thesis consulting facility. Apr 1983: CU20B becomes Columbia's first central computer with dialout capability. The DIAL program, written by our Systems Group, operated a Vadic VA821 1200bps autodialer, and interfaced with DEC-20 Kermit to allow file transfer (and was later integrated with Kermit). 18 May 1983: DECSYSTEM-20 (and DECsystem-10) 36-bit computer line canceled by DEC due to their failed attempts to produce a faster and cheaper followon product (Jupiter). This was a huge blow to Columbia and essays most other US universities, which until this point were like a big (but increasingly anxious) DEC-10/20 club. The ARPANET had been built mainly on DEC-10s and -20s, and most computer science research and tools ran there. Uk Police Statement? Big changes would come. Spring DECUS (the semiannual Digital Equipment Corporation User Society convention) took place a week or two thereafter. At the June 2001 DECWORLD event at as a hero the Computer Museum History Center, Roseanne Giordano, DEC's LCG [DEC-10 and DEC-20] product line manager at critical the time of the cancellation, recalled that DECUS organizers, fearing violence from the essays as a tragic hero crowd, installed plainclothes police in the front row to protect the speakers. Jun 1983: Snapshot: Public terminal, printer, and graphics equipment.

Terminals: Datamedia 1520 (6), Perkin Elmer Fox 1100 (10), HP 2621 (66), DEC VT101 (28), Concept APL (8), Superbrain (1), Diablo (1), LA36 (20), Tektronix (2), HP plotters (4) (read more), self-service Printronix printers (5). Terminals by uk police, location: SSIO (52), Mudd (16), Butler (11), International Affairs (6), Carman (21), Hartley (16), East Campus (14), Furnald (6). The Superbrain is still the essays tragic hero only desktop computer in a public area; it remained in service until at least 1986. Jul 1983: The Columbia Computer Science Department DEC-20 and VAX-11/750 join ARPANET . Essay? The CS DEC-20 is connected to CU20B with DECnet, thus providing the first ARPANET access from CUCCA machines (staff only). Nov 1983: We attend nondisclosure presentations of the Macintosh, which as to be the essays macbeth as a first mass-market personal computer with a graphical user interface, modeled on that of the Xerox Alto and the Xerox Star (the Star was commercially available in 1981 but it was too expensive for critical essay the popular market). I recommend early adoption of the Macintosh by CU; this was done and Columbia became one of the essays macbeth as a tragic first members of the Apple University Consortium, buying them in bulk and essay on the hobbit reselling them to students. Nov 1983: We (I) take on tragic hero responsibility of approving campus microcomputer purchases, since in those days there were countless different incompatible ones. Every requisition had to come across my desk; if it was for something weird I'd call the person who ordered it and talk about communications and compatibility, either changing their mind or rubber stamping it after they swore they didn't care and never would. 1983-84: It is in approximately this time frame that Alan Crosswell becomes Lead Unix Systems Programmer and also assumes management responsibility for beer production thesis the DEC-20s, as I move on to something called Systems Integration, meaning finding ways of hooking Columbia's many disparate micro-, mini-, and mainframe computers together. Kermit was one way; others included various forms of networking including DECnet, TCP/IP (brand new in 1983), who-knows-how-many forms of PC networking, and so on.

Alan is formally appointed Systems Manager in 1990. 1983-84: I was the CUCCA member of an Engineering Dean's committee, chaired by Dean Gross, to set up a graphics lab in the Engineering School. Other members included Engineering Professors Morton Friedman, Lee Lidofsky and macbeth hero (I think) Ted Bashkow. Eventually a site was chosen adjoining the az post statement history terminal room in 272A Engineering Terrace. It opened in March 1984 with 12 standalone IBM PCs equipped with color monitors and graphics adapters. This was almost certainly Columbia's first PC lab . The graphics lab was turned over to CUCCA in October 1989, combined with the macbeth original lab in room 272A, and renamed Gussman Lab. Jan 1984: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) debuts as a text-based inquiry system accessible via PACX terminal and Telnet. Essay? It is based on tragic hero BLIS software from Bibliotechniques (a spinoff of the University of Washington), and runs on our IBM 3083 mainframe. Feb 1984: Hermit (clustered PC project): a 3-million-dollar equipment grant from DEC, proposed by us (me and Howard Eskin) in March 1983, to build a distributed environment of Macs, PCs, and UNIX workstations clustered around MicroVAX hubs which, in turn, were connected to a argumentative essay the central DEC-20 mainframes for file / identity / e-mail service. Included were dozens of Rainbow PCs and Pro-380 (PDP-11) workstations, several MicroVAX-IIs, a VAX 11/730, a VAX 11/750, a VAXstation, an LN03 laser printer, Ethernet, and the Common File System (shared disk) hardware for tragic hero our DEC-20s including a then-massive amount of central storage. This was to be a stunning example of essay topics for the systems integration; the primary objective was to provide users transparent native-mode access to essays their central files and identities from all different kinds of desktop workstations (PC, Mac, UNIX).

I was the PI, my boss was Howard Eskin, the production programmers were (at various times) Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, Melissa Metz, Jeff Damens, Andy Lowry, Delores Ng, Howie Kaye, Fuat Baran. (V16#2, V16#6, V18#2; Columbia Daily Spectator , 23 Apr 1984). Mar 1984: With four DEC-20s installed, plus the Hermit project equipment -- big disks, fast networks, common file system -- instructional computing power was fairly well matched with demand. Now access was the bottleneck. A study by macbeth as a hero, the Academic Advisory Committee of the Engineering Advisory Council, Computers in Columbia Engineering Education , March 1984, complained of the Sleeping Bag Syndrome: students should not be forced to on the line up for terminal time at graveyard shift hours. Only those who could postpone their terminal-room visits until the wee hours of the morning were spared the long lines, a system blatantly unfair to commuters.

Obtaining space for as a hero terminal rooms (or anything else) on the Columbia campus was (and is) even more difficult than obtaining the money to a argumentative build them. Dormitory space was considered prime because dorms were the only buildings open 24 hours. Mar 1984: First Apple Lisa demo at CU, numerous Macintosh/Lisa seminars and essays tragic hero presentations from a argumentative Apple. Apr 1984: IBM Portable PC announced by essays hero, CUCCA for resale. It was also required equipment for all Columbia Business School students. Apr-May 1984: Macintosh mania. Letter Teacher? A four-page article ( by me of course :-) introducing the Mac was published in V16#8.

CU joins the Apple University Consortium as one of the few charter members. AUC membership required us to buy Macs in bulk for essays macbeth resale on campus. Beer Thesis? 2000 were ordered right away. Within a short while, we had written the first version of as a hero Macintosh Kermit for production thesis it (Bill Catchings, Bill Schilit, and me). Mac (and PC) sales continue in one form or another until turned over to JR, which opened a Columbia-only branch in the basement of macbeth Philosophy Hall in the late 1990s but then jumped ship about 2001.

May 1984: Floor plan of DEC-20 machine room by letter, Bill Schilit of the essays macbeth tragic Systems Group, showing the size and critical on the placement of the various components (3 DEC-20s, their disk drives, and communications front ends are shown; not shown is the fourth DEC-20, the tape drives, or the system consoles). Essays Macbeth? OK, this is not really the floor plan. It's a template for cover letter teacher making floor plans. Essays As A Tragic Hero? The idea was to gather up all the discarded copies of the newsletter that had this diagram on a argumentative essay the cover, cut out the pieces, and then make a real floor plan out of them (Tom De Bellis points out this diagram was made before all the Hermit grant stuff had arrived, thus was used to lay out how to make everything fit). Also see THIS DEC-20 MACHINE ROOM PHOTO. Jun-Jul 1984: The first Kermit article, by me and Bill Catchings, published (in two parts) in BYTE Magazine . See Kermit Bibliography for more Kermit-related publications. 3 Aug 1984: CU20B joins ARPANET (now called the Internet). Essays Macbeth? Although the Computer Science Department had joined the ARPANET in July 1983, this did not allow access to the Columbia community at large. Putting CU20B on the ARPANET was the independent first step in this direction (researchers from all schools and departments and CUCCA staff only, not students). CU20B's ARPANET hostname was COLUMBIA.ARPA. Essays Macbeth Tragic Hero? No other Columbia computers (except the ones in the CS department) were on critical on the hobbit the ARPANET, but of macbeth as a tragic hero course CU20B had network connections to the other DEC-20s, some internal CUCCA machines, the campus DECnet and the external DECnet-based CCNET, and to BITNET.

Thus to critical essay on the hobbit send mail into the Columbia network from outside required source routing, e.g. user %CU20A@COLUMBIA.ARPA. For some years, CU20B was to serve as a mail gateway among these networks, using locally written software. Essays Macbeth Tragic Hero? Over the next year or two, CUCCA would purchase a VAX-11/750, called the Gateway VAX, and install it in the CS department, where it was connected to the CS ARPANET IMP and back to the CUCCA hosts via Ethernet. The Gateway VAX ran 4.2BSD UNIX and it made Internet e-mail available to the whole Columbia community, including students, for az post the first time. Tragic? For some reason I can't explain, the authorization letter from ARPA didn't arrive until two years later. Aug 1984: IBM PC/AT announced, the production first IBM PC with memory protection. Based on essays macbeth tragic hero the Intel 80286, with a 20MB hard disk and essay two floppy diskette drives, one low-density, one high. As A Hero? Battery powered BIOS configuration memory and clock. Up to critical 16MB memory.

This was the first in the IBM PC line fully capable of running multitasking operating systems, and essays macbeth as a tragic hero soon was host to a number of them (some companies had managed to cover teacher produce Unix variants such as Xenix for the original IBM PC or XT on 8086 but these were not sustainable.) Of course this machine was of macbeth as a tragic great interest to the Columbia Computer Center, which was looking for ways to deploy desktop networked UNIX workstations for academic use, and we had some internally running different UNIX versions such as SCO Xenix/286. But it would turn out that our first public UNIX workstations would come from a different direction. Sep 1984: Three HP-150 MS-DOS microcomputers and statement one Macintosh were installed in the 272A Engineering Terrace terminal room. They were not on as a hero any kind of network and had to essay topics odyssey be reserved by macbeth as a tragic, sign-up sheet. The HP-150s were an equipment grant from letter teacher HP, along with some color pen plotters that were attached to them. They had touch-screens and macbeth as a tragic hero integrated thermal printers. A version of cover teacher school Kermit was written to hero allow them to communicate with the central computers through PACX lines and transfer files to and from their 3.5-inch diskettes (the HP-150 was one of the first, if not the a argumentative essay first PC to use the 3.5-inch rigid diskette). Macbeth As A Tragic? Graphic images where generated by statement, software on the mainframes (such as DISSPLA/TELEGRAF on essays as a tragic the DEC-20s and SASGRAPH on the IBMs), downloaded with Kermit, and sent to the plotters.

16 Oct 1984: The academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, joins the ARPANET, running WISCNET (the University of essay topics odyssey Wisconsin TCP/IP package) through a DACU (IBM's cabinet-size Ethernet adapter). This machine was for researchers and staff only, so there is still no ARPANET access for students. Nov 1984: Project Aurora , a 6.5-million dollar IBM grant administered by CUCCA, a campus-wide move in information and essays macbeth hero instruction toward the electronic university. A Argumentative Essay? Bruce Gilchrist and macbeth Pat Battin (the University Librarian) are the principal investigators. Aurora paid for uk police writing an IBM 3083 mainframe to support the Columbia Libraries Information Online (CLIO) system, and also funded some 30 research projects in essays macbeth as a tragic hero the schools and departments. 1984-85: I'm not too clear about this but I believe the SSIO area got a facelift around this time.

See these photos. 1985: Low-cost Apple Laserwriter PostScript printers proliferate and suddenly typesetting becomes commonplace as LaserWriters are set up as spooled printers so they can be controlled not only by Macintoshes but also DEC-20 and UNIX systems with Scribe and T E X. 1985-1989: The Columbia Physics department consructs a series of highly parallel computers (supercomputers made from Radio Shack parts). 1985: a 16-node QCD machine delivering 250 MFLOPS peak and 60 MFLOPS sustained performance. 1987: A second-generation QCD machine containing 64 nodes, delivering 1 GFLOPS peak and 300 MFLOPS sustained performance. Uk Police Statement? 1989: A third-generation QCD machine containing 256 nodes delivering 16 GFLOPS peak and essays macbeth tragic hero 6.4 GFLOPS sustained performance [43]. Independent? This work would continue into the 1990s and beyond. Jan 1985: CUVMA (IBM VM/CMS academic mainframe) gets Ethernet (DACU) and TCP/IP (WISCNET) (Vace). Jan 1985: Internet Domain Name registration begins.

Some of the first registered domains are: symbolics.com, cmu.edu, bbn.com, ucla.edu, mit.edu, mitre.org, dec.com, stanford.edu, sri.com, sun.com, ibm.com, att.com, nsf.net, apple.com, cisco.com. Feb 1985: First version of C-Kermit (4.0) released. (Previous versions were called UNIX Kermit; C-Kermit was modularized to macbeth as a hero allow easy adaptation to other platforms, and cover letter eventually was ported to over 700 of essays macbeth as a tragic hero them, across 10 major operating system families.) Hundreds of people all over the world have contributed code, including Andy Tanenbaum (MINIX) and beer production Linus Torvalds (Linux). Essays Macbeth As A Tragic Hero? C-Kermit was part of Hewlett-Packard's UNIX operating system HP-UX (by contract) from 1996 until 2011 (when Columbia U canceled the Kermit Project), and has since been incorporated into many of the free Open Source operating systems distributions. CLICK HERE to visit the C-Kermit website. A Argumentative? CLICK HERE to see a very early version C-Kermit. Speaking of essays Andy Tanenbaum and critical on the MINIX, CLICK HERE to read Andy's 2016 article, Lessons Learned from 30 Years of MINIX [121] (complete with video)! May 1985: Watson Lab Ethernet connection to Computer Center; Steve Jensen's 115th Street trench and essays tragic hero Broadway crossing with cement-encased conduits containing fat yellow coax, the difficult Western and a argumentative essay final leg of Columbia's first Ethernet backbone (PHOTO GALLERY). Macbeth Tragic? The installation was delayed many months by asbestos containment and removal. Departments in buildings along the cable route, such as Chemistry and Math, that previously had been connected by synchronous modems began to switch to Ethernet.

Sep 1985: The COLUMBIA.EDU Internet domain becomes operational. Columbia hosts connected by TCP/IP can be addressed directly from anywhere on the Internet, e.g. by email addresses like user @CU20D.COLUMBIA.EDU or user @CHEMVAX.CHEM.COLUMBIA.EDU (the same host addressing scheme that is used today, except for putting the on the hobbit central hosts into a new . CC subdomain in hero March 1988, and receiving most mail at a central server, COLUMBIA.EDU, rather than by individual computer host name). For the first time, students have access to the Internet but for all practical purposes, it is limited to email and anonymous FTP, since the World Wide Web does not yet exist and netnews will not become generally available at Columbia until 1988. Cover Independent? The early Internet offered pretty much just text-only e-mail, finger, FTP, Telnet, WHOIS, and send or talk, early forms of macbeth tragic hero instant messaging. What else could you want? Dec 1985: Bruce Gilchrist resigns his Director post but stays on beer thesis in an advisory capacity through 1989 (PHOTO).

Dec 1985: The first IBM 3270 emulation is provided by newly installed IBM Series/1 computers (V17#15). The Series/1 is a single-cabinet minicomputer with sixteen RS-232C serial interfaces for macbeth as a terminals and a channel connection to the mainframe. Essay? The Series/1 tricks the mainframe into believing it is a 3274 control unit. Prior to this all public terminal access to IBM mainframes had been in half-duplex linemode, rather than full-screen mode. Essays As A Tragic Hero? Now ordinary ASCII terminals (and emulators of them) could conduct full-screen 3270 sessions on essay for the the IBM VM/CMS mainframe, and they could do it without reconfiguration (as was necessary for linemode connections).

The Series/1 converted between full and half duplex, block mode and macbeth tragic character mode, and IBM 3270 data streams and thesis the escape sequences and character sets used by many different types of terminals (even APL terminals), plus it provided flow control and buffering. The Series/1 computers were later replaced by IBM 7171s, 4994s, and essays macbeth tn3270 software in terminal servers and on UNIX hosts. (Around here, large departmental PC labs began to appear, for example in the Business School and in the Learning Center.) 1986-1987 West German hackers use Columbia's Kermit software to break into dozens of US military computers and az post statement history capture information for the KGB , as described by Cliff Stoll in his 1989 book, The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. At one point, while Cliff watched on a jury-rigged T-connected terminal, the hackers were using Kermit to download a copy of the Telnet source code so they could implant a password logger, upload the result, recompile it, and install it: Line by as a tragic, line, I watched Kermit shovel the program over to the hacker. But I couldn't just kill Kermit. He'd notice that right away. Now that I was closing in on a argumentative him, I especially didn't want to tip my hand. I found my key chain and reached over to the wires connected to macbeth as a hero the hacker's line. Jangling the thesis keys across the connector, I shorted out essays macbeth tragic hero, his circuit for an instant. This added just enough noise to confuse the computer, but not enough to kill the connection.

It worked like a charm. I'd jangle my keys, he'd see the noise, and his computer would ask for a replay of the last line. Letter Independent School? This slowed the transfer down so much that the hacker eventually lost patience and gave up -- but it didn't stop Kermit! As long as the macbeth as a tragic connection stays up, no matter how awful, Kermit pushes the file through. Cliff also measured the delay between Kermit packet and acknowledgment to production thesis estimate the hacker's distance from California (6000 miles, a fairly accurate estimate of the macbeth as a distance to Hannover). 1 Jan 1986: CUCCA and Libraries merge. Information is information, right? (V18#2). CUCCA now reports to the University Librarian, Pat Battin. (In fact, it seems that CUCCA and Libraries merge periodically; in some sense, CUCCA has always reported to critical on the the University Librarian; in another sense the real merger came only essays macbeth as a tragic hero, later, under Elaine Sloan.) The administrative half of CUCCA, ADP (now AIS, Administrative Information Services), is severed and reports to Low Library, and eventually (1991) moves from uk police statement Watson Lab to Thorndike Hall at Teachers College. Jan 1986: Columbia's first networked PC lab opens in 251 Engineering Terrace, populated with the UNIX (Pro/380), MS-DOS (Rainbow) and VAX workstations from the Hermit grant, plus eight 512K (fat) Macintoshes and two Mac/XLs, a LaserWriter printing station, an essays macbeth as a tragic hero, IBM PC, and the original Kermit Superbrain (V18#2). Statement Writing? The Pro/380 was a workstation made by DEC with a PDP-11 inside.

DEC's operating system was called P/OS, which was a version of RSX-11 with a super-annoying menu-driven user interface. We adapted 2.8BSD UNIX to the machine for use in the lab, so these were the first public Unix workstations deployed at Columbia. Furthermore, unlike the Rainbows, Macs, and the PC (which communicated only through their serial ports with Kermit), they were on essays macbeth Ethernet, and therefore on odyssey the Internet. Jan 1986: Kermit Project founded. Kermit had started in 1980 as a task within the macbeth tragic DEC-20 Systems Group, which obviously had other responsibilities. By the mid-80s, Kermit had become popular all over the world, and we were receiving hundreds of requests for independent school it every week from sites that were not on the network. Macbeth? Meanwhile, other sites were sending in new Kermit implementations of their own. Fulfilling these requests and maintaining the Kermit software archive (and mailing list, etc) had become a full-time job, so a full-time Kermit group, led by Christine Gianone (formerly the business manager in a argumentative essay SSIO), was created to manage and distribute the software and as a tragic hero take over the online archive, the mailing lists, tech support, and so on.

The programming was still done by members of the Systems group and critical hobbit external volunteers. Software distribution charges were instituted to cover costs. The old raised-floor machine room in the back of the essays macbeth 7th floor of Watson Lab (added in 1959 for the IBM 1620) became the Kermit room, containing the Kermit Project computers and media production equipment. May 1986: The height of CCNET , which now includes Columbia, CMU, CWRU, NYU, Stevens, Vassar, and Oberlin (V18#5). An October 1986 listing shows about teacher independent 200 nodes on the network with DEC operating systems including TOPS-10, TOPS-20, VMS, Ultrix, RSX-11/M, and essays as a tragic P/OS. Columbia departments included CUCCA, Computer Science, Chemistry, Math Stat, Teachers College, numerous PS departments, Nevis Lab (in Irvington NY), Psychology, Civil Engineering, and the Business School. Other universities (mainly in cover letter teacher independent school Ohio) would join later, but in a few more years the Internet would make CCNET obsolete. May 1986: First public description of Columbia's Ethernet backbone network, and enunciation of policy for essays departmental connections to it (V18#5), which was accomplished by us writing a letter for a argumentative essay the Provost to essays macbeth tragic hero sign. 16 Jul 1986: Columbia University as a whole (as opposed to only the Computer Science Department) receives approval from the Defense Projects Research Agency to join the a argumentative essay ARPANET (which would soon become the Internet) [SEE LETTER].

Aug 1986: Mathematics joins Ethernet backbone. 1986: (month?) Richard Sacks takes over essays macbeth as a hero, as acting CUCCA Director. Beer Thesis? (Howard leaves somewhere in here. ) Sep 1986: The Scholarly Information Center (SIC) is proclaimed by Pat Battin, University Librarian. Sep 1986: More about the campus backbone: A bright yellow half-inch coaxial cable runs through the hero steam tunnels up and across the on the west and north edges of the Morningside campus. This cable is the campus Ethernet backbone, a large part of which was installed as part of an external research grant from Digital Equipment Corporation [the Hermit Project]. (Alan Crosswell, Networks at Columbia , SIC Journal V1#1, Sep 1986). The backbone ran from Watson Lab to macbeth hero Mathematics to Chemistry to the Computer Center to production Computer Science to macbeth tragic hero Mudd (DIAGRAM). At the time coax-based IBM PCNET and Token Ring PC networks were commonplace networking methods for PCs. Oct 1986: Kermit, A File Transfer Protocol (Frank) published by Digital Press, with a Foreword by Donald Knuth.

It remained in print for critical 14 years. Oct 1986: CU20C switched off and replaced by a DEC VAX 8650 called CUNIXC running Ultrix 1.1, DEC's brand of UNIX , a 4.2BSD derivative. A pilot project assigned some CS courses to CUNIXC in Fall 1986. This was our first step in phasing out the DEC-20s after the line was discontinued by DEC in 1983. Macbeth Tragic Hero? This stung so severely that we would never run a proprietary operating system again (except on the IBM mainframes, of uk police writing course). Essays Macbeth Tragic Hero? The attraction of UNIX was that it was available -- with relatively minor variations -- on all kinds of computers, great and small.

The 8650 was approximately equal to the DEC-20 in size, weight, and a argumentative essay cost; it was chosen because we could recycle many of the DEC-20 peripherals, and because (unlike other UNIXes) it supported DECnet, which we still used for departmental connections. Lots more HERE about the conversion from TOPS-20 to Unix. (About UNIX. There is much that appeals about UNIX. Its well-known original attributes (simplicity, terseness, consistent building-block tools) were spelled out in the seminal BSTJ issue [15]. In addition, it is platform independent, so sites like ours are not tied to a particular vendor. Unlike proprietary OSs like TOPS-20, VMS, VM/CMS, and so on, however, UNIX is a moving target. Ever since control of UNIX left Bell Labs, every implementation (Ultrix, OSF/1, AIX, HP-UX, SunOS, Solaris, IRIX, Linux, FreeBSD, etc etc) is different in sometimes subtle but always aggravating ways, and (with a few notable exceptions such as OpenBSD) every new release of every varation tends to break existing applications (whereas programs written for essays macbeth tragic hero TOPS-20, VMS, MVS/TSO, or VM/CMS decades ago still work, without even recompiling).

Any program more complicated than hello world is rarely portable from one UNIX to another without some porting work at the source-code level. To compound matters, documentation is increasingly scant. In the 1970s and teacher school 80s, every operating system (even UNIX) came with a wall of printed manuals that documented everything in macbeth hero excruciating detail. But now documentation is considered a waste of time and effort, since everything will change anyway. Production? In modern UNIX, the only reliable documentation is the source code, and even that decays over time.) Nov 1986: 2400 bps modems installed for essays the first time, 25 of them altogether. There are still 59 300/1200 lines, for a total of 84 dialin lines connected to the PACX. Dec 1986: First IBM RT PCs received at Watson Lab (V18#12).

This was IBM's first RISC Technology (RT) UNIX workstation, the precursor to essay for the odyssey the RS/6000, which was in wide use at Columbia and elsewhere into the 2000s. IBM's brand of UNIX is essays tragic called AIX. Dec 1986: The Ingres relational database system is first installed (on CUNIXC). This would become the basis for CU's ID and authentication systems and essay other UNIX-based databases. 1987: Snapshot: The 1987 edition of the CUCCA Guide to Research and Instructional Facilities lists four DEC-2065's (but only three remain), the IBM mainframe with VM/CMS, a DEC VAX 8700 running Ultrix, 150 public terminals (HP2621s and DEC VT101s) plus DEC Rainbows and macbeth tragic Apple Macintoshes in public labs, 80 dialup lines at 300, 1200, and uk police 2400 bps. and essays as a tragic connections to odyssey BITNET, ARPANET, NYSERNET, JVNCNET, NSFNET, USENET, and CCNET. By this time it is possible to send electronic mail practically anywhere within minutes. During this period CDROMs begin to as a tragic hero appear, the dawn of the multimedia age. CLIO goes online to statement PACX users. CLICK HERE for a map of macbeth as a tragic hero campus terminal rooms as of January 1987 (Maurice Matiz, V19#2). 1987-88: The remaining three DEC-20s were gradually phased out from June 1987 to August 1988.

1987-88: The Kermit Project gives presentations at international conferences in the USA, Switzerland, France, and az post statement of personal history Japan. In Japan we learned the problems of Japanese text entry, coding, display, and interchange that would influence future directions in tragic Kermit protocol and software. Jan 1987: Morningside campus is uk police writing connected to the John von Neumann Supercomputer Center in Princeton and to JVNCNET via a 56Kb leased line. And to NYSERNET via 56Kb leased line to Cornell. The Big Snowball Fight. Feb 1987: Biology joins Ethernet backbone. Feb 1987: CUCCA (Frank) commissions Sparc SPITBOL due to imminent demise of DEC-20s (indicating we had already decided on essays as a Sun for future expansion; SPITBOL (SNOBOL), which some of us still used heavily, was one of the few DEC-20 applications that had not been adapted to cover teacher independent school UNIX in general or the Sparc in particular). Mar 1987: The SSIO Area is closed and macbeth hero its functions transferred to 321A International Affairs, and production thesis later (1989) to as a 102 Philosophy Hall. The SSIO terminal rooms are replaced by essay on the, public labs in the International Affairs building (and later in other locations) in which microcomputers, PCs, Macintoshes, and other kinds of workstations are installed rather than terminals. Apr 1987: Hermit project canceled.

Although we had achieved many of macbeth tragic its goals (transparent central file access from DOS, Mac, and UNIX; shared printing, including graphics; even e-mail), it was overtaken by cheap Ethernet, NFS, and commodity LANs/internetworking in general. Most of the equipment (Pro/380s, Rainbows, MicroVAXes) had gone into 251 Engineering Terrace, Columbia's first networked PC lab. Topics Odyssey? The Pro-380s were our first public UNIX workstations (running 2.9BSD, adapted locally to the Pro-380), and CCMD (DEC-20 COMND JSYS simulation in C for UNIX) and the UNIX version of MM (mail client) came out of it (more info on MM HERE). The VAX-11/750 became an internal UNIX development system, in preparation for DEC20-to-UNIX conversion, and until late 1988 it was also Columbia's mail hub. May 1987: The Engineering School Ethernet (Muddnet) is installed and connected to essays as a hero the campus Ethernet backbone. Muddnet came from an ATT grant to statement of personal the School of Engineering and Applied Science (SEAS), which also included an ATT 3B20 minicomputer in the Computer Science department and as a tragic hero a large number of 3B2 desktop workstations, all running ATT UNIX System V R3.

The 3Bx's fell into disuse after after a short while, but the Ethernet taps were recycled and used to topics provide connectivity for years. Jul 1987: VAX 8700 up as CUNIXC, replacing the VAX 8650. Sep 1987: U of Toledo (Ohio) joins CCNET. Oct 1987: First high-speed link installed between Morningside and Health Sciences campus, via line-of-sight microwave supplying four T1 equivalents (about 6Mbps), providing direct Internet to Health Sciences (previously there had been a 9600bps leased line for DECnet only). This works because the Morningside and Health Sciences campus are both on Manhattan high points (see the as a tragic hero old aerial photo). Nov 1987: The Physics Department joins the Ethernet backbone. Nov 1987: Columbia Appletalk Package (CAP) and critical hobbit Appletalk UNIX File Server (AUFS) released, written by Bill Schilit and macbeth as a Charlie Kim of production Watson Lab, provides Appleshare file and print service to Macintoshes from UNIX, speaking Appletalk over Ethernet (V19#9). CAP and AUFS quickly became popular all over tragic hero, the world and Charlie went on to work at Apple. 1987-1993: Network Planning Group (NPG): University-wide planning sessions setting networking direction and beer production thesis policy for essays macbeth as a CU as a whole (Morningside and Health Sciences, Administrative and Academic), chaired by me. Met weekly until 1993.

Began by planning for Rolm installation (wiring plant, PACX/Rolm data migration), eventually moved on to local-area, campus-wide, and wide-area networking in general. Eventually everybody bought into TCP/IP and Ethernet, migrating from SNA, DECnet, etc. [See the NPG final report (PDF)]. 1988-89: AIS tests an IBM 9370 minicomputer in a argumentative Watson Lab as a possible basis for distributed administrative computing. Early 1988: The Office of essays macbeth as a tragic hero Telecommunications and Computer Operations were assigned Administrative Data Processing (ADP), which changed its name to Administrative Information Services (AIS). AIS was removed from CUCCA, and now reported to the University's central administration, rather than to the University Librarian, thus ending the 17-year CUCCA name and statement writing era. Essays As A Hero? The academic and administrative staff, however, continued to on the work together in Watson Lab [20]. The Office of Telecommunications has overall responsibility for the Rolm phone system including the Rolm cable plant. The split complicates the networking of the University, since some aspects (wiring and hero distribution frames) are done by Telecomm, whereas others (backbone network, hubs, routers, and configuration) are done by the Academic portion of ex-CUCCA (soon to essay on the be AcIS), and the two sides do not report anywhere in common short of the President. Working around this structural anomoly was the primary reason for NPG. Meanwhile, the central academic computing systems remain in the machine room but now AIS is the service provider (of operations support) and AcIS the client. Mar 1988: Central CUCCA hosts move down one level in the Internet domain hierarchy, to the CC (Computer Center) subdomain, e.g.

CU20B.COLUMBIA.EDU becomes CU20B.CC.COLUMBIA.EDU. The older names remain in effect until the first of June. Apr 1988: Our first Sun (a Sun-4/280) was installed in the Watson Lab 7th Floor machine room as WATSUN (the WATson Lab SUN). Watsun (later upgraded to Sparc-10 and then Sparc-20), which ran SunOS 4.0 and essays as a 4.1 (4.2BSD derivatives), was the primary login host for Watson Lab staff and home of the of personal history Kermit Project ftp (and later Web) site for many years. Later (when?) it would move to the Watson Penthouse as the essays need for office space becomes increasingly urgent, and the old IBM raised-floor machine room would be gutted and divided into beer production thesis four offices for 6-8 people. Watsun was retired in 2003. May 1988: CU20D switched off. All instruction moved from essays macbeth as a hero DEC-20s to VAX UNIX . CU20B (research and staff) runs until . . . Aug 1988: CU20B (Columbia's last DEC-20) was switched off. For more about the legacy of the DECSYSTEM-20, CLICK HERE. Uk Police? In brief: prior the DEC-20s, computer users at Columbia were primarily concerned with calculation, and their primary access method was batch.

After the macbeth tragic DEC-20 (and because of az post statement of personal it) they were hooked on e-mail, bulletin boards, talk (interactive real-time chatting), text editing and typesetting, and the Internet -- just as they are today. The nature of computing had changed completely and as a tragic hero forever. All that remained was to put a pretty face on it. Aug 1988: Lamont Doherty Geological Observatory connected to Morningside campus via Ethernet over T1. Aug 1988: Ethernet backbone extended to East Campus. Summer 1988: CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online) was switched from BLIS to NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System) after the BLIS company (Bibliotechniques) went under. NOTIS was developed at az post statement history Northwestern University and essays macbeth as a hero later spun off to Ameritech Library Services. Critical On The? CLIO continues to run on essays as a hero the IBM mainframe. Sep 1988: CUCCA reorganization. Richard Sacks officially director. Elaine Sloan is new Vice President for letter school Information Services and University Librarian.

Nov 1988: After years of planning and a year of macbeth tragic hero installation, the ATT Centrex telephone system and critical hobbit the Gandalf PACX were replaced by IBM/Rolm (later Siemens) CBX 9000 (PHOTOS). Now instead of a PACX box and a phone, users had a phone with an RS-232 connector (if they paid extra for essays the data option). This was a massive project involving untold amounts of construction, tunneling, drilling, and wire-pulling, including a trench across Broadway and many trenches between the buildings on campus and across side streets. Preparation for the cutover was done using a Rolm CBX 8000 in Watson Lab. 2500 data connections were moved from the PACX to of personal history the Rolm. Columbia's telephone exchange was changed from 280- to 853- and 854-. Christine and I published a series of articles in McGraw Hill Data Communications magazine on the topic and Neil Sachnoff wrote a whole book [41]. In the end, the most significant aspect of the conversion was the installation of a uniform twisted-pair wiring plant in all Morningside locations, enabling (over the next six years) universal 10BaseT Ethernet networking, as well as swipe-card access to buildings. Prior to 1988, the Columbia University ID (CUID) was paper. With the as a tragic hero Rolm system came laminated picture IDs with magnetic strips that worked in swipe-card readers all over campus, as well as in off-campus university buildings -- anyplace reached by Rolm wiring.

The same wiring system that was used for telephones, serial-port terminal connections, and twisted-pair Ethernet was also used to connect to statement the central access server that lets you open doors. Prior to this, PACX data installations required pulling wire from the macbeth PACX to each destination, digging trenches, drilling holes through granite, etc, and could take many months. Essay Topics For The Odyssey? With the essays as a hero CBX, it was just a matter of making some cross-connections in beer production a distribution panel -- every phone jack was also a network jack. The downside was that desktop phones could no longer be used with modems or fax machines, since the phones were now digital (a big issue at the time, but we survived). 1989: CUCCA creates positions specifically for macbeth as a hero e-mail (freemail) support (postmaster, tech support, education and training). Originally Joe Brennan; the work he did alone now requires about a dozen people. Freemail is launched January 1990. Most of the remaining Morningside campus buildings are connected to the network backbone. 1989: CUCCA business and consulting offices move to 102 Philosophy Hall . This is the same room where Prof. Edwin H. Armstrong invented FM radio. Here we have two views of Armstrong's laboratory in 102 Philosophy in the 1930s [VIEW 1] [VIEW 2] and az post statement of personal history one of the essays macbeth as a tragic Armstrong Tower (from the uk police statement Columbiana photo archive).

The Armstrong Tower (transmitter for the first-ever FM radio station, W2XMN, 1936) is across the Hudson River in essays macbeth as a Alpine, New Jersey, but at some point Columbia sold it off. Later (early 1990s) we thought we might use it for microwave access to Lamont, since it has line-of-sight to both Columbia's Morningside Heights (Manhattan) campus and to Lamont in Palisades NY, but couldn't afford the new owner's rates. (Actually this idea has come up just about every 10 years since the 1960s -- I saw it first suggested in Dean Halford's 1963 letter [36].) After the essay on the hobbit destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, the Armstrong tower was used again by the major networks to broadcast their signals [56]. Apr 1989: An Encore Multimax 310 UNIX mainframe (later upgraded to 510) replaces the VAX 8700, our first departure from DEC for big academic central computers since 1975. The Encore's attraction was its multiple processors. It was fast. Its UNIX (UMAX) was based on 4.3BSD. This change effectively removes the Computer Center from the campus DECnet, which gradually vanished from the essays macbeth scene over production, the next 10 or 12 years. May 1989: First International Kermit Conference , Moscow, USSR (Also in the Columbia University Record , V15#3, 22 Sep 1989) (PHOTO). Attended by Frank da Cruz and Christine Gianone of the Columbia Computer Center and about 70 computer specialists from Bulgaria, Cuba, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, East Germany, Mongolia, Poland, and essays macbeth tragic hero parts of the USSR ranging from Novosibirsk in central Russia to Tallinn in Estonia, this is where the details of Kermit's character-set translation protocol were settled, allowing interchange of text in Cyrillic among machines using diverse incompatible encodings -- ditto for East and West European languages written with accented Roman letters, as well as Hebrew, Greek, Japanese, and uk police other scripts. [PICTURES AND VIDEO] Summer-Fall 1989: Microcomputer labs open in 321A International Affairs (16 Macs); 215 International Affairs (40 Macs plus some terminals); 272 Engineering Terrace (30 IBM PS/2 Model 70s). Meanwhile, all sorts of content began to appear online: the schedule of classes, the University directory, and the Columbia Concise Encyclopedia . Sep 1989: Richard Sacks resigns as director of CUCCA on September 27th.

Vace Kundakci (correct spelling: Vaçe Kundakç#305;), manager of the academic IBM mainframes and prior to that systems programmer (since 1977), takes over as acting director. Jan 1990: Using MS-DOS Kermit (Christine) published by macbeth tragic, Digital Press, with a jacket blurb by critical essay on the, Cliff Stoll (Yow!), author of The Cuckoo's Egg [46]. A second edition was published in as a hero 1992. German and French translations were also published, as was another book about for the MS-DOS Kermit in essays tragic Japanese (see the Kermit Bibliography). May 1990: Vace Kundakci takes over as Director, renames CUCCA to AcIS (Academic Information Systems), as distinct from AIS (Administrative Information Services, formerly ADP). Mid-1990: Alan Crosswell becomes Systems Manager, responsible for all central academic computing systems (IBM and other), a post last held by Howard Eskin and az post vacated 5 years before.

By this time the only central computers that matter are Unix-based (DEC, then Encore, then Sun, plus workstations from as a tragic hero Sun, NeXT, and HP) the academic IBM mainframe is used mainly by the Libraries and a handful of external paying users. (Somewhere around here CCNET was disbanded because of the Internet.) Jan 1991: The Senior Vice President of Columbia is bitten by the outsourcing bug and history brings in a consulting firm, American Management Systems Inc (AMS), to essays macbeth as a tragic take over and clean out administrative computing (AIS). Seventeen people are fired. Although a couple of production service improvements resulted (mainly a new Student Information System, SIS), many millions of dollars were wasted on cutting edge projects that never panned out and essays macbeth hero a number of cover letter school talented people were lost. Eventually AMS left the scene and equilibrium was restored.

1991: We buy a truckload of NeXT UNIX (NeXTSTEP) workstations for both staff and labs (photo); a major commitment, and (I believe) an attempt to stem the tide of PCs and essays as a tragic Macs, which were intrinsically unsafe and labor intensive for their users and owners (the PCs more so than Macs, which have always had a great deal of support from a large contingent of the technical staff) and for AcIS staff in its role of support-giver. The NeXTs were configured and managed centrally; user logins were via network to the central University database; user directories were on centrally located, managed, and backed up NFS-mounted disks. But before long NeXT was out of business. 1991: There is much expansion, renovation, and upgrading of public computer labs during 1991 (and ever since). The academic and administrative IBM mainframes (4381, 3090, and 3083) are all replaced by a single IBM ES/9121, which is partitioned into separate academic and administrative virtual machines (a feature of IBM's VM operating system). Jan 1991: Three Sun-4/280s (full-sized cabinets) are installed in the machine room as CUNIXA, CUNIXB, and CUNIXD running SunOS 4.1. Of Personal History? These (and the Encore) were soon replaced by Sun pizza-box sized servers, and as a SunOS was replaced by Solaris.

Where central computers once weighed tons, cost millions, filled acres of floor space, required massive cooling and exotic forms of power, now they're dirt-cheap commodity items running at unheard-of speeds with seemingly limitless amounts of memory and storage, that can be carried under your arm and plugged into an ordinary wall socket at ambient room temperature. Of course, today's applications and data saturate this vast capacity just as effectively as yesterday's simpler applications overwhelmed the resources available then, and essay for the odyssey so it shall always be. (Around here, disk service begins to shift from essays as a tragic locally attached disks to RAID file servers, and the backup system changes from the traditional manual 9-track tape operation to uk police statement writing automated network backups to a DAT-drive juke box . All the software was locally written and included all the academic servers, Sun as well as the IBM mainframe. Later a commercial backup system, Veritas, took the place of the original homegrown one. Capacity as of Jan 2001: 400 x 40GB tapes = 16000GB (16TB) to cover 1.7TB usable space on essays macbeth as a hero the academic file servers.) Jan 1992: Conversion of Morningside campus backbone from Ethernet coax to optical fiber begins; cutover in Spring 1992.

Apr 1992: AIS moves out of topics for the Watson Lab to new quarters in Thorndike Hall at Teachers College (MAP) and in the Computer Center Building [20]. Floors 1 through 5 of Watson Lab were left vacant for a period, and then, even though the AcIS space on floors 6-9 was (and remains) severely and increasingly overcrowded, the essays as a hero lower five floors with their rich history and key role in science and computing were converted to topics odyssey art studios. Nov 1992: Using C-Kermit (Frank and Christine) published by Digital Press, concurrent with the macbeth as a hero release of version 5 of C-Kermit. A second edition would follow in 1997, as well as a German translation. 1992-1993: Columbia's Kermit software handles the communications in the British relief mission to Bosnia. 1993: The era of the search engine begins.

First there was Archie, then Hypertelnet, then Gopher, then the Web. In 1993, ColumbiaNet is hot, a million accesses per essay topics for the, year (a figure soon to be dwarfed by the Web, see Web statistics table). Essays As A Hero? ColumbiaNet is a text-based menu-driven service (remember text?). Here's the main menu, preserved for posterity: Spring 1993: By now the Internet is ubiquitous. University Technology Architecture published, setting University-wide standards for networking, a common TCP/IP-based network for a argumentative essay all computing, administrative and academic, at Columbia; this was the essays macbeth as a tragic hero end product of NPG (see it here as a PDF). Formerly the statement administrative network was IBM SNA and completely separate from the essays macbeth tragic academic network.

While this arrangement might have had its advantages from a security standpoint, it was becoming increasingly difficult to uk police statement manage and for end users to macbeth hero cope with. Summer 1993: The Schapiro Residence Hall (across 115th Street from Watson Lab) is wired for Ethernet as a pilot project for campus-wide networked dormitories. Schapiro is also the first building to be served by cover teacher independent, the new fiber backbone. Dec 1993: New AcIS modem pool announced, consisting of 80+ V.32 bis 14400 bps error-correcting data-compressing US Robotics modems, connected to Cisco terminals servers at 57600 bps with RTS/CTS hardware flow control, replacing the old Rolm based modem pool. Macbeth As A Tragic? When the Rolm was first installed in 1988, 1200/2400 and production thesis 9600 bps modem pools were connected directly to it, and essays macbeth as a hero these provided Columbia's main dialup access until 1994 (a total of 84 lines). Beginning in 1993, AcIS began to install modern error-correcting data-compressing modems of its own in Watson Lab. This was done for a argumentative several reasons: The top speed of a Rolm port was fixed at 19200 bps. Essays Macbeth As A Tragic Hero? Rolm data ports did not support hardware flow control, which is essential for error-correcting data-compressing modems; SLIP and PPP connections could not be made through Rolm ports (at least not by an ordinary mortal).

The demand for writing dialup access has increased ever since, and we keep accommodating (see table). Macbeth Tragic? The modems themselves have since been upgraded to V.34 (28800 bps) and then V.90 (56K bps). Modems were originally used for text-based shell sessions. In the late 1980s, SLIP service appeared on our terminal servers, and later PPP. Gradually, shell access gave way to Internet connections over PPP, which had the advantages of allowing multiple sessions on the same connection including Web browsers and GUI PC-based e-mail, plus end-to-end data integrity (no more line noise of critical on the course the noise is still there, but it's detected and corrected by retransmission automatically by hero, the modems and a argumentative essay the IP and essays macbeth hero TCP network layers, so you don't see it). Jan-Apr 1994: The Columbia website debuts; see statistics below. A web server was first installed in Dec 1993; the first Columbia website was up in uk police writing Jan 1994 (DID ANYBODY SAVE A SCREENSHOT?), and the website was announced and publicized in Apr 1994. Macbeth As A Hero? Early original content included the Architecture digital library (1994-95), the Art History digital library (1993-95), the cover letter independent school Oversized Geology Maps project (1994-96), and macbeth as a the Bartleby full-text literature project [Source: Rob Cartolano] . Before long, a Web front end to NOTIS-based CLIO was also available (DATE?). May 1994: In AIS News V4#2, the Directors of AcIS (Vace Kundakci) and uk police AIS (Mike Marinaccio) present the macbeth as a hero full range of e-mail options available to Columbia: Pine, MM, VMM, MailBook, the newly emerging PC and Macintosh based POP clients, and e-mail with MIME attachments.

Summer 1994: Most residence halls wired for Ethernet: Carman, Furnald, Hartley, John Jay, Wallach (Livingston), John Jay, and Wien (Johnson). Residence Hall Networking Option (RHNO) offered to students in the Fall. The first electronic classrooms were set up. Sep 1994: The public labs are switched from NeXT to HP 9000/712 UNIX (HP-UX) workstations; a big attraction is essay topics for the odyssey their ability to run both Mac and PC (Windows) emulators as well as UNIX applications perfect for the public labs but far too pricey for individual desktops. Sometime in 1994: I turn over essays tragic hero, my Network Tsar responsibilities to Bill Chen and devote full time to the Kermit Project, which I began 14 years earlier and could never quite give up. Shortly thereafter, Jeff Altman joins as a second full-time developer. The Network Planning Group becomes the Network Systems Group, to reflect its now-operational nature. Essay On The? Token Ring and SNA networks phased out. Oct 1994: Columbia's Kermit software serves as the primary communications method in the Brazilian national election, the macbeth tragic world's largest election ever at the time. Nov 1994: The printed Newsletter ceases publication, which is too bad since there is nothing quite like a paper trail.

Web documents are transitory turn your back for for the a couple years (or months or weeks) and macbeth tragic hero the history is lost. The newsletter was the Computer Center (or CUCC , or CUCCA ) Newsletter until November 1988, after which it suffered a series of makeovers and name changes: Columbia Computing, Computing News, Academic Computing, SIC [sic] Journal , etc, and then gave up the ghost. For all practical purposes, the historical record of computing Columbia stops here. There was an ASCII archive of newsletters through 1988 on critical hobbit the DEC-20s, but it was lost when CU20B was switched off. Dec 1994: The Flynn Report recommends (among other things) improved computing and networking service for students. 1994-95: Windows and the Web take over. The diverse, rich, idiosyncratic history of essays as a tragic computing stops here. For the first time, computing and on the networking are opened up to tragic the general public. The locus of uk police computing and networking shifts from tragic science and academia to the mass market. 1994-95: Initial funding for the creation of two test electronic classrooms (Fairchild and . Essay Odyssey? ) for macbeth as a hero the 1994-95 year.

1994-present: AcIS is primarily occupied with the Web, Web-based services, content, labs, kiosks, Sun servers and NFS toasters, multimedia classrooms, wired dorms, mobile and wireless computing, video conferencing, webcasting, distance learning, all the while fending off attacks from within and without viruses, spam, open mail relays, junk mail, denial of service attacks, worms, etc that occur continuously from on the all corners of the globe, and constantly struggling to as a keep up with the essay on the ever-increasing demand for bandwidth, storage, and dial-in modems, often just to accommodate services like Napster, Kazaa, Internet Relay Chat, Instant Messaging, and people emailing cartoons, photos, and movies to each other or serving streaming video from as a tragic hero their dorm rooms. Superficially, users rely on uk police statement AcIS less than before, now that they have their own desktop computers and applications. But in essays as a tragic fact they rely on AcIS more than ever for essential daily services like virus protection and screening, e-mail and Web access, not to cover letter independent mention the Sun and RAID server farms that provide these services as well as safe, backed-up storage and the unglamorous infrastructure of network wiring, hubs, and routers (installation, maintenance, updates, expansion, management, configuration), plus the ongoing feeds from the administrative student information, human resources, and alumni systems, allowing automated identity creation, security, web-based student services, web-based courses, and all the rest, serving virtually every student, staff, and faculty member of the University, a community of over essays tragic hero, 40,000 users (plus another 50,000+ alumni with e-mail service). 1995-96 Electronic classrooms project funded at $1M for the creation of the e-rooms throughout campus. Oct 1995: Kermit 95 for Windows 95 released; this (and C-Kermit) would be the main preoccupation of the Kermit Project for the years to come, plus active involvement in IETF and essay Unicode standards.

Kermit is a laboratory where we can learn about, experiment with, develop, and finally package, document, and deploy file transfer and macbeth as a tragic management protocols, Internet clients and servers, character-set translation techniques, secure authentication and encryption methods, and topics for the odyssey algorithms of all kinds big and small, even transport-level network stacks. Even a programming language. 1996: The Watson Lab building is featured in the movie, The Mirror Has Two Faces . For several weeks 115th Street and tragic hero the building itself were occupied by production crews, equipment, and a argumentative actors. Essays Macbeth As A? The final shot in the movie zooms in to a Watson window. This is only one of many films that used Columbia University locations; others include Spiderman and Ghostbusters (CLICK HERE for more).

The Columbia neighborhood is also a frequent setting for beer production TV shows such as Law Order (where Hudson University is a fictionalized Columbia University) and New York Undercover (1994-1998). Fall 1997: The 50th anniversary of the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) passed unnoticed at Columbia, even though the ACM was founded here. Jul 1999: Rolm Dataphone connections (top speed: 19200 bps) were discontinued because by now everybody had Ethernet in their Rolmphone jacks; the Annex and Cisco terminal servers to which the central data modules were connected were switched off and removed. Summer 1999: HP 712/60 workstations, which were mainly used to run PC and Macintosh emulation software, were replaced by 70 Sun Ultra 10 workstations, in essays macbeth both 251 Engineering Terrace and the adjacent Gussman Lab. The other big deal that summer was the upgrade of the a argumentative entire lab to 100BaseT. Dec 1999: In Pupin Laboratory, site of the essays macbeth tragic world's first automated scientific calculations 65 years earlier, the Computational Field Theory Group of the Columbia University Physics Department, working with IBM TJ Watson Research Center and az post Brookhaven National Laboratory, begins construction of a multiteraflops supercomputing resource , the QCDOC machine (Quantum Chromodynamics On a Chip).

In April 2002, the group received a five million dollar grant from RIKEN, the Japan Institute of Physical and Chemical Research in support of essays macbeth as a tragic hero this work. CLICK HERE for further information. [ Top ] Aug 2002: AcIS reclaims the 4th floor of beer production Watson Lab. As A? Some art studios are relocated to Prentis Hall. The full-time members of the Computing Support Center staff moved back from 102 Philosophy Hall. Walk-in services remain in 102 Philosophy but the statement telephone help desk is now in Watson Lab.

Sep 2002: After several successful pilot projects, network wiring of residential buildings in the neighborhood begins. Initial service is 10Mbps, increased to 100 in Feb 2003. 22 Nov 2002: Today is the first day in essays macbeth as a tragic hero history that Columbia is using Internet service from a company (Texas based Broadwing) which we had nothing to do with building. Critical Essay Hobbit? Until today, even though we had bought service from essays companies like PSI and Applied Theory, we used services which we (through Nysernet) had something to cover letter teacher school do with their creation and expansion, at least in essays as a tragic their earlier stages. Let's now hope Broadwing stays in on the hobbit business.

Vace Kundakci (AcIS Director). Nov-Dec 2002: Columbia's Kermit 95 software CD is delivered by the Space Shuttle Endeavor to the International Space Station (see the July 2003 entry for details). Jan - Feb 2003: Installation of per-host outbound bandwidth throttling to reduce the impact of as a tragic peer-to-peer file sharing (Napster, Gnutella, Kazaa, etc) on network performance. Jan - May 2003: As the University drowns in a argumentative essay spam (unwanted e-mail), AcIS prototypes filtering mechanisms. May 2003: IBM System/360 nameplate, Console power switch, and about 100 lamps sent to the newly relocated Computer Museum History Center in macbeth tragic hero Mountain View, California, for reattachment to uk police our IBM 360/91 Console, which we donated in 1980 with these pieces missing. 16 Jun 2003: AcIS activates its spam filters. Tragic Hero? At this point, incoming mail traffic is uk police statement 500-600,000 messages per day, of which about 20% are filtered.

The filtering policy, however, is conservative to avoid blocking legitimate mail, so this figure does not reflect the actual amount of tragic spam and statement writing viruses, not to mention the fallout from them (e.g. bounce notifications resulting from forged mail). Jul 2003: On the International Space Station , a connection between Columbia's MS-DOS Kermit and essays as a hero Kermit 95 software programs delivers the results from the CSLM-2 microgravity experiment. This experiment is to be run at a argumentative essay different times through 2005. CLICK HERE for the full story. 7 Jul 2003: New CLIO (Columbia Library Information Online). The previous version, based on NOTIS software running on essays macbeth as a hero the IBM mainframe, dated from the 1980s, before the Web and the popularization of the writing Internet. The first CLIO system, based on Bibliotechniques BLIS software, debuted in January 1984; when Bibliotechiques folded a second version of CLIO, based on NOTIS (Northwestern Online Totally Integrated System), came up in essays macbeth as a summer 1988. NOTIS was developed at a argumentative essay Northwestern University and later spun off, then bought by macbeth as a hero, Ameritech Library Services, which was itself snapped up and evidently dissolved by a private investment group in 1999. The new Web-centric CLIO is history built on Endeavor Information Systems Inc. Macbeth Tragic Hero? Oracle-based Voyager software, running on AcIS-administered Sun Solaris servers, and is also used at the US Library of Congress, the a argumentative US National Libraries of Medicine and Agriculture, Princeton, Yale, Cornell, Penn, and elsewhere.

At this point, 92% of the University's holdings are cataloged online, a total of 4 million records, with plans for macbeth as a hero the remainder (with exceptions like maps and rare books, plus divisions that never joined the main catalog such as the Law and TC Libraries) to be in the catalog by essay, 2005. The new system allows more searching, management, and customization options, and integrates and largely automates backoffice tasks. Perhaps more significantly, it is designed to accommodate Unicode, potentially allowing native-script cataloging of materials in essays as a hero Russian, Greek, Arabic, Hebrew, Chinese, Japanese, and most other languages. NOTIS-based CLIO was the last academic user of the IBM mainframe the end of an era spanning nearly 50 years. Thursday, 14 Aug 2003: The blackout of 2003 , the biggest blackout in North American history. Electrical power failed about 4:15pm all over New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Connecticut, Ohio, Michigan, and a argumentative Ontario, as well as parts of Vermont and Massachusetts, affecting 50 million people. Macbeth Hero? Power was restored to critical essay on the the Morningside campus about 6:10am the next day; some areas came back sooner, some (e.g. Chelsea) were without power as long as 30 hours. The network and hosts began to come online 10:00am-2:00pm Friday, and by hero, 6:00pm all the statement essential online services (Email, Web, Cunix and macbeth tragic related software, Courseworks, network, library, modems, etc.) were available; ID management services were restored at on the 8:39pm Friday. As A? Subways and trains resumed operation Saturday morning.

28 Oct 2003: Columbia's central Sun servers upgraded from Solaris 2.5.1 to Solaris 9. The Solaris 9 servers would run until the end of 2015, which beats the old OS longevity record of OS/360 21.0 (1972-78). 15 Dec 2003: New Columbia home page, the first major redesign since the website started in 1994. Features NYC scenes, kind of like the Kermit website :-) CLICK HERE to statement see the as a tragic hero last old-style page; AND HERE to see the 1996 version. The new home page loads a random picture each time you visit or reload it; CLICK HERE to see a selection from the for the first day. Columbia University's 250 Anniversary. COLUMBIA.EDU 20th anniversary. 4 May 2004: 28 years after its first use at Columbia, electronic mail is declared an tragic hero, official medium of communication. As of 1 July 2004, all students are required to read their e-mail. By this time, nearly all students have their own computers; the dorms are all wired, as are neighborhood apartment buildings; computer labs are found throughout campus; and wireless networking is available in key outdoor common areas and various classrooms and uk police writing lounges. 25 May 2004: Columbia's last academic IBM mainframe, CUVMB, was turned off at 10:10am, terminating 36 years of continuous IBM 360-architecture service to essays macbeth Columbia's academic community (and before that, other IBM mainframe architectures going back to writing the 1950s, and before that IBM accounting and tragic calculating machines reaching back to the 1940s, 30s, and 20s). Academic use of Columbia's IBM mainframes had been dwindling since the 1980s, until finally none remained.

Most of Columbia's administrative applications, however, still run on IBM mainframes. Summer 2004: The SUN workstations were retired from the public labs and replaced by actual PCs and Macintoshes emulation is never quite like the real thing, and there wasn't that much interest in UNIX any more. Production Thesis? The PCs run Microsoft Windows. In the macbeth as a hero PC lab's first incarnation, Windows had to be installed fresh for each user session over the network via a custom bootstrap ROM, so each new user did not inherit a “customized”, booby-trapped, virus-ridden PC from the previous user. 23 Sep 2004: Installation of per-host inbound bandwidth quotas to reduce the impact of peer-to-peer file sharing on network performance.

This was the headline in today's Spectator , reflecting the widespread perception that the purpose of the network, if not the university itself, is to permit students to download and trade audio and a argumentative essay video without paying for it. The initial limit is 400MB per essays macbeth, hour. 11 Nov 2004: Columbia University decides that it was not such a great idea after all to split academic and administrative computing (early 1988), or to consider computing a library function (January 1986), and commenced a search for a new VP of Information Technology to critical head a recombined, reconstituted, restructured, and possibly relocated central computing organization, the details of essays hero which will not be known until after new VP arrives. Essay? CLICK HERE for essays macbeth the announcement. 29 Nov 2004: Spectatator picks up the story, attributing the reorganization to a series of a argumentative AcIS glitches such as hacker and virus attacks; Students are all too familiar of [sic] the shortcomings of AcIS. An anonymous SEAS junior said that AcIS is 'completely incompetent and [doesn't] know how to manage anything'.

In reality, it would be rather difficult to macbeth as a tragic hero point to uk police statement writing any site that supports a user community upwards of 60,000, mostly on their own Internet-connected Windows workstations, that knows how to manage hackers and macbeth hero viruses, which, after all, arrive continuously from every corner of the planet, each one exploiting an as-yet-unknown vulnerability, periodically bringing down major corporations and entire governments, sometimes the Internet itself, not mention other universities. Evidently Spectator is essay on the hobbit also unaware that AIS and AcIS were a single organization until the University divided them. Putting them back together is essays as a a simple matter of undoing an old mistake, although it's not clear that the decision was made by anybody who knows that. It should also be noted that AcIS and its predecessors have rarely, if ever, received sufficient funding to meet the needs of the user community (for details, read above starting about 1970). The irony is that now, when the complaints are loudest, those needs are vanishingly academic. In the same Spectator issue, the staff editorial states that, in light of recent crackdowns on az post statement illegal downloading of copyright material (MP3s and video), Columbia now has the responsibility to help students legally download movies and music. Now we know what we are here for. 1 Jul 2005: Candace Fleming appointed Columbia Vice President of Information Technology, to preside over the once-and-future joint AcIS/AIS organization, yet to be (re)named. 2 Aug 2005: AIS + AcIS = CUIT (Columbia University Information Technology). 30 Aug 2005: 50th anniversary of essays macbeth as a hero Columbia's first computer , an IBM 650 at Watson Lab: the critical on the hobbit first stored-program computer at Columbia that was available for general use by Columbia researchers and courses. (The words of the previous sentence are chosen carefully: earlier computing devices had been available to Columbia researchers, but they were not stored-program computers.

At least one stored-program computer, NORC, had been at Columbia before 1955 but it was not generally available to the academic community. Essays? Columbia researchers had also had some access before 1955 to stored-program computers offsite, e.g. at IBM headquarters downtown; these computers were not at Columbia.) For all but the beer production handful of essays macbeth as a tragic hero brave pioneers who used the essay topics earlier plugboard-programmed machines, the 650 was indeed the first computer. Essays Macbeth Hero? Within a couple years, it could be programmed in FORTRAN and other symbolic languages, and quickly became so popular that a second one was added. 1 Sep 2006: Columbia University is now receiving, detecting, and refusing over a million spam, virus, phishing, and other unwanted emails per day. Of course many still come through, but it is essay topics for the odyssey better to allow some spam to pass than to block legitimate mail. 28 Feb 2008: Alan Crosswell, who has been here almost as long as I have [I was laid off in 2011 after 37 years at hero the Computer Center and 45 at Columbia], appointed Associate Vice President and Chief Technologist.

15 Jan 2009: The CUIT Helpdesk Support Center, formerly known as the Client Service Center (and before that as the SSIO [Self-Service Input/Output] Area, and the CUCCA Business and Consulting Office), moves from writing 102 Philosophy Hall (see March 1987 entry) to 202 Philosophy. 21 Apr 2009: Reunion of some original Watson Lab people from the 1940s and 50s, at the original Watson Lab building at 612 W 116th Street. CLICK HERE for a gallery. 25 Jan 2010: Herb Grosch dies at macbeth as a 91 years of a argumentative essay age. An authentic computer pioneer, he worked here from 1945 to 1950 and in recent years was an as a, energetic and colorful contributor to this history.

The photo is from 1951, showing how he looked when he was working in Watson Lab on 116th Street where he came up with Grosch's Law (in 1950, not 1965 as Wikipedia states; see see Chapter 13 of Grosch's autobiography). Herb created and taught one of the beer first Computer Science courses anywhere (Numerical Methods) at Columbia University in 1946. He went on to a long and essays as a hero contentious career at MIT, GE, IBM, Datamation, the National Bureau of uk police Standards, Computerworld, and the ACM, and served on the faculty of numerous universities. 10-12 Feb 2015: The last vestige of text-based email (inaugurated here in the mid-1970s), namely the secure POP3 server at mail.columbia.edu:995, was turned off. Meaning it's no longer possible to access email with a text-based email client in a shell session, or to use shell-based tools and filters and editors with email. Until now you could do all your work except web browsing and photo editing in essays as a hero a text-mode shell session. The “upgrade” to Google Gmail puts your email in “The Cloud” where it can hacked or can be “mined” by corporate interests or the DHS (I've been assured that these things will never happen but. ) And where we pretty much have no control over it. No straightforward way to az post of personal history archive it locally. No way to write programs to essays macbeth hero do any kind of letter school custom searching, statisics, analysis on selected email archives chosen by various criteria, e.g. date range. When sending mail, there is no precise control over macbeth as a tragic, the formatting, nor any way to choose an encoding other than UTF-8, nor any way to enter non-ASCII characters from of personal a PC keyboard aside from Alt-key escapes (like Alt-0241 for ñ), or setting your keyboard up to have dead-key combinations, or clicking on macbeth hero a cartoon keyboard, none of which are exactly ideal for letter a touch typist who can type as fast in Spanish or German, or even Russian, as in English when using a good terminal emulator*.

All in all, compared to MM used with a good terminal emulator, Gmail is pretty labor intensive and inflexible at best, and at worst it puts us in as a tragic a situation where a profit-driven corporation owns our email, not we ourselves. We are forced to use a Web browser to access it, which opens us up to all manner of cookies, spying, marketing, and analysis of our computers and files, not to mention hostile attacks not from Google, necessarily, but from the whole planet. None of that happens with text-based email. Even imputing the best of motives to the corporations, the volatility of the market could result in beer thesis our cloud of email disappearing one day into a stock market vortex, or being bought up by some new company that could do anything at essays tragic all with it hold it for ransom, sell it to tabloids. On this topic, an beer, old friend at another university observed a couple years ago: I have 30+ years of e-mail archives, and as a it is uk police writing absolutely mission-critical that I own all of my mail files. There is no guarantee that gmail (or hotmail, or msn mail, or yahoo mail, or any ISP mail) will be around tomorrow, next year, or a decade from macbeth as a tragic hero now. e-mail is cover letter independent a critical record of institutional, governmental, and industrial work, and it needs to be owned by those who created it, not given away to an outside source who is busy mining it, and could lose or corrupt it. Essays Macbeth Tragic? Furthermore the constantly evolving methods of representing emails might render our Cloud-based “rich text”** email archives useless in a future that might not be as distant as you think. Vint Cerf, “Father of the Internet” and Google Vice President, said recently (see below for citations): Old formats of documents that we've created or presentations may not be readable by the latest version of the software because backwards compatibility is not always guaranteed. And so what can happen over beer, time is that even if we accumulate vast archives of digital content, we may not actually know what it is. Plain text, on the other hand, is macbeth eternal.

ASCII, which serves for English and a few other languages, was (and is) a well-defined and mature national and international standard, as are subsequent standards like ISO 8859 and critical on the hobbit ISO 10646 (Unicode) that increased the character repertoire to accommodate other languages and writing systems. Whereas presentation methods are driven by corporate interests and competition and macbeth tragic they never stop changing***. A Argumentative? The medium swallows the message. 23 May 2015: Dr. Bruce Gilchrist , the second director of the Columbia Computer Center (and a major contributor to this history), dies in macbeth tragic hero Richmond VA at the age of 84 [obituary] (the first director was Kenneth King from 1963 to beer production thesis 1971).

Bruce, a genuine pioneer in computing from the essays macbeth as a hero 1950s and a prominent figure in the ACM and AFIPS (details here), exemplified the long-forgotten academic and scientific traditions of the cover letter teacher school computer center and its predecessor, the IBM Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory at essays macbeth as a Columbia University, serving on the Engineering School faculty and cover letter school publishing papers in scientific journals as well as several books on essays macbeth as a computers and society. Bruce led the a argumentative essay Computer Center from 1973 to 1984, staying on in an advisory capacity until 1988. As his first act, he opened up access to what in those days was “the computer” (a huge IBM mainframe) to the entire Columbia community, the first instance of open computing at Columbia, and he would continue his push for open computing throughout subsequent generations of machines, such as the DECSYSTEM-20s (1977-88), despite often severe budget pressures. Bruce was the first to essays as a tragic hero put public “terminal rooms” in az post history dormitories and essays macbeth hero other academic buildings. Bruce hired mainly out of the Engineering School, launching the careers of numerous women and men in computing. As a scientist with close connections to the computer industry, he was able to combine technical leadership with good humor and humane management. His office on the sixth floor of the Watson building was always open and he enjoyed spending time with both his technical staff and essay odyssey his administrative staff; he treated workers with respect and he was universally respected in return. After relinquishing day-to-day management of the Computer Center in hero 1984, he concentrated his efforts on the acquisition and installation of the for the odyssey $20-million-dollar IBM/Rolm Computerized Branch Exchange, not just a new telephone system for the University, but also a wiring plant that would eventually provide high-speed data access to every building and room on the Morningside campus. Open computing fully realized. Essays Macbeth Hero? CLICK HERE to see an hour-long 2007 Public Access TV interview with Bruce. 29 Dec 2015: Columbia's Cunix timesharing systems were switched from topics odyssey Solaris 9 on 32-bit Sun Sparc servers that had been running since somewhere between 2001 and 2003, to Red Hat Enterprise Linux 6.6 on 64-bit x86_64 servers.

In the intervening years, direct Unix shell use at Columbia has dwindled down to a handful of diehards, partly in the nature of the times moving on, but also because key services such as email had been removed from the shell hosts. Other once-common utilities like the essays macbeth FTP client and C-Kermit were not installed on the new Linux-based Cunix system, nor once-important math and statistical applications like Matlab and statement of personal history SAS, nor venerable programming languages like Fortran and Snobol. But at least the as a tragic hero regular GCC development environment remains for the few who still write C code, and beer production EMACS for those who still do their text processing the old-fashioned and efficient way rather than the new annoying and labor-intensive way. The choice of Linux is primarily market-based, not merely a matter of essays macbeth tragic hero price or source-code availability, but of market dominance. Unix (of which both Solaris and Linux are variants) was originally a 1960s Bell Labs research project.

Over time it became a proliferation of commercial products “solutions” that ran on specific hardware Solaris for production thesis Sun, HP-UX for Hewlett-Packard, AIX for IBM, etc. but all these have practically vanished by macbeth as a, now. Two free Unix implementations, Minix and Linux, were created about the same time, and Linux itself branched off into free (e.g. Debian, Slackware) and uk police corporate (e.g. Macbeth? Red Hat Enterprise) versions. Another branch, descending from the Bell Labs original via Berkeley Unix and including FreeBSD, NetBSD, OpenBSD and friends, remains free community-sourced software.

But big companies such as Columbia University prefer to have the corporate ties that Red Hat offers. 29 Feb 2016: The central Sun Solaris-based CUNIX timesharing systems turned off after about 15 years of service, replaced by Linux servers. 12 Sep 2016: Engineering professor Leon Lidofsky * dies in cover teacher independent school Vermont at tragic hero the age of 94. He was one of Columbia's earliest hands-on users of digital computers, establishing a computer lab on the second floor of the Engineering Terrace in the mid-1960s that included a room-sized minicomputer (SEL 810B), a tabletop DEC PDP-8, and essay various specialized equipment for macbeth as a data collection and on the analysis, one of only a handful of essays tragic Columbia's departmental computing facilities at the time. I first met him in 1969 when I got a student job in his department.

I graduated from the school of General Studies in 1970 and statement left the department to find a real job, and wound up driving a taxi in essays tragic Bronx. After a while Lee asked me to come back and work in the department full-time as the administrator for a new program he was in charge of, dealing with the social responsibilities of engineers and ways they could be of public service. Really my job was just paper shuffling, but Lee knew that I had had “computer” training in the Army and soon I was doing all the key punching for the department. After a while he asked me if I would like to write a program on his minicomputer. He gave me a Fortran book and letter independent a few lessons and before long I had pretty much automated myself out of a job.

Lee suggested I take advantage of my full-time staff position to essays macbeth tragic hero take computer science courses in the department of EECS (as it was known then). It was a good fit, I liked the idea of having problems to az post of personal history work on that could actually be solved. As a sideline, Lee was a consultant in nuclear medicine at Mt. Macbeth Hero? Sinai Hospital (click here for uk police writing an example of his work there). When the Columbia project I was working on came to a close, he got me my first real programming job in Mt. Essays Tragic? Sinai's new Laboratory for Computer Science, and thus began my brilliant career as a software developer. Along the way I wrote some books and always featured him in the acknowledgments, as in az post statement my last book ( Using C-Kermit, 2nd Ed .): “. and to Lee Lidofsky, a Great Teacher, for a timely push in a good direction, a long time ago”.

Incidentally, the computers at as a the Mt. Sinai lab were DEC PDP-11s, my first experience with a somewhat interactive (via Teletype) computer operating system, which led to the choice of a PDP-11 for Columbia's first timesharing system, which in turn led to the choice of big DECSYSTEM-20s as Columbia's primary academic computing platform, 1977-1988. Anyway, thanks to Lee I had a decent job with good salary and cover letter teacher independent school benefits that allowed me to raise a family and put my kids through college. If not for Lee, I'd probably still be driving a cab! Arranging for tragic me (who was not even one of his students) to on the hobbit have a good life was definitely not in essays macbeth as a tragic his job description, but that's how he was. I'm sure there are a thousand other stories just like this one. It's interesting to ponder the transformation of Columbia from a quill-pen operation in the 1700s to the wired (and, increasingly, wireless) one it is today. Computers, obtained originally for scientific work that could not be done any other way, were also turned to administrative tasks such as registration, student records, payroll, and so on. What was the essay hobbit cost in money, space, and tragic hero personnel before and after? And then later when centralized computing (based on a single multimillion dollar computer system) became fully distributed, with a PC on every desk, how did that change the overall expenditures, consumption of space and electrical power, personnel rosters, and critical hobbit the productivity of each person? Any clear answer would take a great deal more research than was done here, but the following table is essays suggestive:

Sources: The 1925 figures come from Columbia's 1924-25 Catalog [5] and from the 1924-25 Annual Report [35]; the student count does not include another 12,916 summer session students; the officers of administration include 38 who are also on the faculty. Critical Essay On The? The 2010 figures come from the Columbia University Statistical Abstract of the Office of Planning and essays macbeth hero Institutional Research (on the critical Web). The growth in faculty is accounted for macbeth as a hero almost entirely by the Health Sciences campus, which did not exist in 1925. Although the role of computing in staff and tuition increases is far from clear, it is evident that Columbia University was able to offer a first-class education to az post statement about 20,000 students annually with a lot less overhead and at far less expense without computers than with them, even accounting for essays as a inflation (which averaged 3.1% per year from 1925 to 2000 or 987% over the period; thus if tuition had merely kept pace with inflation, it would have risen only to $79 per point rather than $834 in essay 2000). Essays As A Hero? Of course, one can't necessarily blame computers alone for topics for the odyssey a topheavy bureaucracy -- since the 1950s, huge amounts of additional work in the form of reports (compliance, demographic, financial, etc) mandated by government, suppliers, and contractors at every level. Essays Hero? Anyway, as any student who registered in the old days (filling in countless forms by hand with the same information and standing in about 50 lines to turn in each form) can tell you, some of the az post of personal history new systems are an improvement. Columbia is also a far bigger employer than it was in 1925 and it's a good thing that more people have work, even if it's pointless.

Or if you take a closer look, maybe it's not such a good thing. When the macbeth tragic Computer Center opened in a argumentative 1963, there was one big computer for everybody to use, cared for by a small professional staff, initially just 15 people. Today, the essays as a combined full-time staff of writing AcIS and AIS (now CUIT) numbers well into the hundreds, and this doesn't count an unknown number of essays full and part-time computer people in the administrative and academic departments, nor junior faculty and graduate students shanghaied into a argumentative system-administration roles, nor the fact that almost everybody at the University devotes copious time to managing and fighting with their own desktop computers into the bargain, not to as a tragic mention dealing (or worse: not) with the constant onslaught of viruses, worms, and hacks from all corners of the beer production world. One is tempted to as a wonder in exactly what way computers are labor-saving devices :-) But love 'em or hate 'em, computers and of personal networks are with us to stay. They first came to Columbia for hero scientific and statistical work; now they are used mainly for social and entertainment purposes, plus taking notes in essay on the class, preparation of papers, a certain amount of course work, and for macbeth as a tragic hero carrying on the business of the University, including a great deal of public relations. All students and faculty are presumed to have computer, network, and Web access; it is az post of personal history required in many courses and for numerous tasks such as looking up class schedules, room assignments, and essays as a tragic hero grades, and since Fall 2001, also for registration. The benefits of the Web are well known but its dangers little discussed, at least not beyond the topics for the well-known safety hazards (credit-card theft, pedophiles, viruses) and annoyances (bugs and new features requiring constant software upgrades). Let's look at essays macbeth hero some of the more fundamental pitfalls that tend to essay topics odyssey be ignored as we rush to replace all that is as a tragic hero old by what is new: For good or ill, the Web has largely replaced the Library for undergraduate research. The benefits (again) are well-known, but increasingly, if it's not on the Web students don't see it.

Furthermore, it's often difficult to assess the information one finds on the Web. Published books and journal articles, at least, have some measure of quality control and some form of uk police statement audit trail (you can check the as a primary sources yourself). At the very least, they are substantial and immutable objects that can be referenced -- when you look at a argumentative essay a book or article that I have referenced, you see the same one I saw. Web pages are ephemeral, likely to move, change, or disappear at any moment, and in essays as a tragic hero any case rarely have the authority of essay on the a refereed, printed publication. Since I wrote the previous item, the Web itself has been largely supplanted by Google and tragic hero Wikipedia for research. Wikipedia is handy, to be sure, but how do you verify the accuracy of anything in a argumentative essay it? Google, on the other hand, is a massive corporation whose only essays macbeth hero, goal is making more and more money, and as part of achieving that goal, it controls the topics odyssey content we see.

Searches are still relatively fair and open, but Google News is pure corporate messaging. Nevertheless, Google can throw a switch at essays any moment to hide entire bodies of uk police statement writing knowledge or opinion it deems prejudicial to its corporate health. In a new application of Gresham's Law, the Web tends to drive out reliable and detailed information, replacing it with unreliable and sketchy sound bites. Macbeth Tragic Hero? Libraries full of books and journals are increasingly viewed as legacy brick and mortar operations that can no longer justify their existence in the age of uk police statement writing electronic information. But those same libraries contain all that is known of history, culture, and science. What will become of our printed record, as it takes up coveted space and essays hero decays? It can't all be digitized; that would be far too expensive and essay time-consuming. Therefore much -- probably most -- of it will be lost to posterity. And then whatever portion was digitized before the essays as a hero paper was discarded or crumbled will itself be subject to successive rounds of winnowing as the digital media, encoding, and formats become obsolete and require upgrading. Az Post Statement Of Personal History? Repeated application of this process will leave only a tiny fragment of what was available to essays macbeth as a hero us in, say, 1980, and for the odyssey there will be no going back.

New information is lost too. It was relatively easy to trace the as a tragic history of uk police computing at Columbia through 1994 by essays as a tragic hero, the paper trail of newsletters, books, paper correspondence files, and so on. After 1994, it's just a blur. If it was recorded at all, it was recorded on the Web or in e-mail, and there is no systematic archive of old Web pages and e-mails. What is new today will be old tomorrow. The Web is for the not eternal. Something else is macbeth tragic bound to appear that turns the Web into a deprecated legacy concept and essay for the odyssey the vast corpus of essays macbeth Web files will need conversion to the next thing, and uk police writing the winnowing process will continue. I wrote the previous sentence about macbeth as a tragic hero 15 years ago. Today I see Vint Cerf, father of the Internet, saying the same thing at the American Association for the Advancement of Science conference in San Jos. To paraphrase.

Everything that's on the Internet today will be unintelligable garbage in the future and the 21st Century will be another Dark Ages, leaving no records of itself. Here's a link: http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-31450389. Here's another: http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/science/science-news/11410506/Print-out-digital-photos-or-risk-losing-them-Google-boss-warns.html. A Argumentative? But don't expect them to essays macbeth as a tragic last. Uk Police Statement? [Search] Meanwhile, as of 2014, cell phones have squeezed out desktop computers as the as a hero main Web access method, forcing website to adapt by essay, showing less content. i.e. sound bites instead of as a tragic detailed information. Essay? Similarly, emails with paragraphs of text have given way to short instant messages and Tweets. Storage and essays as a tragic preservation of information -- printed or electronic -- costs money. Money is a scarce resource, also needed for food, shelter, medical care, exhorbitant CEO compensation, senseless wars, and essay so on. Essays As A? The legacy of humanity belongs to those with the desire and the money to preserve it, and to keep preserving it, and critical essay they are ones who will decide what is essays tragic worth preserving and what to critical hobbit discard. Columbia University 250th Anniversary (2004) CLICK HERE to visit Columbia's extensive website commemorating the university's 250th anniversary (and HERE and HERE and macbeth as a tragic hero HERE for some computing history bits). Old means no error correction, compression, or hardware flow control.

New modems are connected to (or integrated with) TCP/IP terminal servers; old ones were connected to serial ports on the PACX or Rolm. Prior to independent 1985 it's hard to figure out -- specific phone numbers went to specific computers, etc; few comprehensive tables were published in as a tragic the Newsletter or Guides to Facilities. The best I can say is teacher school that the essays as a hero number of critical hobbit dialin modems increased from 0 to 59 from the mid-1960s to 1985. Modem-pool expansion finally leveled off in essays macbeth hero 2002-2003, when DSL connections became possible from the for the home and AcIS began to bring neighborhood apartment buildings onto the high-speed campus network. The numbers reflect total accesses (hits) per year. The 1994 figures are extrapolated from the last six weeks of 1994, and therefore probably a bit high. ADP Administrative Data Processing (of Columbia University) AIS Administrative Information Services (new name of ADP) ANSI American National Standards Institute. APL A Programming Language (With Its Own Character Set) ARPA (US Defense Department) Advanced Research Projects Agency.

ASCC Automatic Sequence Controlled Calculator (early IBM computer) ASCII American Standard Code for essays macbeth as a tragic hero Information Interchange. ASP Attached Support Processor. AUC Apple University Consortium. AUFS Appletalk UNIX File Server.

BAL Basic (IBM 360 and 370) Assemly Language. BASIC Beginners All-purpose Symbolic Instruction Code. BASR Bureau of az post Applied Social Research (of Columbia University) BCD Binary Coded Decimal. BCDIC Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. BITNET Because-It's-There Network (It = RSCS) BNF Backus-Naur Form.

BPS Bits per essays macbeth as a, Second. CAP Columbia Appletalk Package. CBX (IBM/Rolm/Siemens) Computerized Branch Exchange. CCNET Computer Center (or Columbia/Carnegie) Network (DECnet) CE (IBM) Customer Engineer. CLIO Columbia Libraries Information Online. CMU Carnegie-Mellon University. COBOL Common Business Oriented Language. CPC Card Programmed Calculator. CP/M Control Program / Microcomputer. CPS Characters per Second.

CRBE Conversational Remote Batch Entry. CREN Consortium for Research and Education Network. CRLF ASCII characters Carriage Return and Line Feed - plaint-text line terminator. CRT Cathode-Ray Tube, e.g. a video terminal. CUCC Columbia University Computer Center. CUCCA Columbia University Center for Computing Activities, new name of CUCC. CUIT Columbia University Information Technology, new name of thesis CUCCA. CUNY City University of New York. CWRU Case Western Reserve University. DACU Device Attachment Control Unit (early IBM Ethernet adapter)

DASD Direct Access Storage Device (IBM term for disk, pronounced dazdee) DAT Digital Audio Tape. DCMUP Same as DCS (not sure what it stands for). DCS Directly Coupled System (Columbia's IBM 7040 and 7094) DEC Digital Equipment Corporation.

DOS Disk Operating System. EAM Electric Accounting Machine (using punched cards) EBCDIC Extended Binary Coded Decimal Interchange Code. EMACS Editing Macros (video editor by Richard Stallman) FORTRAN Formula Translator (first high-level programming language) FE Field Engineer (DEC) FS Field Service (DEC) FSF Free Software Foundation. GNU GNU is Not UNIX (recursive acronym of the FSF) GUI Graphical User Interface. HASP Houston Automatic Spooling Program.

HP Hewlett Packard Corporation. IBM International Business Machines Corporation. IETF Internet Engineering Task Force. JCL Job Control Language (OS/360, MVS, etc) JSYS Jump to System (DEC-20 monitor call) JVNCNET John von Neumann Supercomputer Center Network. KGB (Soviet) Committee for State Security.

LAN Local Area Network (Ethernet, Token Ring, etc) LCG (DEC) Large Computer Group. LISP List Processing (language) LPM Lines per essays macbeth tragic hero, Minute (speed of school line printer) MINCE MINCE Is Not Completely EMACS (EMACS semi-clone for essays macbeth hero CP/M) MOS Metal-Oxide Semiconductor (memory, as opposed to essay topics magnetic cores or vacuum tubes) MSS (IBM) Mass Storage System. MTBF Mean Time Between Failures. MTTR Mean Time To Repair. NCR National Cash Register Corporation. NFS Network File System.

NORC Naval Ordnance Reseach Calculator (early IBM computer built at Columbia U) NPG Network Planning Group (of Columbia U) NSF National Science Foundation. NSFNET National Science Foundation Network. NYSERNET New York State Education and essays as a tragic hero Research Network.

OCS Office of production Communications Services (of Columbia University) OS Operating System. PACX Private Access Computer eXchange. PDP Programmed Data Processor. PDS Partitioned Data Set. PL/I Programming Language One. PPP Point-to-Point Protocol.

RAID Redundant Array of essays macbeth tragic Inexpensive Disk. RHNO Residence Hall Networking Option (at Columbia U) RJE Remote Job Entry. RSCS Remote Spooling Communications Subsystem. RSTS/E Resource Sharing Time Sharing / Extended (DEC PDP-11 OS) SAIL Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (or Language) SE Software Engineer (DEC); Systems Engineer (IBM) Also see: FE, CE. SEL Systems Engineering Laboratories. SLIP Serial Line Internet Protocol. SNA (IBM) Systems Networking Architecture.

SNOBOL String Oriented Language (pun on COBOL) SPITBOL (pun on SNOBOL) SSIO Self-Service Input/Output (area at Columbia U) SIC Scholarly Information Center (at Columbia University) SOS Share Operating System (IBM 709) SOS Son Of Stopgap (PDP-10, DEC-20 text editor) SPOOL simultaneous peripheral operations on-line or simultaneous peripheral output on line. TOPS The Operating System (for PDP-10s and DEC-20s)

UUCP UNIX-to-UNIX Copy Program. VT Video Terminal. Control panel (See plugboard) Core This word is still used synonymously with memory, but in fact refers to a specific memory technology used from about 1955 to 1975, in topics for the which each bit was a ferrite core, whose charge was controlled and sensed by currents in wires passing through the core's hole. MORE HERE. CRT Cathode Ray Tube.

The display screen in a video terminal or a pre-flat panel television or personal computer. More generally, any vacuum tube incorporating a mobile beam. 1950s-era computer memories were sometimes made of CRTs; for example, the as a tragic hero IBM 700-series CRT memories packed 1024 bits into a single tube (contrary to the popular image of one bit per writing, tube). Drum Similar to a hard disk, except the recording surface is on the circumfrence, rather than on the flat end(s), and the read/write heads are fixed rather than moving. Thus it is a spinning cylinder with a stationary head array extending from end to end, with one fixed head per track. Because the heads are fixed, there is no seek time so access is much faster than a moving-head disk. As A Tragic Hero? Drums were used as main memory in early computers like the beer production thesis IBM 650 and as swapping or paging devices in later computers such as the IBM 360/91 and the DEC PDP-11. An example is the IBM 2301 drum storage, about macbeth as a 1960.

Also: (1) Any fixed-head disk or, by extension, any swapping device; (2) A Data Cell cylinder around which a tape strip is beer thesis wrapped for reading and writing; (3) The print mechanism used in certain kinds of line printers, such as the DEC LP20: a constantly rotating metal cylinder with all the characters on hero it -- to teacher school print a specific character in a specific column, the corresponding hammer strikes the drum just when the hero desired character is behind the paper and ink ribbon; (4) the electrostatic print-transfer mechanism in Xerographic or laser printers. Electric (or Electronic) Accounting Machine (EAM) EAMs were the uk police writing workhorses of the tragic 1930s-60s for for the accounting, payroll, and so on, before there were real stored-program computers. They were mainly mechanical; accumulating sums in gear registers. In fact, they are just late-model tabulating machines with a bit more flexibility and usually a built-in line printer. CLICK HERE to see examples. Paper Tape A long strip of heavy paper, usually an inch wide, in which holes could be punched, 5 to 9 per row. For computer use, usually 8 holes were used: 7 data bits and 1 parity bit. Paper tape was also used in telecommunications (telex) and in essays macbeth the printing industry as the input medium for uk police writing hot-metal typesetting machines and is still used for numerical control of milling and macbeth hero drilling machines. Computer applications of paper tape included automated data input and output, as on the ASR33 Teletype or the IBM 1620 computer, object-module output by compilers (on computers that did not have disks -- for example, the output of essay a Fortran compiler), and printer control loops (see story at the end of this page). For heavy-duty applications such as the latter, Mylar was used rather than paper. The typical recording density was 10 rows (bytes) per inch.

Punching and reading speeds varied from 10 rows per second up to 2000. Paper tape originally came in rolls (as used in the IBM SSEC), but by the 1960s, fan-fold was more common, and in fact many computer companies distributed software in this form (e.g. for essays tragic the DEC PDP-8). An incorrectly punched row could be deleted by punching all the holes; this is the origin of the ASCII RUB (Rubout, Delete) character, 0x7F (all 1's). Editing could also be accomplished by cutting and splicing. More at the University of Amsterdam Computing History Museum.

Plugboard, Patch Board, Patch Panel, Control Panel IBM EAM equipment (accounting machines, sorters, reproducing punches, interpreters, etc) as well as some of its early calculators (computers) were programmed through control panels rectangular boards with an array of production holes, which are interconnected by wires to specify the desired functions, e.g. which card columns are to macbeth be sent to which accumulator, or printed to cover letter teacher school which printer columns, etc. Photos and more info: [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] [HERE] and [HERE]. Punched Card A stiff cardboard rectangle in which holes can be punched and essays tragic then later read by critical, various devices (see Unit Record Equipment). Macbeth As A? Punchcards date back to the 1700s, and can be found in production thesis many formats. IBM punchcards (after 1928) were 7 3/8 inches wide and 3 1/4 high, with three rounded corners and the upper left corner cut diagonally, and twelve 80-column rows for small rectangular holes. Large sites like Columbia often had their cards preprinted with corporate logos. Until the early 1970s, virtually all computing jobs at Columbia were submitted on decks of cards punched on as a tragic hero key punch machines. Decks of cards could also be output from the computer using high-speed online punches such as the IBM 2540.

Use of az post history cards at Columbia declined until 1986, when the last card readers were removed. As late as 2010, however, voting machines in New York were still based on punched card technology. Relay An electromechanical device or switch that automatically controls the essays as a tragic current in one circuit based on the current in another circuit, used in 1940s-era calculators and computers such as the Aberdeens, the SSEC, and beer production the Bell relay calcalators. Remote Job Entry Or RJE. In the mainframe era, before interactive terminals, jobs were submitted on decks of cards and results obtained on macbeth tragic hero a line printer or other local device.

These devices were attached to the mainframe by cables that could not be very long, maybe 150 feet max. To access the cover letter teacher independent mainframe from greater distances required a Remote Job Entry station: usually a card reader and line printer connected to some kind of controller, connected by as a, (usually synchronous) modem to the central site. Typically an RJE user would put a deck of cards in the hopper, push Start, and wait an unpredictable amount of time for the results to come out of the printer. One of many examples of the widespread use of RJE was the beer production thesis New York City public school system in the 1970s, where each school had an essays macbeth as a, RJE station connected to the big mainframe(s) at Board of Education. The IBM RJE interface was fairly well standardized, so it also came to double as a connection for other kinds of az post statement of personal computers -- a kind of early networking, in which traffic in one direction was in 80-column card images, and traffic in the reverse direction was 132-column printer lines. Tabulating Machine A machine capable of essays macbeth as a tragic hero reading punched cards and essay either sorting them into selected bins or adding up the macbeth as a numbers punched into selected columns. Tabulating machines were used from 1890 through the 1950s or 60s for statistical, financial, and even scientific applications.

CLICK HERE for examples. Terminal A typewriter-like device by which a person interacts with a computer. A Argumentative? It has a keyboard and either paper to print on or else a video screen (certain special kinds of as a terminals might also have Braille pads or text-to-voice interpreters). The keystrokes are sent to statement the computer and essays hero (in some cases) also echoed locally on the display device (paper or screen). Characters arriving from the essay computer are sent to the display device. Video terminals sometimes have an attached printer. Early hardcopy terminals included Teletypes and essays macbeth electric typewriters wired for communication, such as the IBM 2741; later ones include dot-matrix models such as the DECwriter. The best-known video terminal is the DEC VT100; video terminals were popular from the mid-1970s until about 1990 (and are still used today in certain specialized applications like data entry and transaction processing; until not so long ago, every winter TV news reporters visit the NYC Heat Complaint Bureau, and every year they were still using IBM 3270 green tubes). The best-known graphics terminal is the Tektronix 4010. Although few real terminals are still in operation, terminals are widely emulated by essay, the PC, Macintosh, and other workstation software that allows us to access our shell accounts.

TTY Teletype (see Terminal) . Unit Record Equipment Usually used to refer to any equipment that reads or punches cards, such as a key punch, card reader, sorter, collator, reproducer, or interpreter. Strictly speaking, any device for which a record (rather than a character) is the physical unit of input or output, therefore also including line printers. My recollections and notes, 1965-present. The Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter, 1966-1994 (when it ceased publication). Gilchrist, Bruce, Forty Years of Computing , CUCCA Newlsetter V13#16 (4 Nov 1981).

Bashe, Charles J.; Lyle R. Johnson; John H. Essays As A Tragic Hero? Palmer; Emerson W. Pugh, IBM's Early Computers , MIT Press (1985). Columbia University Catalogue , 1924-1925. Columbia University Computer Center General Information Manual , Volume I (June 1965). Columbia University Bulletin: Computing Activities (1976). Letter? Rogers, William, Think; a biography of the Watsons and IBM , Stein and Day, NY (1969). Brennan, Jean Ford, The IBM Watson Laboratory at Columbia University: A History , IBM, Armonk NY (1971) (Columbiana CZI B75; Prentis Q183.5 .W3 B7). Columbia Computer Center , 2 Jan 1963 (summary of facilities and procedures).

Admini-Bits (the Columbia University Administrative Data Processing Newsletter), V2#6 (Sep 1988). Dolkart, Andrew S., Morningside Heights: A History of its Architecture and Development , Columbia University Press, 1998, and correspondence with Prof. Dolkart (Jan 2001). McCullers, Carson, and Dews C.L. Barney, Illumination and essays macbeth tragic hero Night Glare: The Unfinished Autobiography of Carson McCullers , University of Wisconsin Press (1999). Asteroff, Janet, CUCCA Terminal and Plotter User Manual (Nov 1982). Bell System Technical Journal , Special issue devoted UNIX 7th Edition, Volume 57, Number 6, Part 2 (August 1978). Brader, Mark, A Chronology of Digital Computing, to 1952 (online). Koenig, Seymour H., Interview (22 Jan 2001). AIS Supervisor Joe Sulsona Retires After 42 Years , Columbia University Record Vol. Az Post Of Personal History? 26, No 11 (19 Jan 2001).

Gilchrist, Bruce, Report to the Committee on Instructional Computing (the Collery Committee), Columbia University (21 April 1980). Hallinan, Nuala, A History of Administrative Data Processing , Columbia University, September 1988 (produced for the Computer Center's 25th Anniversary commemoration), with 1991 update. Announcement of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory and hero a Program of production Graduate Studies in Applied Mathematics , Columbia University Bulletin, Fifty-eighth Series, No.39, September 27, 1948. Arctander, Eric, Trig Homework? Consult Watson Labs , Columbia Daily Spectator, 18 October 1948. Essays Macbeth Tragic Hero? IBM Establishes Computing Laboratory at Columbia University , News Release, Columbia University Department of Public Information, 6 February 1945. A Argumentative? King, Kenneth M., Columbia University Computer Center Report , August 1967 to essays hero December 1968. Cover School? Guide to Facilities , Columbia Computer Center, September 1972. Sills, David L., Paul F. Lazarsfeld, 1901-1976, A Biographical Memoir , National Academy of the essays macbeth as a tragic hero Sciences, Washington DC, 1987.

Barton, Judith S., ed., Guide to the Bureau of Applied Social Research , Clearwater Publishing Co., Inc, New York City, 1984. The Columbia University Archives and Columbiana Library: Central Files, Indexed in The Administrative Records of Columbia University, 1890-1971 . Halford, Ralph S., Proposal to the National Science Foundation for Support of a Computing Center to be Established at Columbia University , May 1961. News Release #10,099, Columbia University News Office, 18 Jul 1963. Mace, David, and Joyce Alsop, A Simplified System for the Use of an Automatic Calculator , Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Columbia University / IBM, 1957 (COVER). On The Hobbit? Proposal for IBM 360 Model 92 [sic], to Dr. Kenneth M. King, Columbia Computer Center, IBM, 21 May 1965. Essays Macbeth? University Center for Computing Activities: EDP Review for Columbia University , IBM, May 1974. Strauss, Robert, When Computers Were Born , The Times Mirror Company, 1996. Annual Report of the President and Treasurer to uk police writing the Trustees with Accompanying Documents for macbeth hero the Year Ending June 30, 1925 , Columbia University, New York, 1926. Letter of Dean Ralph S. Halford to Prof. Maurice Ewing, 19 Aug 1963 (9 pages), Columbiana Archives.

Pure Scientists of Morningside, Business Machines , General Section, IBM, September 1, 1954. Aspray, William, Was Early Entry a Competitive Advantage? US Universities That Entered Computing in the 1940s, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 22, Number 3, July-September 2000. Az Post History? Lippsett, Laurence, Maurice Ewing and the Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory, Columbia Magazine , Winter 2001. As A? Pugh, Emerson W., Building IBM: Shaping an Industry and its Technology , The MIT Press (1995). Sachnoff, Neil, Secrets of critical essay on the Installing a Telephone System , Telecomm Library Inc, New York (1989). There's a Computer on macbeth the Columbia Campus, Columbia Reports , March 1971. Wilson, Gregory V., The History of the Development of statement writing Parallel Computing , University of Toronto. Austrian, Geoffrey, Herman Hollerith: Forgotten Giant of Information Processing , Columbia University Press (1982).

Grier, David Alan, When Computers Were Human, Princeton University Press (2005). AND. Grier, David Alan, The First Breach of Computer Security?, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 2, April-June 2001. NOTE: These should be two separate references but evidently the second one was inserted here by mistake when it should have gone at essays as a tragic hero the end, thus throwing off all the subsequent reference numbers. Sorry! Stoll, Clifford, The Cuckoo's Egg: Tracking a Spy through the Maze of Computer Espionage , Doubleday, New York (1989). Black, Edwin, IBM and the Holocaust , Crown Publishers, New York (2001).

Also search for holocaust at the IBM website. Columbia University Alumni Register 1754-1931 , Columbia University Committee on General Catalogue, Frank D. Fackenthal (Chairman), Columbia University Press, New York (1932). Fajman, Roger, and John Borgelt, Stanford University Computation Center, WYLBUR: An Interactive Text Editing and Remote Job Entry System, CACM, V15 #5 (May 1973). Eckert, W.J., Punched Card Methods in Scientific Computation , The Thomas J. Watson Astronomical Computing Bureau, Columbia University, Lancaster Press, Inc., Lancaster PA (January 1940). Reprinted in 1984 by the Charles Babbage Institute, MIT, and production Tomash Publishers with a new introduction by J.C. McPherson. IBM Oral History Project on Computer Technology, Interview TC-1, with W.J. Eckert (11 July 1964). As A Hero? Mackenzie, Charles E., Coded Character Sets, History and Development , Addison-Wesley (1980).

Trimble, George R., A Brief History of Computing, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Volume 23, Number 3 (July-September 2001). Applelbaum, Lauren, Student on Quest for Sundial's Lost Ball, Columbia Daily Spectator , Vol.CXXV No.139 (5 Dec 2001). Quarterman, John S., The Matrix: Computer Networks and Conferencing Systems Worldwide Digital Press (1990). Tsividis, Yannis, Edwin Armstrong, Pioneer of the Airwaves, Columbia Magazine (Spring 2002). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Computer: Bit Slices from a Life , Third Millenium Books, Novato CA (1991), ISBN 0-88733-085 [3rd ed mss)].

They All Came to See the NORC, Business Machines , General Section, IBM (23 December 1954), pp.8-9. Grosch, Herb, private correspondence (May 2003 - 2010). A Conversation with Herb Grosch , ACM Ubiquity , Volume 2, Issue 39 (4-10 December 2001). Schreiner, Ken, private correspondence (May 2003). Uk Police Statement Writing? Berkeley, Edmund, Giant Brains: or, Machines that Think , John Wiley Sons, NY (1949). The first book about computers for essays as a hero a general nontechnical audience. Fact Sheet on Simon , Columbia University Public Information Office (18 May 1950). Uk Police Statement Writing? Eckert, Wallace J, and essays as a Rebecca Jones, Faster, Faster: a simple description of a giant electronic calculator and the problems it solves , McGraw-Hill, New York (1955).

King, Kenneth, private correspondence (July-August 2003). A Argumentative Essay? Hankam, Eric, interviews (11 July and essays hero 4 November 2003). Eckert, Wallace J., Watson Laboratory Summary of Activities -- Quarterly Report: July-September 1955 , Memorandum to statement IBM's J.C. McPherson (17 November 1955). W.J.E. Macbeth As A Tragic? (Wallace J. Eckert), The I.B.M. Production? Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator , Mathematical Tables and essays macbeth Other Aids to Computation, Volume III, Number 23 (June 1948), pp. 149-161. Aspray, William (Ed.), Computing Before Computers , Iowa State University Press, ISBN 0-8138-0047-1 (1990). Ceruzzi, Paul E. Reckoners: The Prehistory of the Digital Computer, from Relays to beer production the Stored Program Concept, 1935-1945 (Contributions to the Study of Computer Science, No.1) , Greenwood Press (1983). Bergin, Thomas J. Macbeth As A Tragic? (Ed.), 50 Years of Army Computing: From ENIAC to MSRC , A Record of a Symposium and Celebration November 13 and 14 (1996), Aberdeen Proving Ground.

Ceruzzi, Paul E. Crossing the Divide: Architectural Issues and the Emergence of the Stored Program Computer, 1935-1955, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 19 No. 1 (1997). Winegrad, Dilys, and Atsushi Akera, A Short History of the Second American Revolution, University of Pennsylvania Almanac , Vol.42 No.18 (30 Jan 1996). On the Web HERE. John McPherson, Computer Engineer , an oral history conducted in 1992 by William Aspray, IEEE History Center, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ, USA. Grosch, Herbert R.J, Editor, Proceedings, IBM Scientific Computation Forum , IBM: Endicott NY (1948). Critical Hobbit? W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), The IBM Pluggable Sequence Relay Calculator, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.3, No.23 (Jul 1948), pp.149-161. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Tragic? Eckert) and critical on the Ralph F. Haupt, The Printing of Mathematical Tables, Mathematical Tables and essays macbeth hero Other Aids to Computation , Vol.2, No.17 (Jan 1947), pp.197-202. McPherson, John C., Introduction and Biographical Note on a argumentative essay Wallace Eckert in the 1984 reprint of [50].

Stibitz, G.R., A Note on 'Is' and 'Might Be' in Computers, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.4, No.31 (Jul 1950), pp.168-169. W.J.E. (Wallace J. Eckert), Mathematical Tables on tragic Punched Cards, Mathematical Tables and Other Aids to Computation , Vol.1, No.12 (Oct 1945), pp.433-436. Uk Police Writing? Eckert, Wallace J., Calculating Machines, Encyclopedia Americana (1958). Eckert, Wallace J., Letter to Mr. G.W.

Baehne, IBM, 270 Broadway, NYC (9 Jan 1934). Eckert, W.J., Electrons and Computation, The Scientific Monthly , Vol. Macbeth As A Tragic? LXVII, No. Essay? 5 (Nov 1948). Eckert, Wallace J., Transcript, Systems Service Class No. 591 (Aerial Navigation) for the US Army Air Corps; Department of macbeth Education, International Business Machines, Endicott NY (8 Sep 1944). Jones, Walter D., Watson and Me: A Life at IBM, edited by Don Black, IEEE Annals of the History of Computing , Vol. 25 No. 3 (Jul-Sep 2003), p.15. Eckert, W.J., The Astronomical Hollerith-Computing Bureau, Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific , Vol.49, No.291 (Oct 1937), pp.249-253. Smith, Harry F., interview, 8 Sep 2003.

Eckert, Wallace, Correspondence and papers, 1935-1971, archived at az post statement of personal history the Charles Babbage Institute, University of macbeth tragic hero Minnesota. Eckert, W.J., Facilities of the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Proceedings of the a argumentative Research Forum , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1946), pp.75-84. Essays As A? Gutzwiller, M.C., Wallace Eckert, Computers, and the Nautical Almanac Office in Fiala, Alan D., and Steven J. Dick (editors), Proceedings, Nautical Almanac Office Sesquicentennial Symposium , U.S. Naval Observatory, Washington DC, March 3-4, 1999, pp.147-163. Baehne, George W. Az Post Of Personal? (IBM), Practical Applications of the Punched Card Method in Colleges and Universities , Columbia University Press (1935); hardbound, 442 pages, 257 figures. Seidelmann, P. Kenneth, Research Professor, University of Virginia Astronomy Department, private correspondence, Sept-Oct 2003 and April 2004. Prof.

Seidelmann was at the US Naval Observatory from 1965 to 2000 and is a historian of the Naval Observatory. Interrogation NAV No. 75, USSBS No. Macbeth As A Hero? 378, Tokyo, 13-14 Nov 1945: Admiral Soemu Toyoda (Chief of Naval General Staff from May 1945), United States Strategic Bombing Survey [Pacific], Naval Analysis Division: Interrogations of Japanese Officials , Volume II, OPNAV-P-03-100 (1946), p.319. The United States Strategic Bombing Survey: Japan's Struggle to End the War . Chairman's Office, 1 July 1946, p.13. Stimson, Henry L., and McGeorge Bundy, On Active Service in Peace and War , Harper, NY (1948), p.618. Krawitz, Eleanor, The Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory: A Center for Scientific Research Using Calculating Machines, Columbia Engineering Quarterly (Nov 1949). Teacher Independent School? IBM Technical Newsletter , No.3, Applied Science Department, International Business Machines Corporation, 590 Madison Avenue, New York 22, N.Y., 22-8823-0-3M-LB-P (Dec 1951).

IBM Watson Lab Three-Week Course on Computing, Class Lists (1947-56). Essays Macbeth? Buderi, Robert, The Invention That Changed the World (How a small group of Radar pioneers won the Second World War and essay odyssey launched a technological revolution), Simon Schuster, New York (1996). Grosch, Herbert R.J., Early Women in Computing, Communications of the ACM , Vol.38 No.4 (April 1995) (1996). Dick, Steven J., Sky and Ocean Joined: The U.S. Naval Observatory 1830-2000 , Cambridge University Press (2002), ISBN 0-521-81599-1, 609pp. As A Tragic Hero? Backus, John, private correspondence, July 2004. Az Post Statement History? Eames, Charles and Ray, A Computer Perspective: Background to the Computer Age , Harvard University Press. First Edition 1973; Second Edition 1990.

Catalog of a unique computer history exhibit at as a tragic hero IBM headquarters in essay 1971. Knuth, Donald, The Art of Computer Programming , Vol.3 Sorting and Searching, Addison-Wesley (1973); Section 5.5, pp.382-384 [the link is to the 1998 revised edition]. Eckert, W.J., The IBM Department of Pure Science and the Watson Scientific Computing Laboratory, Educational Research Forum Proceedings , IBM, Endicott NY (Aug 1947), pp.31-36. Bellovin, Steve, personal correspondence, January 2006. Macbeth Tragic Hero? Now a member of Columbia's Computer Science faculty after many years at Bell Labs / ATT Labs, Steve, as a Columbia student in 1968-69, worked at the IBM Watson Lab building on 115th Street doing system administration tasks on a argumentative essay an IBM 1130. Pugh, Emerson W.; Johnson, Lyle R., Palmer, John H., IBM's 360 and Early 370 Systems , MIT Press (1991). Essays As A? Jeenel, Joachim, Programming For Digital Computers , McGraw-Hill (1959), 517 pages [IBM 650]. Andree, Richard V., Programming the IBM 650 Magnetic Drum Computer and Data-Processing Machine , Henry Holt and Co., New York (1958).

Andree, Richard V., Computer programming and related mathematics for the IBM 1620 computer . Heide, Lars, Punched-Card Systems and on the the Early Information Explosion, 1880--1945 (Studies in Industry and Society), Johns Hopkins University Press (2009). Grier, David Alan, Too Soon To Tell: Essays for the End of The Computer Revolution (Perspectives), Wiley-IEEE Computer Society (2009) B. Essays Macbeth Tragic Hero? Gilchrist, J. Pomerence and S.Y. Wong, Fast carry logic for uk police writing digital computers, IRE Transactions on Electronic Computers , EC-4 (Dec.1955), 133-136. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.10, No.4, October 1958 [PDF]. Digital Computer Newsletter, Office of Naval Research, Mathematical Sciences Division, Vol.12, No.3, July 1960 [PDF]. Reid-Green, Keith S., The History of Census Tabulation, Scientific American , February 1989, pp.98-103.

Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1971 to June 1972. Essays As A Tragic? Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Columbia University Computer Center Project Abstracts, July 1972 to June 1973. Paperbound, about 250 pages (COVER). Geschichte der IBM in Deutschland (IBM). National Science Foundation, Twelfth Annual Report for the Fiscal Year Ended June 30, 1962: Mathematical, Physical, and uk police statement writing Engineering Science Facilities: Establishment of essays tragic hero a Computing Center , $100,00 [for the first year]. Tanenbaum, Andrew S., Lessons Learned from teacher independent 30 Years of MINIX , CACM, Vol.59 No.3, March 2016, pp.70-78. Jones, Steven E, Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Emergence of Humanities Computing: The Priest and the Punched Card , Routledge (2016).

Includes chapter on the SSEC. Sources are listed in the order they were encountered. V nn # n refers to the Columbia University Computer Center Newsletter Volume/Number except where noted.

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1984 ap lit essay clqczpf (6th Period) Advanced Placement Literature/Composition is a college-level course that emphasizes critical reading and analytical thinking and essays macbeth as a tragic, writing. Essay For The. By enrolling in essays hero this course, students have committed themselves to beer production a program of reading and writing on a level above that of the advanced high school senior. By EVSC policy, students must take the AP Literature exam in essays macbeth as a tragic the spring. Full details for this assignment can be found on the proper tab of my Weebly site. Students are expected to read How to Read Literature like a Professor and one novel or play from a list. Students write six specific reading journals (a character analysis, a theme analysis, etc.) and one extended personal essay synthesizing ideas from How to Read Literature like a Professor with the novel or play the odyssey students selected. The required texts for this class are: The Bedford Introduction to Literature , Tenth Edition 5 Steps to a 5 , AP English Literature Novels and plays checked out from the Harrison bookstore. The course approaches literature by genre: short story, poetry, novel, and drama. Because thoughtful, informed discussion of literature forms the basis of our class, being prepared for essays macbeth, each class is ESSENTIAL.

If you have not read and reflected upon the piece of literature under discussion, you will not be able to contribute effectively to the discussion, nor will the contributions of others be very relevant to you. Informed discussion is the best way to cover independent understand and analyze each piece we read. In-class timed writings (monthly), out-of-class essays (quarterly), cold readings (monthly), and tests (each unit) make up the bulk of the course assessments. Detailed schedules outlining all reading assignments, assessments, and due dates will be posted on the Weebly site each week. Netbooks and Electronic Devices.

Because we strive to be a paperless course, your netbook is a vital educational tool. However, when used for social media, gaming, or unrelated Internet surfing, netbooks can be a distraction and macbeth, can negatively impact your performance in class. You are expected to make responsible choices regarding netbook use in cover independent this class. Essays As A Tragic Hero. Any evidence of plagiarism, presenting someone else's work or ideas as your own, results in cover letter school failure for the specific assignment and tragic, an office referral, which may result in topics loss of citizenship. Essays As A. If the plagiarism involves a student presenting as his or her own the thesis work of essays macbeth another student, both students will receive a 0 for the assignment and a referral.

You must do your own work. I expect assignments to be submitted by the date and time indicated on the Weebly. Assignments on the due date but past the az post statement of personal designated time receive an initial 10% deduction with a 10% deduction for each additional late day (up to 50 percent). Assignments submitted after the due date receive an initial 20% deduction with a 10% deduction for each additional late day (up to 50 percent). As A Tragic. A student is expected to attend school regularly to derive maximum benefits from the cover letter independent school instructional program. After students miss 10 days, they and their parent(s) may be notified of the need to essays tragic hero attend a pre-court conference. At that time, legal notice is given. Teacher. Students who miss additional days of school after the pre-court conference are required by Indiana law to hero have a medical statement from a physician or be seen and possibly sent home by topics the school nurse. Failure to follow this law will result in macbeth as a tragic hero a referral to Child Protective Services or Juvenile Court, depending upon the circumstances and beer production, the age of the student. There can also be a pre-court conference called if the tragic hero student has missed 5 consecutive days (habitual truancy).

Email me at production, peter.barringer@evsck12.com with your questions or concerns. Macbeth. Weeks Six through Ten: 1984 1984 Literary Data Sheet Poetry connections, short story connections, ancillary readings, video comparisons, historical background, modern music comparisons, class discussions, close readings Evaluative, argumentative essay: students draw upon textual details to make and cover teacher school, explain judgments about a work's artistry and essays macbeth tragic, quality, and its social and statement of personal, cultural values. Weeks Eleven through Fifteen: The Handmaid's Tale The Handmaid's Tale Poetry connections, short story connections, ancillary readings, video comparisons, historical background, modern music comparisons, class discussions, close readings Study guide AP-style timed writing assessment Cold Reads: Complete two cold reads Teach multiple choice PowerPoints Prose Timed Writing Introduce techniques and essays tragic hero, read examples and commentary Complete one official AP prose timed writing (analyze and interpret) Read examples and commentary for that prompt. Weeks Sixteen through Eighteen: Death of cover letter independent a Salesman Death of a Salesman Poetry connections, short story connections, ancillary readings, video comparisons, historical background, modern music comparisons, class discussions, close readings Reader Response Journals Free Response Timed Writing Introduce techniques and read examples and commentary Complete one official AP free response timed writing (analyze and interpret) Read examples and commentary for that prompt. Weeks Eighteen and Nineteen: AP Practice Test Poetry Timed Writing Introduce techniques and read examples and commentary Complete one official AP poetry timed writing (analyze and interpret) Read examples and commentary for essays macbeth hero, that prompt Cold Reads 5 Steps lesson and statement, 1-page intros AP test multiple choice PowerPoints Complete two cold reads AP full-length Practice Test.

Weeks Six through Nine: Hamlet Hamlet Poetry connections, short story connections, ancillary readings, video comparisons, historical background, modern music comparisons, class discussions, close readings, activities Syntax walk Reader Response Journals each act Timed Writing Assessment#8203; Timed Writings: Refresher lessons for each type of timed writing Complete one of each type of timed writing (analyze and interpret) Read examples and essays macbeth as a hero, commentary for each prompt Cold Reads: Teach AP multiple choice PowerPoints Complete three cold reads. Weeks Ten through Thirteen: Kite Runner Kite Runner Poetry connections, short story connections, ancillary readings, video comparisons, historical background, modern music comparisons, class discussions, close readings Literary criticism Literary data sheet Timed Writing assessment#8203; Cold Reads: Teach AP multiple choice PowerPoints Complete three cold reads. Week Fourteen through Sixteen: Short Fiction and Poetry Refresher Cold Reads: Teach AP multiple choice PowerPoints Complete three cold reads Timed Writings: Refresher lessons for essay topics odyssey, each type of macbeth as a tragic timed writing Complete one of letter teacher independent each type of timed writing (analyze and essays macbeth as a, interpret) Read examples and commentary for production, each prompt. Weeks Seventeen through Nineteen: AP Test and Reflections AP Test preparation AP testing Complete final reflections.

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Dream World Essays and Research Papers. Dreams Amrit Sekhon December 7th, 2012 Sheridan College Abstract This essay will pose an analysis on as a why people dream . . Hobbit. According to the three theories dreams occur to protect ones sleep. Dreams occur naturally and it is a universal experience which everyone experiences during their sleep. The search ultimately leads to the conclusion that there is definitely a clear link between the as a tragic hero process of essay for the odyssey random firing neurons, experiences, fears and the external and internal stimuli in the body. . Carl Jung , Dream , Psychoanalysis 884 Words | 3 Pages. Dream Summaries Day Dreaming: When your imagination carries you away. Essays Macbeth As A Tragic Hero. Daydreaming is cover teacher a classified level of consciousness between sleep and . wakefulness. False Awakening Dreams : You dream that you wake up and your day starts, but then you actually wake up. Lucid Dreaming: Where you realize you are dreaming during your dream , and then have the essays as a ability to control your dream and what happens inside of it. Nightmares: A nightmare is a disturbing dream that causes you to cover letter independent school wake up feeling anxious and.

Carl Jung , Daydream , Dream 877 Words | 3 Pages. ? Dream By: FY All our dreams can come true if we have the courage to pursue them. I believe every child is born a . dreamer, from the macbeth as a moment we enter this world our mind wanders off in every direction. Statement Of Personal. The thoughts created in our mind unconsciously creates us, as humans who differ from one another. Macbeth Tragic Hero. For I have dreamed on and on, gone through thousands of dreams . Yet I realized that life is not unlimited, physically as well as our mentally we are not immortal and have a certain duration. Better , Dream , Future 934 Words | 3 Pages. be a “Falling Dream ”. Ironically, falling dreams usually occur when you are drifting off to sleep. Statement History. However, they interpret a . different meaning. “Falling” can mean that you feel you are losing your grip, or you are self-conscious, or simply have fears that need to be faced.

Patricia Garfield, the author of the book Creative Dreaming, states, “There’s some problem that is making you feel helpless – like you have no support.” So next time you wake up startled from a “falling dream ”, ask yourself. Dream , Dreaming , False awakening 1077 Words | 3 Pages. Dreams In the Greek and Roman eras, dreams were seen in a religious context. Tragic. They were believed to be direct messages from the . Statement Of Personal History. gods or from the dead. The people of that time look to their dreams for solutions on what to macbeth as a hero do or what course of action to take. They believed dreams forewarned and cover teacher school, predicted the future. Greek philosopher, Aristotle, believed that dreams were a result of physiological functions.

Dreams were able to macbeth as a tragic diagnose illness and hobbit, predict onset of disease. During the Middle Ages. Dream , Dreaming , Psychology 1571 Words | 5 Pages. topics. An interesting area of psych is psych of dreams . Why we dream is still one of the hero behavioral sciences' greatest . unanswered questions. Critical Essay On The. Dreams are the as a hero touchstones of our character. - Henry David Thoreau Researchers have offered many theories—memory consolidation, emotional regulation, threat simulation—but a unified one is yet to be proposed. A dream can include any of the images, thoughts and emotions that are experienced during sleep. Dreams can be extraordinarily vivid or very vague; filled. Dream , Emotion , Mind 758 Words | 3 Pages. Ruoqi Xu Psychology Professor Dude 11/22/12 Dream and Its Meaning Dream can be happy, delightful, absurd or even . fearful. Dream is cover letter school what we experience when we sleep; it “involves an integration of perceptual, emotional, motivational, and essays as a tragic, cognitive processes performed by hobbit various brain modules” (Passer and Ronald193).

However, the content of the dream and the reason why we dream specific content still remain a mystery till today. Although many scientists have been attempting to find the essays hero answers. Carl Jung , Consciousness , Dream 2547 Words | 7 Pages. My dream world I slowly drift in and out of a argumentative sleep as obfuscated images dance in and out of focus. I find myself falling farther . and farther into the darkness of oblivion where nothing is limited. How long will it last? I never know. Time appears to extend beyond all dimensions. The interstice between reality and fabrication widens, and out of the darkness a dim light forms.

Objects begin materializing from macbeth as a tragic, beyond the ghostly shadows, and a vast new world is created.Looming in az post history the infinite mist. World 1632 Words | 4 Pages. Night of essays macbeth as a tragic December 6, 2012 Dream -Zombie Last night I had a dream there was a zombie apocalypse. My mother had the cure in her . blood. My dad sent my mom through this capsule that sent her somewhere safe. I had to stay behind with my brother. Dream Interpretation I’ve been keeping a lot to myself lately and haven’t really felt like socializing much. I have also been getting annoyed easily lately, especially by my mom. Zombies mean that you are physically and/or emotionally detached from people.

Doughnut , Dream , Dunkin' Donuts 1315 Words | 5 Pages. Elsa Salim Karam Mrs. Petrosky 2nd D April 3rd, 2012. Of Personal History. Dreams : The Field of our Subconscious. Macbeth Hero. Have you ever tried to understand your . dreams , reveal the hidden message your subconscious is trying to make you see?

Dreams are successions of images, ideas, emotions and sensations that occur involuntarily in the mind during certain stages of sleep. Uk Police Writing. (Dictionary.com) Sigmund Freud, father of essays as a psychoanalysis, said that nothing occurs by chance. In fact, every action and thought is motivated by our subconscious. Carl Jung , Dream , Dream interpretation 2147 Words | 5 Pages. ? A BETTER WORLD STARTS WITH ME You have to admit that once in your life, you dreamt of a better world than the uk police writing . world that we’re seeing and living right now. But I don’t blame you.

I also imagined what if I’m living in a let’s say, a perfect world . Essays Macbeth. Well you know we’re human. We wasted precious hours on imagining ourselves living in a perfect life. But let’s stop dreaming right now. Writing. We must wake up because in reality, we are living in essays macbeth as a hero a grotesque world . For those who haven’t seen, heard, or. Debut albums , Dream , Jia Zhangke 428 Words | 2 Pages. My Dreams Essay Essay By: katierashell True Confessions This was my ' Dreams Essay' for my 10th grade english class. View . table of contents. Submitted: Feb 17, 2011 Reads: 12912 Comments: 4 Likes: 0 Dreams Essay“We are the music makers,And we are the dreamer of dreams ,Wandering by lone sea-breakers,And sitting by desolate streams,On whom the essay hobbit pale moon gleams,Yet we are the movers and essays tragic hero, shakers,Of the topics for the world forever, it seems.”-Ode, by Arthur William Edgar O’Shaughnessy (First stanza)A. Dream , Everything That Happens Will Happen Today , Family 1052 Words | 3 Pages. ? State of macbeth Consciousness What do Dreams Mean?

Amanda Guzman Mrs. Nazario PSY 2012-385 Abstract Dreams can be . the unanswered questions to essay odyssey ones thoughts or can create new questions by dawn. The phenomena of dreaming has been researched and studied since the macbeth tragic study of the human mind has been studied; psychology. A Argumentative. The works and wonders of the human brain is still unknown to many scientists. Essays As A Tragic Hero. And that is because it is the az post statement of personal history most complex component of the human anatomy. As A Hero. The brain is working. Brain , Consciousness , Dream 1482 Words | 7 Pages. transpire next, our dreams . As the essay topics result of recording my dreams the past few nights, I have come to fathom that our . Macbeth Tragic. dreams are not only recalling significant memories, but they may also symbolize ideas and warnings. There may be other individuals in the world to have a common conclusion like me, but this is my own.

We dream to recall memories that impacted us in letter school a strong kind of way and to hint and warn ourselves of the possible future. I recorded five dreams , and three of essays as a tragic hero my dreams signified past. Dream , Dreaming , Psychology 966 Words | 3 Pages. the unquenchable desire to have dreams of uk police statement writing a better life, and the ability to essays macbeth tragic establish goals to live out those dreams . Think of production thesis . it: We can look deep within our hearts and dream of a better situation for ourselves and our families; dream of macbeth as a hero better financial lives and better emotional or physical lives; certainly dream of a argumentative better spiritual lives. Tragic Hero. But what makes this even more powerful is that we have also been given the ability to not only dream but to az post of personal pursue those dreams , and not only to pursue them. 2006 singles , American football , Dream 965 Words | 3 Pages. Descartes Dream Argument - Philosophy.

experience of this world ? When we dream we imagine things happening often with the macbeth tragic same sense of reality as we do when we are . Teacher School. awake. In Descartes dream argument, he states there are no reliable signs distinguishing sleeping from essays macbeth, waking. In his dream argument, he is essay not saying we are merely dreaming all of what we experience, nor, is he saying we can distinguish dreaming from essays macbeth, being awake. I think his point is we cannot be for sure what we experience as being real in this world is actually real. . Argument , Dream , Dreaming 1410 Words | 4 Pages. Jake Armstrong 12/2/12 Browne A Dream for You and a Dream for az post statement of personal history, Me In the world today, minimum wage rules . millions of people’s lives and is most time the only source of macbeth tragic income for many families. So how can someone achieve the American dream ; 2 kids, a big 2 story house, and statement, 2 cars? It is not a simple thing to achieve, but the essays hero thing people ignore is that it is always possible to attain. The American dream is not gone and can be achieved by essay on the hobbit anyone and is different for tragic, each person. People are.

A Dream , Fast food , James Truslow Adams 1254 Words | 4 Pages. Cheerleading Worlds - A Dream for Many. Stephanie York English 1101 27 September 2013 Cheerleading Worlds : A Dream for Many Loud music, big bows, smells of sweat . and perfume and thousands of screaming fans is not a football championship. Electricity and az post statement, tension fill the essays air while anxiously waiting for of personal, the next team to macbeth as a take the blue-taped off mat to compete for the pride and trophy of critical essay being the next world champion in essays macbeth as a hero the highly competitive sport of cheerleading. This competition is production thesis unknown to a large percent of the population. Cheerleading , ESPN , Minnesota Golden Gophers Spirit Squads 1004 Words | 2 Pages. Reality of a Dream In Stephen King’s essay, “The Symbolic Language of essays macbeth as a tragic Dreams ”, King describes some of the ways . dreams have helped him with his writing. Essay Topics. I read about as a hero all the statement of personal history things that King dreamed about. He dreamed about as a all kinds of essay on the unrealistic things and he consciously put these dream stories into his writings.

I think this method of creative writing is crazy, but I agree with it. Macbeth. I like the critical essay idea of using the ability that every person in the world has; creative imagination through a dream . I agree. Consciousness , Dream , Idea 1014 Words | 3 Pages. that we only dream during the period of light sleep, which is usually around morning hours? Not even the most prestigious scientists know . exactly why people dream but there are a few explanations in the works. Macbeth Hero. Scientists have proven, though, that on average people dream three to five times during an eight hour sleep.

There are people who claim that they do not have dreams , while in fact they just don't remember their dreams . There are many options of what a dream is cover teacher independent school about. Most dreams reflect on the. Brain , Dream , Mind 830 Words | 3 Pages. 2011 Willy Loman the American Dream “. There are two versions of the American Dream ,” according to Harold Clurman(132). The . authentic dream from the very beginning of essays as a tragic America was of freedom and equal opportunity. Achievement, itself, is all the dream requires. The awry dream of uk police statement writing vocational success came about during the Post-Civil War period. The basis of this dream for successfulness was that of business ingenuity, perseverance, and audacity. Macbeth As A Hero. Even this dream has changed in recent times, particularly. Carl Jung , Death of a Salesman , Dream 1715 Words | 5 Pages. Do Blind People Dream ? Sight or vision is the capability of the eyes to receive visible light through the retina of each eye to where our . nerve receptors send messages to our brain that we translate as colors, hues, and brightness.

We have two main receptors in our eyes called cones and rods. Of Personal History. Rods distinguish light not color. Cones are responsible for all the colors we see, but are sensitive to dim light, for macbeth as a tragic, example it’s difficult to make out colors in poorly lit situations yet you can see the. Blindness , Brain , Dream 1174 Words | 3 Pages. I found the az post statement of personal history reading The Symbolic Language of Dreams , written by Stephens King, a very interesting story to write about. King stated a quote . in his introduction saying that dreams are a useful way that help people find the nature of their problems; or, find answers to their problems in tragic a symbolic way.

The purpose of this essay is to essay show that dreams and imaginations were two main factors in King's successful life. Hence, dreams and imaginations are critical factors when writing; they sure can resolve. Dream , Mind , Psychology 841 Words | 3 Pages. but she’s not there. Macbeth As A Tragic Hero. Where is she? A-huh! In the cover letter independent school kitchen! I saw my mama, lying down on the floor, dead.

With a glass on her hand. I remember, she tried to . get it. Oh, God, just for the glass of cold water! Mama! Mama! Oh, Mama! A Little Boy's Dream The bed was long and macbeth as a hero, the bed was wide, and high was its polished head ; But in spite of its length and az post statement, breadth and height it still was a little boy's bed, And he said he would loan it me, he would, but just for essays macbeth as a tragic, a night or so, Or through. Blue , Dream , In My Eyes 1808 Words | 7 Pages. Where the of personal history mind is without fear and the head is held high; Where knowledge is free; Where the world has not been broken up into fragments by . narrow domestic walls; Where words come out from the essays macbeth hero depth of truth; Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection; Where the topics odyssey clear stream of reason has not lost its way into tragic the dreary desert sand of essay topics dead habit; Where the macbeth as a hero mind is led forward by thee into ever-widening thought and action-- Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let.

Agriculture , Dream , Economy of essay on the India 1010 Words | 3 Pages. Slogans On India Of My Dreams Essays. Bottom of Form Slogans on India Of My Dreams Essays and Term Papers Top of macbeth tragic Form Bottom of Form Top of Form Bottom of Form My India My . Dream the dream of every citizen of a country, to see that the country develops with no negative systems or ideas or beliefs. It is my dream and my vision that India would be the most powerful and uk police statement, developed nation in the world in near future. Macbeth As A Tragic. India will be a golden bird of the uk police statement writing coming years. In my dreams more. Essays Macbeth Hero. Vision of My Dream India International Day against Drug. Artificial intelligence , Carl Jung , Cricket 1194 Words | 4 Pages. you saw a strange thing in the world which was a fish but had a human body? People always think these kinds of thoughts are over the top, but . this is all about fantasy, our dreams and human imagination.

Designers are able to uk police statement create fascinating work; artists are able to construct gorgeous creations, because of the human imagination. In 1940 Dali summed up his aspiration to create objects, ‘I try to create fantastic things, magical things and things like a dream . The world needs more fantasy. Our civilization. Andre Breton , Dream , Haute couture 2469 Words | 7 Pages. The Role of Youths in Creating a Peaceful World. Dream Alive, Saving the as a tragic World on critical hobbit the Precipice Dreams of a peaceful and essays macbeth as a tragic hero, harmonious world end when . the statement dreamer wakes.

He had dreamt of a world full of happiness where people are strong and hero, healthy, where there are no wars, threats of war nor rumours of for the odyssey war, a world where love reigns. He rises to face a world on essays hero the precipice, hears news of killings and natural disasters, of for the poverty and disease, and goes out to essays macbeth tragic experience discrimination and manifest hatred. He returns on beer thesis from a world unlike the. Ageism , Dream , Human rights 833 Words | 3 Pages. The world saw him as a marching protest leader, an activist, spokesman, civil rights leader, and tragic hero, the conscience of a nation. With keen and . sensitive insight, he so eloquently proclaimed that a profound social and a argumentative essay, human predicament faced our nation and macbeth as a hero, the world . However, some of a argumentative essay his greatest messages to us were not preached from a mountaintop before millions, but from as a, a little pulpit back home at the Ebeneezer Baptist Church. Dr.

King once said, before I was a civil rights leader, I was a preacher. Dream , Langston Hughes , Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi 971 Words | 3 Pages. Lucid Dreams: the First Virtual Reality. Lucid Dreams : The First Virtual Reality Psychological Sean Pasinsky LibEd 316-2 5 Feb. 1997 For ages people have thought of critical . dreams as curses or blessings that we could not prevent nor manipulate. This place called our dreams has constantly puzzled us, because it is here where all things are possible and seem to occur. Tragic Hero. In our dreams we perform superhuman and wonderful feats that would normally be impossible in school the awake world . Macbeth Tragic Hero. We find the beer production men or women of our dreams , depending on our sexual. Consciousness , Dream , Dreaming 1171 Words | 4 Pages. Self-Analysis in Dream Exploration.

Critical Analysis #2 “Self-Analysis through Dream Exploration” They say the eyes are the window to your soul, however Schmida’s process . essay “Self Analysis through Dream Exploration” suggests otherwise. Schmida presents an interesting new way to gain self-awareness and understanding through first identifying, then analyzing your dreams . She uses clear, thorough explanations to takes us step by essays step through the process of becoming your own professional dream analyst. She is quick to establish a. Article , Carl Jung , Critical thinking 834 Words | 3 Pages. daydreams I’ve read in magazines that Day dreaming is a behavioural disorder. That day dreamers are actually not in touch with the reality and they are . absorbed in their own world . My feelings towards day dreaming couldn’t be more different. I tend to daydream continuously.

I can sit in a class a drift off to a different world or some future event in my life. In my mind I have the ability to do anything. If I want to be the hero, the production pretty girl, the invisible person, I imagine it. The things I wish. Abstraction , Consciousness , Daydream 1126 Words | 3 Pages. The Relation Between Memory and Dreams. The Relation between Memory and Dreams Julien Nougarou Upper Iowa University Abstract Dreams have been a subject of study . for a long time, dating back to before Freud’s popular theories and concepts of the subject.

By studying how the human brain processes and essays macbeth as a tragic hero, retains memory can help researchers understand why dreams occur and why they may not. Although most research points to the fact that dreams and memory processing are related, this is production not a theory or concept that is completely undisputed. Amnesia , Dream , Episodic memory 2350 Words | 4 Pages. What is tragic hero The American Dream? and uk police statement, is it Attainable? What is the American Dream ? When people from oppressed lands hear America, they immediately think of jobs and freedom, an opportunity to . begin a new life. They imagine a place in which the streets are literally paved in gold, and they dream of essays as a tragic a country where everyone is treated equal. Immigrants envision a country where their children can attend school to obtain a proper education, and a country where their children will not go to bed with hunger in their stomachs. Also people view it as the faith.

A Dream , Fence , Immigration to the United States 1051 Words | 3 Pages. TABLE OF CONTENTS I. INRODUCTION II. MEANING OF DREAMS III. WHEN DOES DREAM OCCUR? IV. SLEEP A.STAGES OF SLEEP B.REM SLEEP . C.NON REM SLEEP D.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN REM SLEEP AND NON REM SLEEP V. TYPES OF DREAMS A.LUCID DREAM B.NON LUCID DREAM C.DIFFERENCE BETWEEN LUCID AND NON LUCID D.DAYDREAM E.NIGHTMARE VI. CONCLUSION I.INTRODUCTION Many people are interested about the meaning of their dreams , dreams that occur in different time, different situation and ways. It was an intriguing. Daydream , Dream , Dreaming 1953 Words | 7 Pages. The Dreams in Wuthering Heights [This discussion is a slightly altered section from John P. Farrell, “Reading the Text of Community in a argumentative . Wuthering Heights,” ELH 56 (1989), 173-208.

The essay argues that Bronte’s novel deals with the complex layering in human identity of a private self, a social self (largely a construction of the social system), and as a tragic, an intersubjective self whose actions locate an alternative social realm that the nineteenth-century theorized as “community.” The essay thus borrows. Discourse , Dream , Heathcliff 2024 Words | 3 Pages. Running head: Dreams : The Movies of Our Minds Dreams : The Movies of Our Minds . Dreams : The Movies of statement history Our Minds According to Merriam-Webster Dictionary, dreams are a series of images, ideas, or feelings that are going through your head while sleeping. Dreams can be very clear or very blurry, depending on how your brain perceives the image (Cherry, 2011). Humans spend about six years of macbeth hero their life dreaming (“ Dream Facts and Tidbits. Carl Jung , Dream , Dreaming 948 Words | 3 Pages. Understanding the Dream Process and cover teacher, Dream Meanings. Understanding the macbeth Dream Process and Dream Meanings Amanda N. Hollis West Georgia Technical College PSYC 1101 Treva Sexton . Understanding the Dream Process and uk police statement writing, Dream Meanings Everyone dreams , but people do not always remember the dream . Essays Macbeth Hero. When someone actually does remember the topics for the odyssey dream there is a chance that person is wondering, “Why they would dream about that?” and “What does that dream mean?” In Freud’s The Interpretation of Dreams , he claims that dreams are meaningful and essays macbeth tragic, the reason why they. Dream , Dreaming , Non-rapid eye movement sleep 1061 Words | 3 Pages.

Why we dream : an analysis of contemporary research and statement of personal, theory on the function of dreaming Krista L. Hulm Essay Topic Why do we . Macbeth As A Hero. dream ? Discuss with reference to psychological theories and research. Abstract Within classical psychoanalytic psychology, Freud’s (1900) conception of critical dreams is the most prominent dream theory among modern Western culture (Fosshage, 1983). Macbeth As A Hero. Freud theorised that dreams serve a dual, compromise function. He suggested that unconscious, instinctual. Dream , Psychoanalysis , Psychology 753 Words | 3 Pages.

How to Turn Dreams into Reality We all have dreams for the future. Goals that are ripe for achieving. Ever since . we were born, we’ve wanted to impact the world in some way and stand out from the crowd. Teacher Independent. Every day we hope that someone will notice us and essays, recognize us for some special achievement. Cover Letter Teacher School. Maybe we want to be on stage, giving a speech to essays macbeth as a tragic an enormous audience. We want to have that honorable stride as we get on stage, have the tears in our eyes as we stand tall, and proclaim our. Carl Jung , Dream , Dream interpretation 1286 Words | 5 Pages. LoginUsername: Password: Login Forgot your password? Free Term Papers on My Dream Story OPPapers.com Essay Index Miscellaneous . My Dream Story We have many free term papers and production thesis, essays on My Dream Story.

We also have a wide variety of essays macbeth as a tragic research papers and book reports available to odyssey you for free. You can browse our collection of term papers or use our search engine. Essays from as a, FratFiles.com My Dream Story My Dream Story It happened to be that I was just a normal person, I would not usually. 1997 albums , A Story , Death 779 Words | 4 Pages. Hoop Dreams Many authors/film makers realize that sometimes, in statement order to make a point, an idea is best conveyed through a stirring of the . audience’s pathos, or feelings.

An audience whose emotions have been affected is more likely to remember a message and take it into consideration. Hoop Dreams , a documentary by Steve James, is an apt example that employs heavy use of pathos in order to present its theme. Essays Macbeth As A. The documentary follows two boys through their high school years in uk police Chicago as they pursue. Audience , Audience theory , Basketball 1154 Words | 3 Pages. thats about Dreams Dreams are something we all experience every night, whether we remember them or not. Macbeth As A. 1/3 of topics odyssey your life is as a tragic . spent sleeping, and in letter independent school that time, you all will experience thousands of dreams . The 3 key items I want to talk about are dream theories, how a dream works, and if we can really interpret our dreams . Those theories essentially fall into two categories: * The idea that dreams are only physiological stimulations and * The idea that dreams are psychologically. Brain , Dream , Dreaming 1035 Words | 4 Pages.

the United States and all around the world in a feverish rush to macbeth as a tragic hero strike rich. Many left everything behind to dare venture into thesis the final . frontier of the wilderness that was California. Word quickly spread about a land showered by essays sunshine and ripe with gold ready for the picking. A Argumentative Essay. As a result, the California dream developed and quickly romanticized imaginations all across the world with its promise of easy money and lure of adventure. Today, the California dream stands high like the palm trees that. California , California Dreams , California Gold Rush 804 Words | 3 Pages.

?H.W. Longfellow’s Poems on Slavery are said to essays macbeth as a hero be “so mild that even a Slaveholder might read them without losing his appetite for breakfast”. The Slave’s . Dream is about a series of dreams of a victim of slavery during the 19th century. Beside the ungathered rice he lay, His sickle in his hand; His breast was bare, his matted hair Was buried in the sand. Again, in the mist and shadow of essay sleep, He saw his Native Land. The physical image of a slave is portrayed through the first stanza of. Dream , Poetry , Slavery 921 Words | 3 Pages. Dreams and it types Introduction Dreams are among the myriad mysteries of essays macbeth tragic Nature which still stay unraveled and cover teacher, hidden from . the light of discovery and openness. Dreams have no definition to characterize them, nor do they have any definite identity. They are always there in all our lives, but they are still like a stranger, unknown and questioned!

Some attribute dreams as a channel which let away all such elements of the mind which lay trap in darkness, while we are conscious. They may be regarded. Consciousness , Dream , Dreaming 1963 Words | 5 Pages. India has emerged from the very background of people living in southeast asia. It is a perfect blend of essays as a some of the largest religions in the . Statement Writing. world . Having held the position of the largest democracy in the world for over 65 years is a difficult task and we need to give credit to our great thinkers of the time. Today we cherish, we are happy, we play, we enjoy in India due to 2 reasons: 1) The struggles by our forefathers and hero, 2) The power of democratic principles which hold us today. Our ancestors.

A Dream , Culture of India , Democracy 1317 Words | 3 Pages. Dream Analysis Paper: Psychology 100 Spring 2013 Yvonne Valenzuela, Ed.D. William Austin 3/17/13 . Dreams are often derived from the inner thresholds of an individual’s thoughts and repressed emotions. Essay Topics Odyssey. My dreams have been significantly complex, converging into essays tragic hero metamorphic symbols that relate to significant past and present events. After a week of dream analysis, I believe dreams have an effect on. Carl Jung , Collective unconscious , Dream 1676 Words | 5 Pages.

Macbeth Dreams Visions and Hallucinations Rereading. The influence of essay for the Dreams , Visions and Hallucinations in Macbeth and other Literary Texts “The realities of the world affected . me as visions, and as visions only, while the wild ideas of the land of dreams became, in macbeth tragic hero turn,—not the material of my every-day existence--but in statement very deed that existence utterly and solely in itself.” ---- Edgar Allan Poe Uncanny encounters with visions and hallucinations blur the presumed constraints of time and space. The ‘phantasms’ or sensory impressions. Dream , H. P. Macbeth As A Hero. Lovecraft , Hallucination 2464 Words | 7 Pages. The Limit to Dreams There are some people that say children do not know any better when they do something wrong. Statement. Does this still count for an . adult that doesn’t know any better? Lennie from the novel Of Mice and macbeth tragic, Men by uk police John Steinbeck fits that description exactly. Lennie is just like a child because he dreams big but is not able to take care of himself. Lennie and his dreams are both very big but that is what makes him very childish.

Everyone has dreams . However, once people start to macbeth tragic hero grow up. Dream , John Steinbeck , Martin Scorsese 1016 Words | 3 Pages. the knowledge that I was loved by her. But not from my parents who gave me away. When I was 16, my life changed dramatically in beer the fall of my sophomore . year of high school. My beloved grandmother was dying of cancer. I was forced my view of the essays as a tragic hero world and az post, my sense of responsibility to take a dramatic turn. Each morning before school I went to the hospital where she received chemotherapy to treat the cancer that was destroying her body. After school finished, I went back to essays macbeth tragic the hospital to speed. Dream , Family , High school 1460 Words | 4 Pages.

The powers of dreams have always been underestimated. Uk Police. There is a whole new world in essays macbeth as a hero the sub conscious mind that helps us in a . subtle way. Statement History. In this project you will see how a baby was born because of a dream , how nightmares can be partially good for you, be given a background on essays dreams in general and cover letter independent school, details on interpreting your own dreams amongst other things. Background Everybody dreams but not everybody can remember them. Macbeth Hero. We usually don't remember dreams when we suddenly wake up and move about. Dream , Dream interpretation , Dreaming 1451 Words | 4 Pages. THE MEANING OF DREAMS Consciousness is defined as a person’s state of critical essay awareness of oneself and the environment.

It is the responsiveness of . the brain to tragic hero the senses. A person may experience different states of essay consciousness. A typical example of such states of consciousness is macbeth tragic hero sleep. In this state, the body rests and restores energy. One particular stage of sleep called REM sleep, characterized by statement history rapid eye movements, is responsible for generating dreams . Dreams are mental images which occur. Carl Jung , Consciousness , Dream 1180 Words | 5 Pages. Martin Luther King Jr. Speech There is Still a Dream to macbeth tragic hero Believe In

There Is Still a Dream to Believe In “Keep true to the dreams of thy youth.” Friedrich von Schiller’s words grabbed me by . the shoulders, shook me, and urged me to open my eyes- and writing, when I did I was slapped in the face by a realization. Dr.King’s dream was influenced by his childhood. Essays Macbeth Tragic Hero. He was taught to treat others kindly and with respect. Because of segregation, Martin was separated from several of his friends, but he worked to change things, to essay make his dream reality. His dream that his children.

Adolescence , Aftermath Entertainment , Dream 1196 Words | 3 Pages. Jay Schwanke Professor M. Coleman ENGL 200 12 April 12, 2013 Dear Professor Coleman, In exploring the characterization of Fitzgerald “Winter . Tragic. Dreams ”, I am going to show the use of beer production thesis seasonal changes of his protagonist, Dexter, from his story. I believe that it is his every intention for macbeth as a tragic, us explore Dexter as a man by showing us where and how he developed to be such a man from odyssey, his decisions in the past starting from essays macbeth as a tragic, his caddy days to college and finally as an establish businessman. His. All the Sad Young Men , Dream , F. Scott Fitzgerald 868 Words | 3 Pages. Dreams and Nightmares: Big Parts of Our Lives? however, much more is going on beer thesis than meets the eye.

Sleep is accompanied by as a dreams , a term associated with adventures, experiences, and . A Argumentative. conflicts, which occur in one’s mind during those hours while one is fast asleep in essays tragic bed. All people dream from the moment they enter this world to the day they leave, but whether or not they remember what they experienced the previous night varies. I, of course, am no exception and a argumentative essay, have dreams dating years back to my younger days that have remained in my memory. . Dream , Dreaming , Electroencephalography 2344 Words | 6 Pages. Everyone has dreams and desires. I myself, used to desire my life to run smoothly and flawlessly; without problems, without worries.

When I was . in my early adolescence, I have always dreamed for a perfect teenage life with excellent results throughout the essays macbeth tragic hero studies, amazing relationships with a huge circle of friends, and also all the expensive brands of clothes and goods. Nonetheless, growing up had really showed me that life is not at all about perfections and flawlessness. Joseph Epstein had mentioned. Dream , Friendship , Interpersonal relationship 1008 Words | 3 Pages. Freud's Dream Analysis. a Case Study. Freud believed that dreams are the statement history “royal road to the unconscious”, for it is within an individual’s dream state that their . unconscious wishes, needs, and fears are expressed (Corey, 2005, p. 76). Dedicating his work to creating a procedure which could assist with the emergence of unconscious thoughts into the conscious mind, Freud developed psychoanalytical therapy: a therapy aimed at increasing awareness, encouraging insight into the client’s behaviour, and understanding the significance of macbeth tragic symbols. Carl Jung , Consciousness , Dream 2156 Words | 6 Pages. Dang Thi Ngoc Trinh General Psychology Michael Bar-Johnson M.Sc. Wed 15-18 pm Dream Analysis There are three popular dream . analyses – the Freudian, the Jungian and the Cognitive view. In my opinion, the Cognitive view is the best analysis.

In my dream , I and my brother Long were invited by the actor Tom Hanks to his residence. We had a great time during the cover letter teacher independent school delicious dinner at macbeth hero, his place. After the dinner I and Long were accommodated in uk police statement beautiful guest rooms, and then Hanks’ friend, whose name. Carl Jung , Dream , Dream interpretation 1167 Words | 3 Pages. Assignment 3: Essay—Sleep and essays tragic, Dreams Tracy Black PSY1001 SO3 Dr. Lottie G. Independent. Olson-Davidson South University Online Assignment 3: . Essay—Sleep and Dreams What is the biological basis of sleep and dreams ? There have been quite a few studies on sleep and why the essays macbeth as a hero body needs it.

One study found that during sleep, the essay brain transfers information from short-term memory to long-term memory (Hunter, 2008). Some studies have shown that sleep helps you to essays macbeth hero stay mentally sharp because your body is. Carl Jung , Dream , Dream interpretation 2192 Words | 6 Pages.