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Business Plan Paper Essays and Research Papers. content of business plans Supervisor: Paul Grant A business plan is so important in the . Techniques! business environment especially for a start-up business that normally needs to persuade third party for more money. Business might not grow according to plan along the way but without a plan , business will never be successful. Binding London Holborn! Business Portal of India [n.d] states that business requires finance to start up its operation, to maintain its operation and for its growth and expansion. A good business plan will help. Business , Business plan , Management 2006 Words | 6 Pages. | Business Plans | | | | | Planning GuideEvery business starts with an brainstorming idea. No matter what that idea . is, a well thought out binding, business plan is techniques, what helps turn that idea into a reality. The Big Idea is security, designed to techniques, guide you through the steps of developing and fine-tuning your business plan.It is a common misconception that business plans are written for the sole purpose of obtaining financing. The most important reason for writing a business plan should be that it is an london important tool for. Business plan , Entrepreneurship , Management 1650 Words | 5 Pages. Juice and Smoothie Bar Business Plan For Raising Capital from Investors, Banks, or Grant Companies!

Please note that the . Brainstorming Essays! financials in this complete free business plan are completely fictitious and may not match the interior, text of the business plan below. This free business plan demonstration purposes only. If you are interested in purchasing the techniques brainstorming, completed editable MS Word and Excel documents for this business plan , please click the button below! Also, the essays on comuter, text of the business plan is formatted with a. Techniques Brainstorming Essays! Business plan , Food , Food safety 1989 Words | 7 Pages. entertainments for clients, an of family onsite restaurant, and brainstorming, a full service day spa. . III. Industry Analysis • Future Outlook Hotel and Resorts will be the center of descriptive paragraphs and essays include, resorts business in brainstorming, the Philippines. They will also have more guests, employees and entry level interior design letter, branches that will maintain a profitable operation to continue the brainstorming, tradition of bringing Quality Family Luxury Vacation, at a reasonable cost, in a comfortable atmosphere, with exceptional. Advertising , Business plan , Destination hotel 1061 Words | 4 Pages.

Criteria of an Excellent Business Plan. excellent business plan ” Actually before I explore more about what is criteria of an excellent business . Sleep Essay! plan ? And how we get it? Where our business plan seems good and will be able to be interest for the investors to invest the capital in order to make the business becoming a real. So as a young entrepreneur we are required to have the writing skill in techniques brainstorming, order to entry cover letter, make an excellent business plan . Definition of Business Plan I have two points of view regarding the definition of business plan ; first definition. Business , Business plan , Entrepreneurship 937 Words | 3 Pages. Techniques Brainstorming! Management and Business Plan Outline. ?How to essays security, Write a Business Plan Writing a business plan may sound simple enough, but it actually takes . several dire and crucial steps. Techniques Essays! According to entrepreneur Darrell Zahorsky, the interior cover, following steps are all essential in comprising a plan for techniques brainstorming, one’s business : 1. Of IR Spectroscopy! “Audience Funding Type: When writing a business plan , you must determine who will be reading it. Essays! This decision will shape the business plan . Dissertation Holborn! Do you plan to go for debt or equity financing?

Each form of funding for your business has pros and. Business plan , Entrepreneurship , Management 1301 Words | 4 Pages. Business Plan for Restoration and Repair Shop Restoration and Repair Shop will be a new entrepreneur business . in the private sector, as partnership company for essays, profit that can do just about anything, offerings professional service in restoration and repair of leather, vinyl, velour and various types of sleep essay, fabric to all customers in the Aviation Market, Automotive Market, Marine Market, and Residential Market. 1. State the purpose of the techniques brainstorming essays, business Small business statistic almost 90 to. Entry Level Interior Design Cover! Business , Business plan , Entrepreneurship 1362 Words | 6 Pages. socialization trends and technology exposure is indeed high due to insufficiency in the number of available computer services. To be able to fill these . insufficiencies, we plan to make a business project that compliments to the latter problem.

The objectives of the business project are: * To create a sustainable business project addressing the needs of the immediate consumers in computer-related services. * To have a competitive distinction against current competitors by emphasizing accessibility. Accessibility , Business plan , Computer 701 Words | 3 Pages. Starting a new business is an exciting venture and has its unique mix of challenges and essays, rewards. Many are set-up for for writing descriptive and essays, failure if no clear goals . Techniques Essays! or measures are established and the tools descriptive and essays, adhered. Techniques! According to the Small Business Administration, “Planning is critical to essays on comuter, successfully starting and brainstorming, building a business .” The best advice for for writing paragraphs include, a new entrepreneur interested in starting a business is to create a solid business plan that outlines the business in its entirety. Brainstorming! A well-constructed, written business plan will help. Business , Business plan , Entrepreneur 1668 Words | 5 Pages. The Tools For Writing Descriptive! ?Simple Business Plan Outline 1. Executive Summary Write this last. Brainstorming! It’s just a page or two that highlights the points you’ve . made elsewhere in short love of family, your business plan . It’s also the doorway to your plan —after looking over your executive summary, your target reader is either going to throw your business plan away or keep reading, so you’d better get it just right. Techniques Brainstorming Essays! Read more… 2. Company Summary This section is an dissertation overview of who you are and what you do. It should summarize your vision and what you hope.

Business plan , Economics , Entrepreneurship 926 Words | 4 Pages. Prepare a business plan Overview A business plan is a written document that describes a . business , its objectives, its strategies, the techniques, market it is in and its financial forecasts. It has many functions, from securing external funding to measuring success within your business . This guide will show you how to prepare a high-quality plan using a number of easy-to-follow steps, and includes a template business plan . Your products and services and audience for entry level interior design letter, your business plan This part of the plan sets. Business plan , Competitor analysis , Management 2372 Words | 7 Pages. Brainstorming Essays! complete a business plan activity. The business plan is designed to help you communicate what your . business will look like as you start and what your goals are for the future.

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By keeping this sentence in mind, it helps you achieving your goal (to gain profit as much as possible of course) What is of IR Spectroscopy, a business plan ? A business plan is a written statement of the techniques brainstorming essays, goals and essays on comuter security, objectives for the business and techniques essays, the steps to be taken to achieve them; it is a document. London Holborn! Business plan , Gross profit margin , Management 1874 Words | 6 Pages. Horizontal Flow Inward Outward Flow Vertical Information Flow and Downward Information Flow of Financial Data in the Kuali System Essays and Term Papers. Business Plan People have many dreams of owning their own business one day. Their are many things in techniques, which one . The Tools Descriptive Paragraphs! would have to consider before getting started; one thing in techniques brainstorming essays, particular is developing a business plan and to choose which type of financing that will be used in essays, order to get their business started. Essays! “So what make up a business plan is a formal statement of a set of business goals, the reasons why they are believed attainable, and the plan for love, reaching those goals. It may also contain background.

Audience , Business plan , Debt 1226 Words | 4 Pages. BUSINESS PLANNING Planning is the key to any successful business . There are many different models and techniques brainstorming, variations of short essay about, . Techniques Brainstorming Essays! business plans , so it is extremely important to choose the Role of IR Spectroscopy, right one specific to the type of brainstorming essays, business . Having a business and knowing what to do with it are very separate issues and creating a well-executed business plan for Spectroscopy, the right reasons will enhance the techniques, odds that your venture will be one of the sleep essay, ones to succeed. “Accounting is the techniques, measurement, statement, or provision of. Business , Business plan , Decision making 1880 Words | 6 Pages. an Overview draft (500 words maximum) a. Briefly describe the context and your organization. b. Essays On Comuter! Articulate the vision, mission, and . strategy of your organization (or business unit or division). Brainstorming! c. Describe the sources of dissertation binding holborn, competitive advantage d. Describe the nature of the business opportunity Due by techniques the end of short essay love of family, Module 1 2. Environmental Analysis and Industry Analysis Using the Segments of the General Environment write the environmental analysis of techniques, your. Level Interior Design! Business plan , Management , Marketing 947 Words | 5 Pages. starting any form of business , a comprehensive layout of a plan needs to techniques brainstorming essays, be prepared. A business plan . is absolutely necessary to evaluate the internal and external factors affecting a business . A business plan should incorporate, in general, all the critical aspects of essays on comuter, business that directly or indirectly affect it. The entire, well laid-out business plans need to techniques, have core components in it. The five crucial components of a business plan are: Executive summary section Business Section.

Market Analysis. Business plan , Customer , Customer service 828 Words | 3 Pages. Discuss and provide examples of the changing factors that will influence business in the future (e.g., new investment techniques, new forms of . communication, new management structure, new technology, or new marketing techniques). Select 2 of the 5 identified factors and explain in detail the factor that was chosen and provide an example. Of IR Spectroscopy! New marketing techniques Green marketing is very important as the problems of environmental protection are essential for all countries all over the world nowadays. Business , Business model design , Business plan 1152 Words | 4 Pages. Planning for individuals and business The military saying, “If you fail to plan , you plan to fail,” is true. . People always make plans , like teachers plan their Teaching Plans , students write outlines to plan their essay, and business managers make plans to improve outstanding achievement. Brainstorming! A plan , on the other hand, helps a manager organize resources and activities efficiently and effectively to achieve goals. Making plans is security, generally beneficial for those individuals and business managers; however, there. Business plan , Future , Management 1343 Words | 2 Pages. Applying Business Theories and Techniques to Create a New Business or Improve an Existing Business. ?Apply business theories and techniques creating a new business start up or enhance current employer The best way to start a . business is by brainstorming essays writing a business plan . Business plans are plans that are designed and show how businesses will be run, managed or funded.

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INTRODUCTION Background of the techniques brainstorming, Study It can be said that success begins and ends with a perfect strategy. In order to of IR, grow a business . and succeed in a volatile marketplace, it is important to techniques essays, have that strategy, and plan for the future. Many business professionals agree that the best way to get ahead is to design and implement an effective strategic business plan . While this can be a somewhat daunting task, there are actually many strategic planning resources available to help get you started. Budget , Business , Business plan 1717 Words | 6 Pages. International Business Research Outline - Spain. Spain – International Business Research Project Outline 1. Introduction 2.1. Overview of Spain’s current international . business outlook 2.2.1. Current, relevant changes to the economic and political policies affecting international business 2.2.2. Projected trends for international business 2. Research Questions 1: Major Cultural Elements and Dimensions 3.2.

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This in turn can support the objectives. Business plan , Customer , Customer service 1136 Words | 4 Pages. Three Major Reasons A Business Fails. Running head: THREE MAJOR REASONS A BUSINESS FAILS 1 Three Major Reasons A Business Fails Antoinette . Brown Metropolitan College of brainstorming essays, New York 2 Three Major Reasons A Business Fails Abstract Starting a business can be gratifying and inspiring. Being your own boss, you are the entry level interior, one making all the decisions. Entrepreneurship involves risk but the rewards are worth the risk when you are doing something you love and are making a living.

Business , Business plan , Entrepreneurship 2017 Words | 6 Pages. Business Concept Requirements (Submission Instructions and Format are below) Entrepreneurship begins with an idea that upon essays reflection can . be converted into a valuable opportunity. This summary of your business opportunity and concept should give the reader a quick and complete idea of the problem the new venture is solving and how the Role Spectroscopy, new venture will act to solve it. Business Idea / Concept – The business idea/concept should involve a sufficiently new technology, technology application. Business plan , Competitor analysis , Entrepreneurship 1190 Words | 6 Pages. ?RE-BOOK.COM BUSINESS PLAN 2013 I. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY INSERT COMPANY LOGO HERE Introduction Re-Book.Com is an . online book trading network for students at universities in Asia. Students can find English books they need on the website and trade them or buy them from other members or from the company. Techniques Essays! The website will sell advertising on the website and charge transaction fees to students seeking trades. Mission Statement Re-Book.Com provides Korea’s university students with a convenient. On Comuter Security! Book , Business plan , Business terms 768 Words | 3 Pages. TABLE OF CONTENT -INTRODUCTION -SETTING UP A BUSINESS -PROCEDURES AND REQUIREMENTS 1. Company Name 2. Techniques! Determining the . business type 3. License and legal permits 4. Business plan 5. Raising money 6. Finding the site 7. Registration 8. Training/Hiring employees 9. Role Spectroscopy! Getting started -EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS a) Economic Environment b) Social and Cultural Environment c) Technological Environment d) Political and Legal Environment e) Ecological/Natural Environment -THE MARKETING.

Business plan , Corporation , Entrepreneurship 1582 Words | 5 Pages. Brainstorming Essays! Economics Business Politics Sociology IB Diploma Law RE Management History Geography English Teaching Learning Powered by Leeds Metropolitan . University GCSE Business Studies GCSE Revision Note Home | Business Studies Revision Quizzes | Business Studies Blog Starting a business - sources of business ideas Author: Jim Riley Last updated: Sunday 23 September, 2012 Starting a Business - Sources of about love, business ideas Where does an entrepreneur come up with the idea for his/her business ? In practice. Business , Business plan , Business studies 1238 Words | 7 Pages. 30-60-90 Day Strategic Business Plan For Immediate and Long Term Success Company Name Candidate’s Name . Today’s Date 30-Day Action Plan for KCI • Meet with (Place manager’s name hear) to prioritize what is expected of me, within a specified time frame. • Complete all specified company and product training schedules and set goal to graduate in Top 1% of class. Continually demonstrate intellectual curiosity by showing the ambition and. Arthroscopy , Bone fracture , Business plan 1374 Words | 7 Pages. Establishing A Business : PRODUCTION Pastry Palooza Name: Andrew Emanuel Subject: Principles of . Business : School: York Castle High School: Centre Number: 100131 Territory: Jamaica Acknowledgement Firstly I would like to show gratitude to my teacher Mrs. Hill which planted the brainstorming, knowledge which I needed to Role of IR, start and complete this S.B.A in my mind.

All of this could not have been possible without her. I even so would. Baking , Business plan , Capital 2005 Words | 7 Pages. Write a Business Plan ? The preparation of a written business plan is not the end-result of the brainstorming, . planning process. The realization of that plan is the sleep essay, ultimate goal. However, the writing of the techniques brainstorming, plan is an important intermediate stage - fail to plan can mean plan to fail. For an established business it demonstrates that careful consideration has been given to the business's development, and for a startup it shows that the entrepreneur has done his or her homework. Purpose of the Business Plan A. Business plan , Entrepreneur , Entrepreneurship 740 Words | 4 Pages. II. Essay! Project development and design A. Brainstorming! Project formulation CONCEPT PAPER ON STARTING UP A RESTAURANT BUSINESS By Fresin . INC.

5/f, Atrium Building, Makati Ave., Makati City, Philippines August 2012 INTRODUCTION Starting up a restaurant is a lot like having children. Binding Holborn! Everyone tells you how much work and brainstorming, dedication it will be, but you are still so excited. Dissertation! The excitement may cause something in the back of your head tells you it might just be a lot of fun and not so much work. Don't. Business plan , Finance , Management 1808 Words | 6 Pages. dessert” – Business plan assessment Introduction Many people believe that a business plan is . Techniques! helpful but not necessary. This is dissertation holborn, true in techniques brainstorming, the sense that business plans are helpful but, in fact, they are vital if you are serious about success in both short and short love, long term. The aim of this paper is to evaluate and critically assess the “Room for dessert” business plan . Brainstorming! The remainder of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2 will try to analyze who is the audience for the plan , what are their. Board of directors , Business , Business plan 1242 Words | 4 Pages. New Venture Planning and dissertation, Entrepreneurship: Course Objectives. amp; Entrepreneurship Contact Hours : 42 hrs Credit : 1.5 Credit Prerequisite : None Instructor : Dr Veeresh Sharma “Innovation is the specific tool . of brainstorming, entrepreneurs, the means by of IR Spectroscopy which they exploit change as an opportunity for a different business or a different service.

It is techniques brainstorming essays, capable of being presented as a discipline, capable of being learned, capable of sleep essay, being practiced” Peter F. Drucker In present scenarios, consumer needs must be satisfied in superior manner than the competitors at. Business plan , Entrepreneur , Entrepreneurship 1701 Words | 7 Pages. Techniques Brainstorming Essays! GREENWOOD PUBLISHING. DEVELOPING THE CONCEPT Developing a concept it is necessary to about love, first clarify what the business is, that is, what . the purpose is. According to one of the most influential thinkers in brainstorming, management, Peter Drucker, the purpose of short of family, a business is to create a customer.

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Although he was in the business of engine. Business plan , Debt , Employment 1968 Words | 5 Pages. teams, they can compete with each other more effectively and efficiently. Nevertheless, the MGI team members were unsettled. In other words, the team was not . organized even though the Spectroscopy, MGI team had a common purpose, which is to brainstorming essays, complete a proper business plan . Hence, the MGI team was on the storming stage of the “Five-Stage Model” (Robbins Judge, 2012, p. 108) because the sleep essay, MGI team did not have an obvious leader, a clear role for essays, each member, and reflexivity. These are the several problems that caused.

Business plan , Conflict , Goal 1733 Words | 5 Pages. entrepreneurship culture. • Impart knowledge about personal entrepreneurship competencies • Impart knowledge and skill in research and cover letter, . business planning. COURSE EVALUATION The performance of students will be evaluated based on techniques brainstorming, the followings; Individual : Percentage Mid-Term Examination Final Examination 15% 50% Group : Business plan : a) Written Report b) Presentation c) Progress Report Total 20% 10% 5% ____ 100% COURSE OUTLINE 1 • • • • • .0 Introduction. Business plan , Cash flow , Entrepreneurship 369 Words | 5 Pages. Letran College of Business Administration amp; Accountancy Business Plan Writing Manual of Operations . (Revised AY 2013-2014) The Manual of Operations aims to on comuter, establish the rules and procedures in matters relating to essays, Research Methods ( Business Plan ) in the College of Business Administration and Accountancy. Research Method is letter, a systematic process of preparing an entrepreneurial business plan that is feasible and implementable. It consists of two parts, RM1 - Business Plan Writing and RM2.

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Findings of this study will help us to answer the questions that why SME’s have limited marketing capacity and limited marketing practices. Business , Business plan , Case study 2227 Words | 7 Pages. Model, he focused on techniques brainstorming essays, ensuring all the entry interior design cover, workers know what what is expected of them. That means that he shows a high level of self awareness” * When . Mr.Dee was working for Agri, he made a business plan for brainstorming, Mr.Steven who wants to buy The Illinois Central Gulf Railroad. He did not just want to essays on comuter security, sell this plan , he wants to explain to techniques, members that they can emotionally involved.

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Restaurant Business Plan The business plan I selected is essays, a Mediterranean restaurant that is to be . built in on the Sunset Strip in Hollywood. This plan seems fairly reasonable and has a high chance of success. Sleep Essay! I chose this plan for a couple of techniques essays, reasons. First of all, many aspects of this plan are in an area where I have a little bit of experience. Being part of a failing restaurant opens your eyes to the tools descriptive and essays include, many struggles and the many obstacles business owners face.

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Myth Essay Essays and Research Papers. foundation of techniques brainstorming essays, almost every culture in the world has a creation myth explaining how the wonders of the earth came to be. Interior Letter! These . Techniques Essays! myths have a powerful influence over the tools descriptive paragraphs and essays include the people’s culture, and the way they think about their surroundings. Creation myths usually begin with the theme of birth; birth represents new life and a new beginning. Creation myths develop over the centuries through oral tradition, and are the most common form of myths found throughout human culture (Murtagh). The Maori are the aboriginal. Creation myths , Haumia-tiketike , Maori mythology 1085 Words | 3 Pages. Myth still remains one of the essays major links that merges the different cultures and religions from various ethnicities. Sleep Essay! “The Creation of the . Brainstorming! Titans and the Gods”, as well as “The Creation, Death, and the tools paragraphs include Rebirth of the Universe”, are among the many creation myths that highlight these combinations. Throughout history, myths have created various similarities and brainstorming differences between the cultures and religions of the world.

Man – the common principle in myths , illustrates that man was produced exclusively. Comparative mythology , Creation myth , Creation myths 1028 Words | 3 Pages. What is level interior cover, a myth ? It is a traditional story based on ancient beliefs of different communities and essays having supernatural explanations of facts or . natural phenomena. The mythical story is related to religious beliefs, for that reason, has a ritual character, ie presents invariable elements and is distinguished by its durability. Binding! The purpose of myth is not to entertain, as with the story, but to explain the meaning of life. So there are certain subjects such as the origin of man and the universe, which. Claude Levi-Strauss , Creation myth , Earth 1621 Words | 5 Pages. ? “A Myth ” Mythology/HUM/105 August 19, 2014 Stacy Pfister-Jolley For me a myth is an abstract word that . can be real or not. When using it in textbook then it should be understood figuratively. It’s as stated on www.thefreedictionary.com, myth is techniques brainstorming essays, defined as a fictitious but well known story.

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Article , Citation , Critical thinking 807 Words | 3 Pages. akml 2rayet el essay ele ana ft7to m4 aktr . we hwa 3mal ybw5 , a3ml eh tyb . aktb ad eh ya bay5 enta . wah . deh m4 tre2a . t3amlo beha el dyof bto3ko 5als . Techniques Essays! ento btkrhona fe el mge 3ndko . we kda ht5sro kter www.studymode.com › Home › Health › Medicine Read this college essay and over 1800000 others like it now. . Success is not a gift, it should be hard to Role, achieve and it matters how it is techniques brainstorming, accomplished. Free success Essays and Papers -. Essay , Essays , Failure 510 Words | 4 Pages. their motivation was will determine if their act was moral or not. By betraying his own kin Momutu decided to on comuter security, give up his humanity, while on techniques brainstorming essays, the other . About! hand, Amoo gave up his own freedom to protect his family. Testing with success series The Essay Exam Organization and neatness have merit Before writing out the exam: Write down their key words, listings, etc, as they are fresh in your mind.

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Sei. Essay , Heian period , Japan 1371 Words | 4 Pages. trying to know everyone in the class. Brainstorming Essays! After that here comes the big turn, homework and writing essays . I have never written an . Binding London! essay in my life while I was living in India. It was really hard for me to write down our thought on the given assignment. My English is techniques, not good and of IR Spectroscopy grammar is worse.

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In the essay . ‘Thoughts of winter’ by Victoria Santiago, she says that winter is the season that receives most attention from us through our scientific explanations, our mythological ideas and our personal determination. Clearly, from the essay we can find out sleep essay, all related ideas, its nice organization and good development, and also personal touch with good narration. Scientific. Essay , Idea , Psychology 730 Words | 3 Pages. stories, news articles, and especially essays begin with good hooks because a writer is often judged within the first few sentences. Just as . the news tries to stimulate our fears by announcing a “danger in our water supply,” a writer must try to bring the reader from his or her world into the world of the essay . This is done with a few choice words at the beginning of the brainstorming essays essay : the infamous hook. It is binding london holborn, not easy to think of how to make someone want to read an essay about techniques, a novel. It’s not even easy to. Essay , Good and evil , Human 609 Words | 3 Pages. Essays are generally scholarly pieces of writing written from an author's personal point of view, but the definition is sleep essay, vague, overlapping with . those of an article, a pamphlet and brainstorming a short story. Sleep Essay! Essays can consist of a number of techniques essays, elements, including: literary criticism, political manifestos, learned arguments, observations of for writing descriptive and essays include, daily life, recollections, and essays reflections of the author.

Almost all modern essays are written in prose, but works in verse have been dubbed essays (e.g. Alexander Pope's. Alexander Pope , Essay , Essays 1053 Words | 4 Pages. The Trickster in Myth Trickster myths , a significant part of most cultures if not all, have permeated the legends and folklore . of peoples since the early days of civilized man. The ancient Greeks had Hermes, the Role of IR Spectroscopy Chinese the Monkey King, and essays the Native American Indians the descriptive include coyote. These diverse tricksters found within cultures often have many commonalities with each other, and brainstorming essays then, often they do not. But this illustrates the very nature of the trickster; ever changing, shifting, shaping, disguising.

Chinese mythology , Creation myth , Kokopelli 2145 Words | 6 Pages. Creation Myths | Myth 1: the beginnings |Religion or culture of origin: Egyptian . | | Myth 2: |Religion or culture of origin: Boshongo (Bantu) | |Bumba’s creation | | • Who created the world? o Myth 1:the High God o Myth 2:Bumba • Who were. Christian terms , Christianity , Creator deity 820 Words | 6 Pages. ?Courtney Mehmen Lit 180 Creation Myth Essay LaGrone 6-19-14 The Beginnings The beginning of each myth starts off . with the birth. The birth of life, darkness, waters and wind. This birth comes from a mind-blowing, absolute hole of nothing but yet it was somehow created. Cover Letter! All myths have this birth of techniques, creation from nothing but different cultures decided on different creator(s) that determined their fates.

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There, we’ve answered the question, or have we? Although many people will agree that myth and theory are two totally different things, I would debate that the line between the two is much thinner than one would think. In fact in some cases the line is inexistent and myths make up theory, just. Creation myth , Earth , Evidence 1326 Words | 3 Pages. at Cram.com Upgrade | Hi Iamsiddha. Get Access to StudyMode.com - Complete Your Registration Now. StudyMode - Premium and Free Essays , . Term Papers Book Notes Essays Book Notes AP Notes Citation Generator More Essay On Eye Donation Wikipedia Essays and Term Papers Search Advanced Search Documents 1 - 20 of london holborn, 47 Laser Eye Surgery Research essay Laser eye surgery Laser eye surgery The eye is the organ of sight. Brainstorming! It is used in almost everything we do, from playing sport to reading. Critical theory , Essay , Essays 1151 Words | 6 Pages.

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Chinese mythology , Cosmos , Creation myth 849 Words | 3 Pages. 10/3/12 World Civilization The Creation of the Creation Mythos Myths are a vital key to understanding not only a culture’s history, and also . its future. A society’s ethics and techniques essays mores are portrayed through a myth’s oral and written tradition that is passed down from generation to generation and security is most often used as a teaching tool. Since creation myths are such a good set of tools every culture has some form of them. Creation myths are an important aspect of teaching a culture’s children about essays, how. Creation myth , Earth , Judaism 1385 Words | 4 Pages.

The Beauty Myth Modern times have revealed a more tolerant attitude expressed by society towards those who in on comuter, the past have been seen as . lower class. Techniques Essays! This included people of other races, of mental disability, those in poverty, diseased, the elderly, children, and sleep essay women. Techniques Brainstorming! However, underneath this false sense of tolerance and the “standard belief” that women and men are created equal is the beauty myth . The Tools Descriptive Paragraphs And Essays! The Beauty Myth is everywhere in media and brainstorming the social order. Sleep Essay! Women’s rights and equality is controlled. Female , Gender , Naomi Wolf 1399 Words | 4 Pages. Creation Myths : Norse amp; Egyptian Hokulani Kitayama HUM105 August 14, 2012 Creation Myths : Norse amp; Egyptian . Creation myths are present in all cultures of the world, and while these stories reflect very different beliefs of creation, they also possess many similarities as well. Each culture from around the world has developed beliefs and cosmogony that help them to understand the techniques brainstorming most ancient and primordial of questions: where did we come from? Ancient civilizations bore stories of.

Creation myth , Earth , Jotunn 1183 Words | 3 Pages. |Earned Points | |Content (40) |40 . | | | |* The essay addresses all areas of the Spectroscopy essay assignment thoroughly. | | | |* Content includes excellent details. | . Clear , Clearing , Description 362 Words | 3 Pages. MYTHICAL EXPLANATIONS – the creation myth Creation myths evolve in nearly as many ways as there are cultures. Brainstorming! Sometimes they . Essays! are used to solidify political power, as when Egypt moved back and essays forth from the short about of family gods Aten and Amen. Techniques Essays! More frequently they are used to explain the unknown. Some cultures used the Role Spectroscopy familiar (animals, clay, mud, etc) to explain their existence, while others used the sun and moon, which were IN their lives, but not OF them.

The Inuit creation myth turns the techniques brainstorming emergence tradition upside. Creation myth , Creation myths , Earth 801 Words | 3 Pages. Buscemi Essay #3 Rough Draft An essay is a creative written piece in which the author uses different styles such as . diction, tone, pathos, ethos or logos to communicate a message to the reader using either a personal experience, filled with morals and parables, or a informative text filled with educational terms. Educational terms could mean the usage of complicated and elevated words or simply information you would get in essays on comuter security, schools. Some authors, such as Cynthia Ozick, claim that an essay has no. Essay , Essays , Rhetoric 1439 Words | 4 Pages. ?Practice Essay This writing exercise will help your instructor discover who you are as a writer. The essay will be used to . Techniques! help you identify your strengths and weaknesses as a writer, and it wil allow the instructor the opportunity to paragraphs, identify grammatical, stylistic, and mechanical problems specific to brainstorming essays, each student.

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YOU are at the center . . Article , Essay , Essays 622 Words | 3 Pages. Exemplification Essay Exemplification means to provide examples about something. Writing an exemplification essay typically . Techniques Brainstorming Essays! involves offering many examples to support a generalization about something. In this type of essay , examples act as supporting material to explain or clarify the generalization. An exemplification essay (or illustrative essay ) uses examples to show, explain, or prove a point or argument (the essay thesis). The key to sleep essay, a good exemplification essay is to use enough detailed.

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History Organization • Basics – Introduction (4-5 sentences) – Body (4-6 sentences each) – Conclusion (3-5 . sentences) • Paragraphs – Should be concise and TO THE POINT • Avoid paragraphs that are longer than one page • Helpful Hint – Use a concluding sentence to each body paragraph to summarize main idea and the tools and essays include reiterate your thesis • **This does not differ between FRQs and DBQs Introduction • Length: 4-5 sentences • Be sure of what the brainstorming question is asking. Essay , Sentence 616 Words | 4 Pages. Free Essays , Term Papers, Research Paper, and Book Report Free essays , research papers, term papers, and other writings on Role, . literature, science, history, politics, and more. Search Essays - Argumentative Essays - Abortion - FAQs 123helpme.com/ Free Essays Free Essays 1 - 20 - StudyMode.com Free Essays on Free Essays for students. Use our papers to help you with yours 1 - 20. www.studymode.com/ subjects/free-ess. All Free Essays - Term Papers, Book Reports, Research Papers. David Foster Wallace , Essay , Essays 270 Words | 3 Pages. Wind” essay by Verlyn Klinkenborg and techniques then answer the following questions: http://www.nytimes.com/2008/07/18/opinion/18fri4.html?_r=1 1. . Explain how the security author describes the wind in three sentences?

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2005 albums , Essay , Foreign policy 974 Words | 7 Pages. GRADE 12 UNIVERSITY ENGLISH Unit 2: Comparative Essay Writing Summative Task Task: Select a particular idea or theme and/or an aspect of . form and style and of family analyse the way it or they is/are depicted in Archibald Lampman’s poem, “In November” and one other poem. You may use: William Wordsworth’s “The World is too much With Us”, Robert Frost’s “Dust of Snow” E.J Pratt’s A November Landscape Mary Soutar-Hynes – “For Writers Whose Work I Have Loved” In completing. Doctor of Philosophy , Essay , Logic 1073 Words | 7 Pages. ? The purpose of a literary analysis essay is to carefully examine and sometimes evaluate a work of techniques essays, literature or an aspect of a work of level interior, . literature. As with any analysis, this requires you to break the subject down into its component parts. Examining the different elements of techniques brainstorming essays, a piece of literature is not an end in Role, itself but rather a process to help you better appreciate and understand the work of literature as a whole. For instance, an brainstorming essays, analysis of a poem might deal with the different types of.

Essay , Greek loanwords , Literature 1348 Words | 4 Pages. ?A Quick Note Before You Begin Argumentative essays are also commonly known as persuasive essays . However, there are some . differences between the sleep essay two even if they’re commonly considered to be the same. Persuasive essays are short, around five to six paragraphs. They usually focus on your side with occasionally one paragraph devoted to the opposing side. Techniques! Persuasive essays focus more on interior, the emotions of the techniques brainstorming reader. Sleep Essay! Argumentative essays are usually longer in length, ranging from techniques essays as little as five paragraphs. Conclusion , Debut albums , Essay 863 Words | 4 Pages. 081 Compare and Contrast Essay 3 What is comparison? What is contrast? To compare means to point out similarities and to contrast means to . point our differences. When you compare or contrast, you need to come to some conclusion.

It’s not enough to say “These two things are similar” or “They are different.” Your reader will be asking “So what? What’s your point?” Hints for writing a compare/contrast essay : 1. Limit your topic. When you write a comparison or contrast essay , you might think that the. Difference , Essay , Sentence 609 Words | 3 Pages. personal narrative essay . This assignment was one of great ease to me. I sat down and immediately came up with an about love of family, idea centered on a memory . Essays! or experience. Once I pinpointed that experience, I began the brainstorming process, followed by a rough draft, and then a solid final draft. The only struggle happened when I began trying to the tools descriptive include, expand the brainstorming essays short narrative into a full length essay , as required.

After a considerable amount of time attempting to Role of IR, tweak and techniques brainstorming essays expand on the first essay , I finally understood. Essay , Essays , Paper 1398 Words | 4 Pages. 4 Steps to an Effective Scholarship Essay Typically speaking, the scholarship essays which students turn in short essay of family, are, well, to techniques brainstorming essays, put it . mildly, not that good. I'm going to generalize, but you should know this. They're typically boring, underdeveloped without sufficient details, and very unpersuasive.

Remember, the sleep essay scholarship essay is a piece of persuasion. The people reviewing your essay will be going through a bunch of applications, and you need to distinguish yourself. You need to make the techniques essays reader care. English-language films , Essay , Essays 1357 Words | 4 Pages. ?Writing Essays Always begin with an essay plan. You will find that this really helps to organise your thoughts. Entry! This should . include your initial reaction to the essay title, your basic ideas and thoughts and some quotations you want to use. You may find that you do not stick completely to your plan and this is techniques, okay, as the more you think about an essays on comuter security, essay your ideas will evolve and change. Techniques Essays! You should, however, have formed your ideas and Role of IR opinions before you start writing.

In planning your essay. Critical thinking , Essay , Essays 1062 Words | 3 Pages. paragraphs and also has a certain intriguing appeal - it arouses the reader's curiosity and impels him to read further. The first sentence, however, could . Techniques Essays! easily have been dropped - the second sentence would make a more compelling introduction to the essay . Paragraph 2 Here the writer develops on the thread of of IR Spectroscopy, diversity. Note that there is an emphasis on aspects that are important to an MBA course (strong analytical skills, math skills, work experience). The writer shows effectively that she.

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What are some techniques to practice brainstorming before writing

Wearable Tech to techniques essays, Sustainable Food: The 2015 Business Plan Competition. The Venture Finals of the latest Wharton Business Plan Competition, which for 17 years has placed teams of students from throughout the binding holborn, University of Pennsylvania before a panel of judges, featured more than the usual diversity of ideas. This year’s “Great Eight,” who vied for more than $128,000 in combined cash prizes and services, included four teams led by undergraduates. Three of the eight were led by women. Techniques Brainstorming Essays! And one included Wharton graduate students from both the Philadelphia and dissertation holborn, San Francisco programs. By day’s end, finalists had presented, among other ideas, a wearable technology that verbally identifies what a visually impaired person holds before his or her eyes; a sustainable system in which waste from a fish tank is techniques essays, converted to food for plants that yield fruits and vegetables on the rooftops of supermarkets, and sleep essay, a collection of luxury outerwear and accessories whose linings are designed by established artists or, perhaps, by the wearer. The competition this year featured 175 teams and included 537 participants from 10 schools at Penn. More than 360 judges vetted the first round of competitors. The 25 teams that advanced to the semifinals were divided into three tracks: health care, technology and other.

The eight finalists represented Wharton’s undergraduate and graduate schools and Wharton’s executive MBA program, in addition to Penn’s College of Engineering and College of Arts and Sciences. Each finalist had 10 minutes to pitch to the judges — who represented CoVenture, Karlin Asset Management, DreamIt Ventures, Devon Hill Capital Partners, InSparq and techniques brainstorming essays, ExamWorks Group — followed by 10 minutes of the tools for writing descriptive follow-up questions. Here, in alphabetical order, are descriptions of the techniques essays, eight finalists’ business plans. For Writing Paragraphs And Essays! Which would you choose? At the end of the techniques, article, learn how your pick compares with the BPC panel’s choices. Bungalow Insurance: Wharton MBA students Tom Austin and Zack Stiefler noticed a disconnect between insurance providers and essay about love of family, the millennials that represent the techniques essays, next generation of potential customers. Holborn! Millennials prefer to research and purchase insurance online, but they often are routed to in-person agents who, in turn, peddle inappropriate plans.

They noted that most millennials (67%) rent their homes and don’t own cars (55%), but just 37% of renters have the appropriate insurance. With Bungalow Insurance, Austin and Stiefler said, a simpler use of brainstorming data and the tools for writing descriptive paragraphs, design will help to capitalize on brainstorming a marketplace they find has too much friction for dissertation binding holborn younger consumers. Property managers, the pair noted, increasingly require renters insurance and are educating tenants on Bungalow’s behalf. The company’s near-term strategy is to integrate with partner services. “Anything that touches a renter — cable companies, moving companies, things like ZipCar, things like Uber — those can be potential partners to techniques brainstorming, get people renters insurance,” Austin said. One avenue of particular interest is Role, online rent payment. During their presentation, Austin shared a mock-up of a proposed integration with one of the essays, largest online rent payment companies in the country.

At the bottom of the page, he noted, “all we’ve done is included a check-box next to a line that says, ‘Add renters insurance for as little as $10/month.’ This is how renters insurance should be sold. This is taking the friction out of the process.” Thirty percent to cover letter, 50% of the people Bungalow has surveyed have said they would check the essays, box. Ultimately, Austin and sleep essay, Stiefler see a potential for techniques essays long-term connections with customers, leading to direct-to-consumer sales as renters become buyers. Fever Smart: When Collin Hill, a Wharton undergraduate student and a co-founder of Fever Smart, faced chemotherapy treatment for Stage 4 Hodgkin’s lymphoma, he noticed a need for the continuous monitoring of the tools descriptive paragraphs and essays his body temperature. “We’re taking things that already work and are simply combining them in a new way.” –Julia Kurnik. That was the impetus that led him, along with Wharton undergraduate Aaron Goldstein, University of Pennsylvania engineering student William Duckworth and 2014 Penn graduate Becca Goldstein to create Fever Smart.

A small electronic device — the Brain Unit — is attached to the patient via a disposable patch. The device monitors body temperature and, using a nano-Bluetooth chip, transmits data in real-time to a Relay Unit in the same room. The patent-pending Relay Unit sends the essays, data to Fever Smart’s servers. A parent or a health care provider can use any Internet-connected device to monitor the patient’s fluctuations in temperature. They also can set alerts for when temperatures reach unsafe levels. The company set a goal of $40,000 for its Indiegogo crowdfunding campaign; it raised $62,986. During the past six months, sales have grown to more than $150,000. At about $130 for the smart-device application, the Bluetooth thermometer and 10 patches — supplemental patches are about $8 for 10 — Goldstein and his team see potential for additional revenue in subscription models and dissertation binding, via institutional purchases that could ease demands on staffing at health care centers.

FOCUS Foods: As the brainstorming, global population grows — it’s expected to exceed nine billion by 2040 — the binding holborn, sustainability of organic food sources increasingly is in jeopardy. Agriculture accounts for more than 80% of potable water use, even as news of techniques brainstorming widespread droughts dominates headlines. Julia Kurnik, a Wharton MBA student, pitched a solution that would cut water costs by 95% and entirely eliminate the need to use fertilizer and pesticides: Aquaponics, which combines soil-free agriculture (hydroponics) and fish-farming (aquaculture) in a nearly closed-loop system. Fish waste is dissertation binding london, pumped into a hydroponic system, where bacteria break it down into nitrates and nitrites, feeding the plants. That filters the water, which returns to the fish tanks. “We’re taking things that already work,” Kurnik said, “and are simply combining them in techniques, a new way.” Aquaponics is a proven method of growing produce and protein-rich fish, but FOCUS Foods aims to bring such systems to the rooftops of the supermarkets that sell the food. Within a greenhouse, fruits, vegetables and fish can be harvested year-round. The financial and environmental costs of london transportation and techniques brainstorming, distribution are virtually eliminated.

Kurnik and her partner, Geoff Becker, have a partnership with Brown’s Super Stores, which operates a chain of ShopRites in Greater Philadelphia. She estimated that a 60,000-square-foot rooftop system would cost about $400,000 to build. (A smaller prototype has been operating since February at one such supermarket.) Eventually, FOCUS Foods wants to build stand-alone farms to supply produce and fish for farm-to-table restaurants. KidFoods: A 30% drop in time devoted to child care and housework. Entry Level Design Letter! A 50% jump in the number of working mothers. A 40% increase in demand for food that’s healthy, fresh and natural. Considered together, those factors, as presented by Wharton MBA students Rishi Reddy, Neil Vangala and Jessica Winschel, account in part for a child-focused food market worth $30 billion. Their answer: KidFoods, a subscription service that each Sunday night, for $60, will deliver four lunches and four snacks, as designed by an in-house chef and nutritionist.

Menu designs incorporate themes — Geometry Week, for example, offers a variety of foods arranged by brainstorming essays, shape — and are targeted at mothers with children ages 3 to 12. KidFoods, Winschel said, already has established relationships with key bloggers in the Philadelphia area. The potential for sleep essay connections with community influencers, including parent-teacher associations and, perhaps, schools as a whole, has led the techniques brainstorming essays, trio to project that 275 recurring customers would yield $1 million in sales. Prayas Analytics: Online retailers such as Amazon know everything about their customers, said Yash Kothari, a senior in the tools paragraphs and essays, Wharton’s undergraduate program. Techniques! He and Pranshu Maheshwari, also a Wharton undergraduate senior, co-founded Prayas Analytics to give brick-and-mortar retailers similar data. “We think this is just the of IR Spectroscopy, start of the movement to quantify the offline world the way the online world has been quantified.” –Pranshu Maheshwari. “We want to quantify the entire retail store,” Maheshwari said. “Imagine if you had the offline equivalent of an online browsing history.

If you [knew] Customers 1, 2 and 3 took this path through the store, looked at these three products and essays, eventually bought this fourth product, that’s incredibly powerful information that retailers don’t have right now that their online counterparts do, and are able to make a lot of use of it.” Prayas uses software to analyze the feeds of security cameras already in place, collecting continuous data on, among other things, queue length, speed of service and customer abandonment. Within a week of the implementation of a pilot program, one store learned that installing line stanchions had reduced customer abandonment by 33%. “And even better than that, even bigger than retail,” Maheshwari said, “the technology that we’re developing in image analysis and level interior letter, image processing will be able to help us analyze things in more industries — transportation, health care, even government. We think this is techniques brainstorming, just the the tools for writing descriptive paragraphs include, start of the movement to quantify the offline world the way the online world has been quantified.” Silver Lining: Billed as “outerwear for essays optimists,” the classically designed outerwear and entry level cover, accessories of techniques brainstorming essays this company feature linings designed in short love, collaboration with established artists. Forty percent of Silver Lining’s jackets, meanwhile, are unfinished shells into which digitally printed, customized linings can be installed with minimal turnaround. Team leader Rel Lavizzo-Mourey, a Wharton MBA student at San Francisco, is the founder and designer. The 6% of gross profits that Silver Lining has pledged to support arts education speaks to techniques brainstorming essays, her background — Lavizzo-Mourney has an descriptive and essays include undergraduate degree from techniques essays Princeton in education policy and visual arts.

The company, which includes Wharton MBA students Miriam Williams and Pav Dharwarkar (San Francisco), has completed its first round of production to deliver on more than $28,000 of pre-sales — a successful Kickstarter campaign and $5,000 in sales at a recent San Francisco pop-up store yielded an average jacket order of essays on comuter security $610. Silver Lining is aiming for the luxury market and predicts 65% average gross margins, with a total market-share goal of nearly $1 billion. Soceana: Long before she founded Soceana, a technology platform that helps corporations manage and techniques brainstorming essays, promote corporate social responsibility, Tess Michaels was volunteering in hospitals, soup kitchens and homeless shelters. Her interests, however, often didn’t match the level design cover, tasks to which she was assigned. She felt unfulfilled. Now a senior in Wharton’s undergraduate program, Michaels wanted to create a marketplace for social good, a way to wed the essays, four primary stakeholders — corporations, non-profits, philanthropists and volunteers. Some people, she noted, prefer to donate time; some would rather donate money.

Soceana’s patent-pending digital social currency, called philas, which Michaels described as “air miles for short essay about of family social good,” works interchangeably with both. Donors can make pledges with conditions for volunteers to brainstorming essays, meet. Each volunteer earns philas for each hour of service. That volunteer then can allocate the philas to for writing, a charitable organization, unlocking the pledged funds. The goal is to create a multiplying effect for each donation and brainstorming, hour of volunteerism. Role Of IR Spectroscopy! (In her research, Michaels found that an hour of volunteerism is techniques, worth $22.55.) Among Soceana’s advisors is Eric Ly, a co-founder of level interior cover LinkedIn. By March of 2015, Soceana had attracted $250,000 from techniques essays impact investors. Strategic partners include IBM and VolunteerMatch, which pairs seven million volunteers with 102,000 nonprofits. ThirdEye: “Over time,” said Rajat Bhageria, a freshman electrical engineering student, “visually impaired people learn to become dependent on about of family others. And so they don’t think they can be independent.” Bhageria — with fellow University of Pennsylvania freshmen Ben Sandler, David Ongchoco and Joe Cappadona — is a co-founder of essays ThirdEye, an Role of IR application for Google Glass that provides verbal feedback of whatever is before the user when he or she says aloud, “OK, Glass, recognize this.”

The quartet, which has partnered with the National Federation of the Blind, played a brief video in which a person using the product was handed change after a purchase. He held it in view of the camera and spoke the prompt. “Processing,” a female voice said. “American five-dollar bill.” “This isn’t the right change,” the user deadpanned. Most among the Venture Finals audience laughed. “We have seen rapid growth, and will be able to use this funding to facilitate this growth.” –Aaron Goldstein.

Humor, indeed, was a key component of the ThirdEye team’s approach — they capped their presentation by touting a Google Glass giveaway; afterward, during their two-minute elevator pitch for the Michelson People’s Choice Award, they laughed and told the snacking audience there would be no such giveaway, as they were poor college students. ThirdEye, however, pointed to a clear demographic: The approximately seven million blind people in America, which grows by about 200,000 per year and techniques brainstorming, accounts for binding london holborn more than $41.1 billion spent annually on assistive technologies. A clinical study this summer will be a prelude to techniques essays, a Kickstarter campaign. When a judge asked about potential markets beyond the visually impaired, Bhageria said the capabilities of ThirdEye could be attractive to entirely separate industries. “In the long run,” he said, “maybe after two or three years, we hope to london, separate the concept of ThirdEye as computer-vision smart glasses from ThirdEye as a product for techniques essays the visually impaired. Sleep Essay! Because once we have the former, now we can create applications for military and for techniques brainstorming essays facial recognition, recognizing fluids and recognizing medicines.”

Bungalow Insurance won the essays on comuter, Perlman Grand Prize, which includes $30,000 and techniques brainstorming essays, opportunities to on comuter security, represent The Wharton School/University of Pennsylvania at techniques brainstorming essays other business plan competitions. Austin said the company plans to use the money to expand outside of entry level interior design Pennsylvania. Second prize ($15,000) went to FeverSmart. Goldstein said the award will allow the company to continue to ramp-up its manufacturing. Essays! “We have seen rapid growth,” he said, “and will be able to use this funding to facilitate this growth.” FeverSmart also won the Gloeckner Award ($10,000), designated for the highest ranking team that has undergraduates as at least half of sleep essay its members. Soceana took third place ($10,000). “Soceana has raised capital from impact investors,” Michaels said, “so for techniques essays us, BPC was about the learning, mentorship and the recognition among other Penn start-ups. Essays On Comuter Security! For me, it is a key milestone in techniques brainstorming essays, my entrepreneurial journey at Penn. Winning at BPC also paved the the tools descriptive and essays include, way for us to join the Venture Initiation Program at Wharton and increase Soceana’s momentum.”

Each of the techniques brainstorming, top three prize winners also will receive up to $10,000 of in-kind legal services and $5,000 of in-kind accounting services. ThirdEye won the Spectroscopy, Michelson’s People’s Choice Award ($3,000) and the Committee Award for Most Disruptive ($1,000). The Wharton Social Impact Prize ($10,000) went to semifinalist Cure Accelerator. Committee Awards of brainstorming $1,000 each went to sleep essay, semifinalists My Best Friend’s Weekend (Best Business Plan) and WeTrain (Committee’s Choice). accessed October 05, 2017. http://knowledge.wharton.upenn.edu/article/from-wearable-tech-to-sustainable-food-the-2015-wharton-biz-plan-competition/ How Bike Sharing Is Maturing in China. Wharton vice dean Karl Ulrich describes the latest shifts in China’s growing bike-sharing market. What Defines Millennials – and How Marketers Can Reach Them. Digital culture, fragmentation, distrust of big business and a heavy dose of skepticism are key facets of the millennial generation – and they have led to profound changes in techniques essays, mass marketing, advertising and messaging. Designing for the Circular Economy. Innovative companies are exploring strategies that address end-of-life issues upfront.

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What are some techniques to practice brainstorming before writing

conjugal roles essay Lifestyle as Resistance: The Case of the Courtesans of Lucknow. by Veena Talwar Oldenburg (1990) [[1]] When, in 1976, I was doing the research for a study on techniques essays the social consequences of colonial urbanization in Lucknow, /1/ a city in northern India situated about sleep essay, a third of the techniques way between Delhi and Calcutta, I came across its famous courtesans for the first time. They appeared, surprisingly, in the civic tax ledgers of 1858-77 and in the related official correspondence preserved in the Municipal Corporation records room. /2/ They were classed under the occupational category of dancing and singing girls, and as if it was not surprise enough to on comuter find women in the tax records, it was even more remarkable that they were in the highest tax bracket, with the largest individual incomes of any in the city. The courtesans' names were also on lists of property: (houses, orchards, manufacturing and retail establishments for food and luxury items) confiscated by essays British officials for their proven involvement in love of family the siege of Lucknow and techniques, the rebeilion against British rule in 1857. Sleep Essay? These women, though patently noncombatants, were penalized for their instigation of and pecuniary assistance to the rebels.

On yet another list, some twenty pages long, are recorded the spoils of war seized from techniques brainstorming essays, one set of female apartments in the palace and garden complex called the Qaisar Bagh, where some of the Role deposed ex-King Wajid Ali Shah's three hundred or more consorts /3/ resided when it was seized by the British. It is a remarkable list, eloquently evocative of a privileged existence: gold and silver ornaments studded with precious stones, embroidered cashmere wool and brocade shawls, bejeweled caps and techniques brainstorming essays, shoes, silver-, gold-, jade-, and amber-handled fly whisks, silver cutlery, jade goblets, plates, spitoons, huqqahs , and level design, silver utensils for serving and storing food and drink, and valuable furnishings. The value of this part of the booty of war was estimated at nearly four million rupees (there were approximately two rupees to the U.S. dollar in 1857). These courtesans appeared in other British colonial records as well. They were the subject of frequent official memorandums written in connection with a grave medical crisis that engulfed the techniques brainstorming essays military establishment in Lucknow, as well as in all the major cantonments in British India. About Of Family? A greater number of European casualties during the mutiny and rebellion of techniques 1857, it was discovered, were caused by disease than in combat. The shock of this discovery was compounded by the embarrassing fact that one in every four European soldiers was afflicted with a venereal disease. It became clear that the battle to reduce European mortality rates would now be joined on the hygienic front, to entry level design letter ensure a healthy European army for essays the strategic needs of the Role of IR empire. It became imperative that the courtesans and prostitutes of Lucknow, along with those in techniques the other 110 cantonments in India (and in several towns in Britain) where European soldiers were stationed, be regulated, inspected, and controlled. The provisions of Britain's Contagious Diseases Act of 1864 were incorporated into a comprehensive piece of legislation, Act XXII of 1864 in India; it required the registration and periodic medical examination of prostitutes in all cantonment cities of the Indian empire. /4/

The British usurpation of the Kingdom of Awadh in descriptive and essays 1856, and the forced exile of the king and many of his courtiers, had abruptly put an end to techniques essays royal patronage for sleep essay the courtesans. Techniques Essays? The imposition of the contagious diseases regulations and heavy fines and penalties on the courtesans for their role in the rebellion signaled the gradual debasement of an esteemed cultural institution into common prostitution. Women who had once consorted with kings and courtiers, enjoyed a fabulously opulent living, manipulated men and means for their own social and political ends, been the custodians of culture and the setters of fashion trends, were left in an extremely dubious and vulnerable position under the British. Singing and dancing girls was the classification invented to describe them in on comuter security the civic tax ledgers, and encapsulates one of the many profound cultural misunderstandings of techniques exotic Indian women by colonial authorities. These new challenges provoked these women to intensify their struggle to keep out an sleep essay intrusive civic authority that taxed their incomes and inspected their bodies. Characteristically, they responded by keeping two sets of books on their income, bribing the local da'i , or nurse, to avoid bodily inspections, bribing local policemen to avoid arrests for selling liquor to the soldiers, or publicly refusing to pay taxes even when threatened with imprisonment. The tactics were new but the spirit behind them was veteran. These methods were imaginative extensions of the ancient and subtle ways the courtesans had cultivated to contest male authority in their liaisons with men, and add up to a spirited defense of techniques essays their own rights against colonial politics. For Writing Descriptive? Their loyalty to the king of Awadh's regime underscores the position and privileges that were the sine qua non of their existence. /5/ In a departure from the conventional perspective on this profession, I would argue that these women, even today, are independent, and consciously involved in the covert subversion of a male-dominated world; they celebrate womanhood in the privacy of their apartments by resisting and inverting the rules of techniques gender of the larger society of which they are part. Their way of Role Spectroscopy life is techniques not complicitous with male authority; on the contrary, in their own self-perceptions, definitions, and descriptions they are engaged in ceaseless and chiefly nonconfrontational resistance to the new regulations and the resultant loss of prestige they have suffered since colonial rule began.

It would be no exaggeration to say that their life-style is the tools for writing and essays include resistance to rather than a perpetuation of patriarchal values . [[2]] Quite unexpectedly, another set of archival documents led me to a group of courtesans living in Lucknow in 1976, proud descendants of those who had survived first the pressures of a century of systematic harassment by the colonial authorities, and then the ban placed on their activities by the government of brainstorming essays independent India. These documents were the intercepted letters written by the Shi'i ruler, Wajid Ali Shah, to Role Spectroscopy some of his wives, whom he had been forced to abandon in the capital city of Lucknow, after the techniques brainstorming British annexed the prosperous and Role Spectroscopy, fertile Awadh Province in essays northern India and exiled him in binding holborn 1856. Essays? I engaged a young Persian scholar, Chhote Miyan, /6/ to help me decipher these Persian letters. He not only on comuter, provided the entree required to visit this group of courtesans but also, quite fortuitously, the key to comprehending their world. He explained why he had only been given a pet name (roughly, Mr. Small) instead of a serious Muslim famiiy name. He was the brainstorming son of a courtesan, and she had never revealed to him the entry identity of his father. Ironically, his sad life story had all the elements of the socialization and techniques brainstorming essays, upbringing accorded to a girl in a normal household: While I love and respect my mother and all my aunts (other courtesans) and my grandmother, my misfortune is that I was born a son and not a daughter in their house. When a boy is born in the kotha (salon), the day is essays on comuter security without moment, even one of techniques essays quiet sadness.

When my sister was born, there was a joyous celebration that was unforgettable. Everyone received new clothes, there was singing, dancing, and feasting. My aunts went from door to door distributing sweets. My sister is, today, a beautiful, educated, propertied woman. She will also inherit what my mother and grandmother own. She will have a large income from rents; she doesn't even have to work as a courtesan, if she so chooses. I am educated, but I have no money or property.

Jobs are very hard to come by, so I live in a room and subsist on a small allowance that my mother gives in exchange for running errands for her and helping her deal with her lawyers. (She was trying to evict a tenant from a house she owned.) She paid for dissertation binding holborn my education, but a degree is brainstorming essays pretty worthless these days. My only the tools descriptive, hope is that I may marry a good woman who has money and who gives me sons so they can look after me in my old age, or find a way of getting a job in Dubai, as my cousin did. Otherwise my chances in life are pretty dim. Funny isn't it, how these women have made life so topsy-turvy? In order to appreciate this rather remarkable inversion in a society that blatantly favors males over techniques brainstorming, females, a brief sketch of the historical background of the tawa'if , or the courtesans of sleep essay Lucknow, is in order. /7/ At all Hindu and Muslim courts in the many kingdoms that made up the subcontinent before the British began to conquer them and displace their rulers, the courtesans were an influential female elite. Essays? The courtesans of Lucknow were especially reputable. They had established themselves at on comuter security, the Awadh court in the eighteenth century, under the lavish patronage of the chief noblemen, merchants, and the official elite of the capital city. Abdul Halim Sharar, an early-twentieth-century novelist and journalist who constructed a remarkable history of the Nawabs of Awadh, based mainly on brainstorming essays the oral testimony of the survivors of the short love events of 1857 in Lucknow, tells of their compelling role in court politics. Techniques Brainstorming Essays? A cultivated man like Hakim Mahdi, who later became Vazir (prime minister of Awadh), owed his initial success to a courtesan named Piyaro, who advanced her own money to london enable him to techniques make an offering to short about the ruler on his first appointment as Governor of the Province of techniques brainstorming Awadh. These absurdities went so far that it is said that until a person had association with courtesans he was not a polished man. At the present time (c.1913) there are still some courtesans with whom it is not reprehensible to associate, and whose houses one can enter openly and unabashed. /8/ While implying that the coming of the British had left these women as a beleaguered community, Sharar was strongly of the opinion that the morals, manners, and distinctiveness of Lucknow culture and society were sustained by the courtesans.

Ensconced as they were in lavish apartments in the city's main Chauk Bazaar, and in the Qaisar Bagh palace, they were not only short love of family, recognized as preservers and performers of the high culture of the court, but they actively shaped the developments in Hindustani music and Kathak dance styles. /9/ Their style of entertainment was widely imitated in other Indian court cities, and their enduring influence on the Hindi film is all too patent. Brainstorming Essays? /10/ They commanded great respect in the court and in society, and association with them bestowed prestige on those who were invited to their salons for cultural soirées. It was not uncommon for the young sons of the security nobility to be sent to the best-known salons for instruction in etiquette, the art of conversation and polite manners, and the appreciation of Urdu literature. [[3]] In Lucknow, the techniques world of the tawa'if was as complex and hierarchical as the society of which it was part. Courtesans were, and still are, usually a part of a larger establishment run by a chaudharayan , or chief courtesan, an older woman who has retired to the position of manager after a successful career as a tawa'if . Short Essay About Of Family? Having acquired wealth and fame, such women were able to recruit and train women who came to them, along with the more talented daughters of the household. Typically a wealthy courtier, often the king himself, /11/ began his direct association with a kotha by bidding for a virgin whose patron he became, with the full privileges and obligations of that position. He was obliged to make regular contributions in cash and jewelry, and privileged to invite his friends to soirées and enjoy an exclusive sexual relationship with a tawa'if . His guests were expected to impress the management with their civilities and brainstorming, substance, so that they would qualify as patrons of the women who were still unattached, or at least as regulars of the kotha . The chaudharayan always received a fixed proportion (approximately one-third) of the earnings to maintain the dissertation london apartments; hire and train other dancing girls; and attract the musicians, chefs, and special servants that such establishments employed. Many of the musicians belonged to famous lineages, and much of late-nineteenth-century Hindustani music was invented and techniques brainstorming, transformed in these salons, to sleep essay accommodate the new urban elite who filled the patronage vacuum in the colonial period. The household had other functionaries beyond the core group of daughters or nieces of the senior tawa'if . Essays? These women, called thakahi and essays, randi , were affiliates of a kotha but were ranked lower; their less remarkable appearance and talent restricted them to providing chiefly sexual services in rather more austere quarters downstairs. Another interesting group of women secretly associated with the establishment were khangi , or women who were married and observed strict pardah , but who, for financial or other reasons, came to the kotha for clandestine liaisons; the techniques brainstorming chaudharayan collected a fee from them for her hospitality.

Doormen, watchmen, errand boys, tailors, palanquin carriers, and others, who lived in the lower floors of the Role house, or in techniques brainstorming essays detached servants' quarters, and were also often kinsmen, screened suspicious characters at the door, acted as protectors of the house, and spied on sleep essay the activities of the police and brainstorming, medical departments. Pimps or other male agents simply did not exist, then or later. It is popularly believed that the chaudharayan's most common mode of recruitment has always been kidnapping; that the tawa'if were linked to a large underground network of male criminals who abducted very young girls from villages and small towns and sold them to the kothas or nishat-khanas (literally, pleasure houses). This belief was fueled, if not actually generated, by Lucknow's famous poet and littérateur , Mirza Hadi Ruswa, in his Umra'o Jan Ada . The novel first appeared in 1905 [[actually 1899--fwp]], was an immediate success, and was translated into English in sleep essay 1961. It has been reprinted several times since it was reincarnated as a Bombay film in 1981. The influence this novel has exerted on brainstorming the popular imagination is enormous; it is the single most important source of information on courtesans of Lucknow, and by extension, the entire profession as it was practiced in on comuter the nineteenth century, in northern India. Set in the second half of the nineteenth century, it is a melodramatic story of a tawa'if , Umrao Jan, who as a beautiful child of techniques essays five is short essay love of family kidnapped and sold to a tawa'if in Lucknow, where she trains and becomes, after a few complicated twists and techniques, turns in the plot, a renowned and much-sought-after courtesan. Ruswa uses the about of family classic ploy of writing an introduction wherein he explains that he is merely recording the true story of Umra'o Jan, told to him by the protagonist herself. His use of the first person in the memoir, in which the courtesan frequently addresses him by name, makes it all the techniques brainstorming essays more convincing. Ruswa was a regular participant at several salons, and the glimpses he provides of the rigorous training and essays security, the world view of the courtesan are quite accurate historically.

What is less known is that Ruswa had a keen interest in crime, and several of his translations and adaptations were of contemporary Victorian and Urdu potboilers. He published a then-popular series of techniques khuni novels (literally, bloody killer), some of whose titles, such as Khuni Shahzada (The killer prince), Khuni Joru (The killer wife), Khuni 'Ashiq (The killer lover), betray his predilection for the sensational. One of the sleep essay older courtesans I interviewed, who had known Ruswa personally, gave the techniques essays book a mixed review. She commended Ruswa for understanding the mentality of the courtesan, but blamed him for binding london holborn inventing characters such as the evil kidnapper and the exploitative madame who became the essays stuff of later stereotypes. /12/ [[4]] The greatest harm was done to the reputation of the kotha , however, by Role of IR Spectroscopy British political propaganda. The older courtesans I interviewed, who felt keenly about contemporary politics and had connections among the local power elite, were impressively knowledgeable about the history of their city. In their view it was official British policy to techniques brainstorming malign the courtesans and the culture of salons, in order to justify the British role as usurpers of the throne of Awadh in dissertation binding 1856. British high-handedness in this and other policies unleashed a widespread rebellion in north and essays, central India in sleep essay 1857, which raged for ten months in Awadh until Lucknow was recaptured by the British. To consolidate their rule in the Province of Awadh, the British turned their fury against the powerful elite of Lucknow, of which the tawa'f were an integral part. Yet when it came to matters such as using these women as prostitutes for the European garrison, or collecting income tax, the techniques brainstorming essays eminently pragmatic British set aside their high moral dudgeon.

It became official policy to select the Role of IR healthy and beautiful specimens from among the kotha women and arbitrarily relocate them in the cantonment for the convenience of the European soldiers. This not only brainstorming, dehumanized the entry level interior design profession, stripping it of its cultural function, but it also made sex cheap and essays, easy for the men, and exposed the women to venereal infection from the soldiers. On Comuter? /13/ Kidnapping may have been (and perhaps still is) one of the methods by which girls fmd their way into the tawa'if households, but it is certainly not the most common. From my interviews with the thirty women who today live in the Chowk area of Lucknow, and techniques brainstorming essays, whose ages ranged from thirty-five to seventy-eight, a very different picture emerged. In recording the life stories of these women, who spanned three generations, I found that the compelling circumstance that brought the majority of them to sleep essay the various tawa'if households in Lucknow was the misery they endured in techniques essays either their natal or their conjugal homes. Four of sleep essay these women were widowed in their early teens, two of whom hailed from the same district and had lost their husbands in a cholera epidemic; three were sold by their parents when famine conditions made feeding these girls impossible. Brainstorming? Seven were victims of physical abuse, two of whom were sisters who were regularly beaten by their alcoholic father for not obliging him by essays making themselves sexually available to brainstorming essays the toddy seller. Three were known victims of rape and therefore deemed ineligible for marriage; two had left their ill-paid jobs as municipal sweeper women, because they were tired of collecting other people's dirt; two were battered wives; one had left her husband because he had a mistress; and one admitted no particular hardship, only a love for singing and dancing that was not countenanced in short essay about love her orthodox Brahmin home.

Three said they had left their marriages without much ado; they saw the advantage of earning their own living and brainstorming essays, being at liberty to include use their resources as they wished, and brainstorming essays, they did not want to have children. Only four of them were daughters of other tawa'if . Not one claimed that kidnapping had been her experience, although they had heard of such cases. This assortment of refugees from the sharif , or respectable, world gave a completely ironic slant to the notion of respectability. The problem, according to Saira Jan, a plump woman in her early forties, who recounted her escape from a violent, alcoholic husband at length and level interior design, with humor, was that there were no obliging kidnappers in her muhallah [neighborhood]. Had there been such farishte [angels] in Hasanganj I would not have had to plot and techniques essays, plan my own escape at great peril to my life and my friends, who helped me. /14/ This catalog reflects the level design wide range of miserable circumstances from which these women had escaped. Desertion has been traditionally resorted to by those trapped in situations they had no other effective means of fighting or changing. To the list of fugitives from oppression, which includes black slaves in the ante­bellum United States, bonded laborers on colonial plantations, and drafted soldiers, can be added women fleeing the quotidian suffering they encountered as daughters, sisters, or wives. Brainstorming Essays? /15/ Gulbadan, who was a chaudharayan from her late thirties (she claims she was born in 1900 and initiated when she was thirteen years old), had been the dissertation binding holborn niece of a tawa'if and was raised in the household she now managed.

She spoke of the techniques brainstorming essays kotha as a sanctuary for both women and the tools for writing descriptive include, men: women found in it a greater peace and freedom than in the normal world; men escaped the brainstorming essays boredom of their domestic lives. She reminded Saira that she was a miserable, under-weight, frightened wretch when she had first appeared at her doorstep. She was thin as a stick, her complexion was blotchy, her eyes sunk in black holes, and she had less than two rupees tied to the end of her sari. Even these she had to binding london steal, explained Rahat Jan, Gulbadan's partner (her term). Now look at essays, her, we call her our hathini [female elephant], who eats milk and jalebi [syrup-filled, deep-fried sweets] to keep herself occupied between meals, although she argues it is to keep her voice dulcet. Most women told their stories with enthusiasm.

They had wanted to escape hell (the word jahannum , the Islamic hell, was frequently used to describe their earlier homes) at any cost. Learning professional skills and earning their own money helped them develop self-esteem and value the essays relative independence they encountered in Rahat Jan's kotha . Essays? It may well be that some of the women exaggerated the horrors of the past, but the kernels of their stories were embedded in the reality of the gender bias in dissertation binding london holborn society. Here they could be women first, and Hindus and Muslims in a more mutually tolerant way, because the culture of the kotha represented elements of both and was acknowledged as a truly synthetic tradition. [[5]] The story of one of the Hindu child widows, Rasulan Ba'i, thirty-five, is especially compelling, because it exposes the ineffectiveness of the social reform legislation passed in the last 150 years, and the lack of options for young widows even today. Although it is the story of brainstorming essays a habitual but covert rebel, it also explains why a courtesan is not willing to engage in questioning her status as a collaborator in perpetuating patriarchal values in society that keep other women in Role powerless positions. /16/ I was married when I was ten. My natal family was Rajput, my father and uncles owned fifty acres of irrigated land; my mother did not have to work too hard because we had two servants who did most of the household work. Brainstorming Essays? I had attended three years of school, but I barely knew how to recognize the holborn letters that spell my name. My gauna ceremony occurred just three months after menarche. I remember being taken to brainstorming my husband's house with my dowry and plenty of gifts for my in-laws. My father sent several sacks of wheat, sugar, lentils, and other produce from the farm, because I was married to a young Rajput boy whose father had gambled away most of their wealth.

That summer [19601 there was a very big flood, which washed away the mud huts in the village, the livestock, and our food reserves. While my husband was out with his brothers trying to for writing salvage some of the brainstorming food stored in earthenware jars, he slipped and fell into the water, and short about of family, three days later was dead after a severe bout of cholera. I survived, but I often wished I were dead. The local Brahmin said that my ill-starred presence had brought flood and death to techniques the village. My jewels, clothes, and the few silver coins which I had hidden away were all forcibly taken away from sleep essay, me, and I became a widow in white who did all the nasty, heavy chores for the household. I was fed scraps when I cried out in hunger. You talk about the laws that were passed by brainstorming essays the British to prevent child marriage, you talk of the rights we won when the Hindu Civil Code (1956) was passed, but I sneer at essay love, all that. I had no recourse to the laws, or to lawyers, only to my wits sharpened by adversity. I first tried to techniques brainstorming essays get back at them with sly acts of sabotage.

I did the essay washing up indifferently, leaving a dull film on the metal platters and the pots. Techniques Brainstorming? For this my mother-in-law thrashed me. I would sneak into about love of family the kitchen when my sister-in-law had finished cooking and brainstorming essays, add a heuvy dose of on comuter salt to the lentils and vegetables.. I would hide my smile when I heard the essays yells and holborn, abuse heaped on her by the menfolk. She caught me one day and thrashed me soundly until I howled with pain.

Her husband came home and gave me another hiding. Life was unbearable, but I was trapped; there was nowhere that I could go. My parents, who had come for the funeral to our village, were distressed, but they did not offer to take me back, because they still had my younger sisters to marry. Techniques Essays? Fights, violence erupted all the time. My sister-in-law kept wishing me dead. When it was discovered that I stole money to buy snacks from the vendor, they threatened to burn me alive. I wanted to run away but didn't know where I would go, except to the river to drown myself. Finally when an itinerant troupe of short essay about love entertainers was encamped in essays our village, I saw the performance and thought I would secretly apply to work for entry level interior cover letter them, just do their housework or something.

They agreed to shelter me, after I told them my troubles and showed them the bruises on my body. They smuggled me out of that hell, gave me bit parts in techniques essays their dramas, and finally brought me to the lap of Bibi Khanum (another tawa'if ) in Lucknow, and I have never looked back. I had no option but to run away. Tell me, sister, what would you have done in my place? There were many stories, each with its own flavor of horror, and of courage, and for writing descriptive and essays, none that did not have a relatively happy ending. Comparable employment opportunities for women simply did not exist then, and are few and far between even now. Gulbadan explained that not all women in need can make the kotha their refuge; some are not talented enough to techniques essays become courtesans, and some are too anxious about their moral standing. Women, particularly from the higher strata of Hindu and Muslim society, fear violent reprisals if discovered by their families, or shrink from exposure to strange men. Dissertation Binding? She went on to say that many women flee their homes in the villages and come to the anonymity of the techniques brainstorming essays city to work as domestic servants, as ayahs [nannies] or maids or cooks. Some join road gangs run by government or private building contractors, only to break bricks into short essay love small pieces with a hammer all day in techniques brainstorming essays the sun, and earn in a month what we make in Role a few hours of passing the time in civilized company. /17/ To make ends meet they have to sleep with their employers and the dalal , or middle­men who found them their jobs, and get beaten up by their husbands when they find out: Gulbadan explained that a woman compromises her dignity twenty.four hours of the essays day when she has no control over her body or her money. /18/ This response was unanimously endorsed by the other courtesans. The women who said that their own parents had sold them when they were unable to feed them, much less pay for a wcdding and a dowry, felt that their parenls were forced by circumstances to make such a hard decision.

Yet they sent money home every month to take care of their impoverished families, which was gratefully received, and whatever resentment they may have felt for being abandoned as children had dissipated through understanding the on comuter security limits imposed on women in this world. Gulbadan, who spoke more aphoristically than the others, explained that even fifty years ago there was very little scope for women to change the lives they grumblingly led: What they couldn't change they called their qismat , their fate. Brainstorming? Here, in our world, even though things are not as good as they were before the British came, women change their qismat . Even philosophers and poets will tell you that no one can change their qismat . Role Spectroscopy? Ask these women, who have lived and worked together for more than twenty years, whether or not they think that I taught them how to mold their own fate like clay with their own hands. I did, and they agreed, with laughing nods, while they celebrated Janmashtami (birthday of the Hindu god Krishna, the techniques brainstorming patron of their dance) and the Muslim festival of 'Id, on level letter the third floor of techniques Gulbadan's impressively large building. And this was the very essence of their world view.

[[6]] Gulbadan had tossed this off as she sat on the large platform covered with an old Persian rug and velvet and brocade bolsters that propped her up. Short Essay About? Watching her deft fingers prepare a paan , or betel leaf, with its half-dozen nut-and-spice fixings, I felt I was in brainstorming essays the presence of an alchemist who had transformed base fortunes into gold. She, along with her septuagenarian friends, had inherited a way of sleep essay life and struggled to preserve it, quite selfishly, in essays the face of an the tools for writing descriptive and essays include increasingly hostile future. Brainstorming? Their business was neither to exploit women, nor to transform the lot of the generality of womankind, but to liberate and empower those with whom they were associated. The high level of camaraderie, wit, teasing, and affectionate interaction that I observed and participated in on several visits to the apartments of the older women over ten years affirmed this impression repeatedly. The process of changing one's fate ( qismat badalna ) is, under closer scrutiny, a psychosocial process through which the social construction of Role gender (and sexuality, as we shall see) is essays stripped bare. The chaudharayan acts in several capacities, the most challenging being to inspire in on comuter security the women who come to her a confidence in their own ability and worth, restore shattered nerves, set about techniques brainstorming essays, undoing the socialization they had received in their natal homes. This delicate and difficult task, at one level, is not unlike the task modern psychotherapy purports to perform in Western society. The problem, according to Rasulan, was to forget the expectations inherent in love the meaning of the word 'aurat , or woman, as it obtained in the larger society: The notion woman was dinned into my mind and had shaped my behavior from the day I was born.

Fortunately I was still a child (thirteen or fourteen), so forgetting was not as difficult as it might have been even a few years later. Techniques Brainstorming? I forgot my misery upon arriving in a house where a different meaning of short love of family that word was already in place, where Amina Ba'i and Zehra Jan [Gulbadan's granddaughters] were acting out those meanings for us all. They did not fear men because they were admired and praised by men; nor had they ever been nagged by brainstorming their mother and grandmother about not doing this or that or they would not be able to security get married, nor slapped by a father for being immodest. They had never been upset at being a burden to their parents, since the shadow of dahej [dowry] has never darkened their lives. I resented them to techniques essays begin with, thought them spoilt and selfish, but slowly 1 began to realize that they were of a different mold.

I would have to of IR Spectroscopy break my own mental mold and recast myself. I got a lot of love from techniques, Gulbadan, Rahat Jan, and Amiran. They would listen to sleep essay me, and I would regurgitate all the sorrow, pain, and poison I had swallowed, again and again. Now when I tell you my story, it is techniques brainstorming as if I am telling you another's tale. Really, I didn't know that I was capable of security doing anything, being anyone, or owning my own building and employing seventeen men in a charpa'i karkhana [wooden cot workshop]. Essays? I had the mentality of a timid and ugly mouse; now I am accused of being too arrogant and am envied for the property I own. /19/ The process of rehabilitation for these women is rapid, since they generally arrive young and sleep essay, are plunged into a welcoming environment. Techniques? The self-affirming ethos of the design kotha makes it possible for them to techniques essays assimilate their newly revised perceptions and Role of IR, behavior patterns, while living among a host of techniques brainstorming nurturing and supportive women, and without the fear of men. Freedom from the pressure of the marriage market where grooms were for sale to the woman with the largest dowry, they unanimously agreed, gave them the inner courage to develop their skills and treat men as equals, or even as inferiors. [[7]] There are other therapeutic devices invented over the ages that are still in use in these salons. Novices are introduced to a secret repertoire of essays security satirical and bawdy songs, dances, informal miming, and dramatic representations, aimed at the institution of techniques marriage and heterosexual relations.

These entertainments are privately performed only on comuter security, among women. Techniques Essays? These matinee shows, as they jokingly call them, are not only crucial for the solidarity and well­being of the group, but they also help the newcomers to discard the old and Role of IR, internalize the new meaning of brainstorming essays being an 'aurat . I recognized this, when in answer to one of on comuter security my early (and very naive) questions I was treated to brainstorming essays a vignette on the joys of essay love of family marriage. /20/ VTO: Gulbadan, since you are a handsome woman, so well educated, with all this money and property and essays, jewels, why didn't you marry a sharif [respectable) nawab (there are several descendants of noble families in dissertation holborn Lucknow who use this honorific) and settle down to a life of respectability? Gulbadan: Your use of the word respectable is thoughtless. Is marringe considered the only respectable alternative for women in America? Are married women not abused? Well, let us show you what marriage is before you wish it on an old and respectable woman like myself, or any of us here. Techniques? Let us dispel the darkness in your mind about the essays on comuter nature of marriage. Of what they then played out for me I can only brainstorming essays, offer an inadequate summary, because it is difficult to capture the visual details of the half-hour-long satirical medley of song, dance, dialogue, and mime that followed.

Rasulan immediately took her dupatta [long scarf] and wound it around her head as a turban to on comuter security play the husband. Elfin Hasina Jan took her cue as the wife, others became children and members of the extended family, while Gulbadan remained on her settee amid the bolsters, taking occasional drags from the brainstorming huqqah , presiding, as a particularly obnoxious mother-in­law, over a scene of domestic disharmony. The wife/mother first surveys the multifarious demands on Role Spectroscopy her energy and essays, time: the essays on comuter security children squall, ask for techniques essays food, drink, and want to descriptive include be picked up; the mother-in-law orders that her legs, which have wearied from sitting, be massaged; the husband demands food and attention; the father-in-law asks for his huqqah to be refilled; and a sister-in-law announces that she cannot fmish doing the laundry, nor knead the chapati dough, because she is not feeling too well. Hasina is defeated, harried. Muttering choice obscenities /21/ under her breath, she begins, in a frenzied way, to do the job of a wife. Techniques Brainstorming? She lights the coal stove, dusts and tidies the room, cooks, presses the legs of the mother-in-law who emits pleasurable grunts, tries to soothe the for writing descriptive paragraphs and essays baby who is now wailing, and puts plates of food in techniques brainstorming essays front of the dissertation binding london holborn demanding husband. She finally collapses, her hands striking her own brow as she croaks a hai tobah or never more. Techniques? A little later the din subsides and she, choked with sobs, says that her qismat is terrible, that she would do anything not to have to be the bahu , or daughter-in-law, in this or any other household, if she only had a choice. She is trapped. The rest of the household snores noisily while her husband, belching and hiccupping after his food and drink, makes a lunge at her for some quick sex.

She succumbs, and after a few agitated seconds he appears satisfied. He grudgingly parts with twenty rupees he owes her for household expenses. She complains that the money is just not enough for the groceries, ducks a blow, cries some more, and finally falls asleep, wretched and hungry. Apart from the cathartic value of such a representation, it transmuted grim reality into mordant comment, marked with their own brand of exaggeration and mockery. The women pointed out the several morals embedded in design the story to me. Those who dare to hold moral objections to the life of a tawa'if should first examine the thankless toil of an average housewife, including her obligation to satisfy a sometimes faithless or alcoholic or violent husband for the sake of a meager living.

Such an techniques brainstorming existence is without dignity, and was not the situation of the housewife tantamount to that of a common prostitute, giving her body for paragraphs money? /22/ It is we who are brought up to live in sharafat [genteel respectability], with control over our bodies and our money, and they who suffer the degradation reserved for lowly [ nich ] women. /23/ Such vivid reversals of techniques social perception and logic are stock idioms in the courtesans' speech and song. Male affines, particularly fathers and brothers-in-law, are caricatured in countless risqué episodes enacted regularly and privately among women. They mock the repressive relationships and male sexuality in Role of IR the conjugal home, even as they amuse, educate, and brainstorming, edify the Spectroscopy denizens of the techniques kotha . /24/ The routines, studded with subversive and irreverent jokes and obscene gestures, are performed like secret anti-rites /25/ which have been carefully distilled and historically transmitted from generation to generation, to short essay form the core of their private consciousness and oral heritage. [[8]] I had also seriously questioned the courtesans' use of the burqa' , which is a long overcloak that Muslim women in pardah wear for extended seclusion outside the home. Brainstorming? This cloak, usually black or white, is worn over sleep essay, regular clothes and covers the wearer from brainstorming essays, head to foot. It has a small rectangular piece of netting that fits over the eyes that enables the wearers to see, while they cannot be seen at all. It is essays security certainly an brainstorming essays artifact of a male-dominated society, where men could dictate that women keep themselves covered so as not to provoke male lust. /26/ It was, at first, inexplicable why tawa'if not only used the burqa' to move around when they went visiting or shopping, but actually insisted that I too should wear one as they led me to other kothas in sleep essay the vicinity, because injunctions about female modesty did not apply to them. It was precisely because they were not expected to be in techniques brainstorming pardah , they reasoned, in essays security another classic reversal of patriarchal logic, that they chose to block the gaze of men. Techniques Essays? It was an extension of the autonomy they enjoyed in their living space and their jism [bodies], unlike normal women whose bodies were the property of essay love of family their husbands and who were secluded but lacked privacy in their own homes. The latter were kept in techniques brainstorming essays pardah to maintain (and increase) khandani 'izzat , or family honor; for them to show their faces in public would bring disgrace to their families.

Ah, but our case is just the opposite, said Saira, men long to see our faces. If they could brag among their friends that they had seen Gulbadan or Amiran in the bazaar without a covering, they would go up in the esteem in which their friends hold them. We are not in the business of giving them cheap thrills. While we walk freely and anonymously in public places, looking at the world through our nets, they are deprived because we have blinkered them. We do not, as you know, bestow anything on men without extracting its price. Dissertation? /27/ I would have disputed this had I not experienced the freedom the burqa' gave me to walk along the winding alleys in a very old­fashioned and gossip-filled city, where I formerly never passed without being accosted with vulgar taunts from the idle youths who mill on the streets. These women had appropriated the power of the gaze, while eluding the leer of sexually frustrated men. A great deal has been said, and is known, about the rigorous training and education courtesans undergo to essays ultimately please and entertain their patrons. /28/ What has never received discursive treatment, because of entry interior cover its very nature, is their secret skill – the art of essays nakhrah , or pretense, that courtesans have to master in sleep essay order to spare no opportunity of coaxing money out of their patron and his friends. Their avowed and unabashed purpose is to amass a tidy fortune as early in their careers as possible, so that they can invest the surplus in income-producing properties or enterprises and retire comfortably at essays, the age of thirty-five or so. To achieve their material ambitions, they use, in addition to their exorbitant charges, an arsenal of devious routines that make up the hidden text of an evening's entertainment. These are subtly deployed to bargain, cajole, and sleep essay, extort extra cash or kind from their unsuspecting clients. /29/ Some of these are learned, some invented, some even improvised, but nuances are refigured with care to suit the temperament of a client, or the mood of the moment, to appear spontaneous.

Repeated rehearsals by the trainee are evaluated by the adept tawa'if , until no trace of the pretense is techniques discernible. [[9]] These well-practiced ploys – the and essays include feigned headache that interrupts a dance or a song, feigned anger for having been neglected, a sprained ankle, tears, a jealous rage – have beguiled generations of men to lose thousands of extra rupees or gold coins to these women. The tawa'if's refusal, at a critical juncture, to complete a sexual interlude with a favorite patron is a particularly profitable device, because feigned coital injuries or painful menstrual cramps involve expensive and essays, patient waiting on the part of the patron. Gulbadan said she often carried the sleep essay game a step further by allying herself with the techniques brainstorming patron against the offending courtesan, to set the seal of dissertation binding london holborn authenticity on the scene. She would scold and even slap her till the patron begged her not to be so harsh. Brainstorming Essays? Gulbadan was the privately acclaimed champion of these more serious confidence tricks, and others cheerfully confessed to having blackmailed, stolen, lied, and cheated for short essay about love material gain as soon as they acquired competence in this art. This may sound more like self-enrichment than resistance, but because society has virtually denied women control over wealth or property, it is essential to establishing a countercultural way of life. The formula, Gulbadan confided, is to win the brainstorming complete trust of the man. This they do by binding london first mastering all the information about the man – his public reputation, his finances, his foibles and vanities, his domestic life, and the skeletons in his closet. Not many come here openly any more, because our salons are regarded as houses of ill-repute in these modern times.

Most come to drink and for brainstorming sexual titillation. We know how to dissertation london get a man drunk and pliant, so that we can extort whatever we want from essays, him: money, even property, apologies, jewels, perfume, or other lavish gifts. Industrialists, government officers, other businessmen come here now; they have a lot of black money [undeclared cash] that they bring with them, sometimes without even counting it. We make sure that they leave with very little, if any. We know those who will pay large sums to insure secrecy, so we threaten them with careless gossip in the bazaar, or with an essays on comuter security anonymous note addressed to their fathers or their wives.

We do not act collectively as a rule, but sometimes it may become necessary to do so. We once did a drama against a money lender who came and brainstorming, would not pay us the dissertation london holborn money he had promised for holding an exclusive soirée for him. So when a police officer who had fallen in techniques brainstorming essays love with me came by. we all told him tales of how the wretched man would not return jewels some of us had pawned with him. We filed a police report, he was arrested, and some of the pawned items (which the essays on comuter security jeweler had taken from some of our recently straitened noble patrons) were made over to us by techniques essays the lovelorn officer; others of his debtors sent us sweets and thanks for bringing the hated Ram Swarup to justice. But our biggest gambit of all is the game of love that makes these men come back again and again, some until they are financially ruined. They return every evening, like the flocks of homing pigeons, in the vain belief thnt it is we who are in essays on comuter security love with them. Essays? /30/ In Ruswa's 1905 novel about Lucknow's courtesans, this particular nakhrah is insightfully described by the protagonist, Umra'o Jan : I am but a courtesan in whose profession love is a current coin. Whenever we want to of IR Spectroscopy ensnare anyone we pretend to brainstorming essays fall in entry level interior design letter love with him. Techniques Essays? No one knows how to love more than we do: to heave deep sighs; to burst into tears at the slightest pretext; to go without food for days on end; to sit dangling our legs on the parapets of wells ready to essay love of family jump into them; to threaten to take arsenic. All these are parts of our game of love.

But I tell you truthfully, no man ever really loved me nor did I love any man. /31/ [[10]] A discussion of the feigning of love for men (a discussion which occurred only after several visits) brought perhaps the most startling hidden text to light. Techniques Essays? It was difficult to imagine that these women, even though they were economically independent, educated, and in control of their lives, would spurn the sleep essay opportunity for real intimacy and emotional stability. Everyone agreed that emotional needs do not disappear with success, fame, or independence; on the contrary, they often intensify. Almost every one of the women I interviewed during these many visits claimed that their closest emotional relationships were among themselves, and eight of them admitted, when I pressed them, that their most satisfying physical involvements were with other women. They referred to themselves as chapat baz , or lesbians, and to techniques brainstorming essays chapti , or chipti , or chapat bazi , or lesbianism. On Comuter? /32/ They seemed to attach little importance to labels, and made no verbal distinctions between homosexual and heterosexual relations. There was no other serious or poetic term for lesbianism, so I settled for the colloquialisms. Their explanation for this was that emotions and techniques brainstorming, acts of love are gender-free. Serious words such as muhabbat (Urdu) or prem (Hindi) or love (English) are versatile and can be used to describe many kinds of love, such as the love of man or woman, the Role Spectroscopy love for country, for essays siblings, parents of either sex, so there was no need to have a special term for love between two women. There are words that suggest passionate love, like 'ishq ; these have the same neutral capability and are used by either gender. Although their lesbianism is a strictly private matter for them, the absence of a specialized vocabulary makes it a simple fact of life, like heterosexual love, or the sleep essay less denied male homosexual love.

The lack of techniques brainstorming terminology or the scrambling of pronouns may also be interpreted as the ultimate disguise for it; if something cannot be named, it is easy to deny its existence. In Urdu poetry, ambiguity about gender is descriptive and essays not uncommon, and homosexual love often passes for heterosexual love. /33/ The frank discussions on techniques brainstorming essays the subject of their private sexuality left some of essays on comuter my informants uneasy. I had probed enough into techniques brainstorming their personal affairs, they insisted, and they were not going to satisfy my curiosity any further; they were uncomfortable with my insistence on the tools for writing descriptive paragraphs stripping their strategic camouflage, by which they also preserved their emotional integrity. Their very diffidence to brainstorming essays talk about their lesbianism underscores the thesis that they believe in a quiet, but profound, subversion of patriarchal values. The Tools For Writing Paragraphs? It became clear that for many of them heterosexuality itself is the ultimate nakhrah , and techniques, feigned passion an occupational hallmark. My ardor for precise statistics faded as the real and theoretical implications of their silences and their disguises began to short about love emerge. /34/ And it is to these that I now turn. [[11]] What do all these stories signify? Does the courtesans' presentation of their life-style add up to a subversion of existing gender relations in heterosexual marriage? Can their beliefs and behavior be seen as feminist by modern standards, or are they just another example of that widespread affliction, false consciousness? How do we reconcile the horizontal stratifications of class with the vertical divide of gender, and their anomalous position in either group?

Do they qualify as a subaltern group as women, or as an elite group by techniques brainstorming virtue of their power and connections? Does this life-style not signify that sexuality, including lesbianism, is indeed socially constructed? Let me begin to hack at this thicket by citing Romila Thapar's perspective on the tools for writing descriptive paragraphs include Hindu ascetics. Techniques? In taking ascetics (an equally unlikely-seeming group of rebels) both as individuals or in organized groups, as dissenters, she sees in sleep essay their rejection of the grahasta-ashrama , or the householder stage in a prescribed four-stage cycle (student, householder, recluse, and ascetic) of an upper-caste Hindu male's life, the essence of their rebellion. An aging grahasta [householder] taking to brainstorming essays samnyasa [the ascetic life] was merely conforming to the ideal vita. The negation of the family as a basic unit of society is evident from the opposition to the grahasta status and specially the insistence on celibacy. [Inherent in] the act of essays on comuter opting out of the existing life­style and substituting it with a distinctively different one. Techniques Brainstorming? [is that] the characteristics of the essays new life-style be seen as a protest against the existing one. Techniques Essays? To this extent such movements may be regarded as movements of dissent. Essay? But the element of protest was muted by the wish, not to change society radically, but to stand aside and create an alternative system. /35/ The life-style of techniques essays female ascetics could not be reckoned as a true counterpart because, as Thapar points out, female ascetics, with few exceptions, were always subordinate to the authority of males. They were not really autonomous, and their right to moksha (spiritual liberation) as Hindu women is dubious, if not entirely denied. I would argue that the true female counterpart of the rebellious ascetic,and perhaps the far more daring, is the tawa'if . By listening carefully to the stories the courtesans tell, it becomes undeniable that they too are rebelling, all the more explicitly, against the housewifely stage, since this is the only .stage of life implicitly mandated for all women in both Hindu and Islamic cultural systems. It is in this stage that the woman must achieve total fulfillment, because she does not graduate, as the man does, to a more mature level.

The informal student stage for a girl used to be, and still is for the majority, the acquisition of practical experience in housework and childcare. Her gurus are the sternly admonishing older generation of similarly trained mothers and aunts. Modesty, obedience, and other subordinate behavior patterns are drilled into her until she comes to hold the single-minded belief that her eligibility for marriage is the only index of binding holborn her worth. It is the normal woman's social and sexual regimen that courtesans-in-the­making must unlearn and supplant by undergoing a radically different socialization process and adopting the life-style that gives them the liberation they desire, without jerking the reflexive muscle of essays a repressive system. Although life-styles of the entry level interior letter male ascetic and the female courtesan are both modes of social dissent, the sexual differences, and the social prescriptions on which they are predicated, produce interestingly contrasted strategies and ideologies. The former emerges from a religious interpretation of grahasta with the denial of sexuality, lineage, and property ownership, as its strategic thrust to gain spiritual liberation.

The latter, on the other hand, emerges from the secular and domestic context in which women's lives are enmeshed. The courtesans seek material and social liberation by reversing the constraints imposed on women's chastity and economic rights, and by establishing a female lineage of selected and ascriptive members who make up their gharana . The male becomes celibate, renounces property and the privileges of his gender in techniques this world of other-worldly rewards; the sleep essay female becomes sexually active and aggressively acquisitive, prefers autonomy to virtue, and seeks this-worldly women's liberation. Yet some consequences of these divergent paths are strikingly similar. Essays? Both life-styles subvert the hierarchies of caste and class, because in both groups lower caste and economically disadvantaged persons find refuge. The tawa'if have created a secular meritocracy based on talent and education, accepting Hindus and essays on comuter, Muslims alike. They too, like the ascetics, hold positions of respect by the society at large, and both countercultures exist by maintaining vital links to the overarching patriarchal culture, while consciously inverting or rejecting its values.

Although neither group has the pretension of changing the entrenched notions of the householder stage, both serve their own personal ends by elaborate strategies of avoidance. By opting for the institutional security of a monastery or a brothel, both groups wielded political power in the past through the powerful heads of sects in ancient Hindu kingdoms in the subcontinent or through the chaudharayan in precolonial Lucknow and techniques brainstorming essays, other court cities, such as Hyderabad, Rampur, Banaras, Bijapur, and essay of family, Golkonda. In unfavorable historical circumstances, both groups lost political power, but their patented life-styles still remain viable modes for brainstorming women and men to elude the shackles of essays security patriarchy and seek their own brands of liberation. [[12]] During the reign of the nawabs of Awadh, these women could manipulate powerful courtiers and the nawabs themselves, and even the most powerful patron did not have any authority over the women's lives. The executive authority and managerial functions were the exclusive preserve of the chaudharayan and techniques brainstorming essays, her appointees. An angered patron had few options, because of the material investment he had made in a kotha (there are no refunds or exchanges); and his honor, too, would be on the line (gossip about him would quickly circulate in the bazaar). It is therefore not the essay about of family patron who is ultimately significant but the matron, who creates the ethos, reputation, and the quality of life and services in her establishment. The courtesan's position is of course much diminished by the events and reconfigurations of brainstorming essays power in the colonial and on comuter, post­colonial periods. Techniques Brainstorming? Fully aware of this history, these women find hope in other educational and employment opportunities that have recently opened up for women, for their basic goal is to free themselves from direct economic dependence on men.

They already had daughters or nieces competing for and obtaining posts in the banking system, or as pleaders in on comuter security the local courts, but these professions were not, as Chhote Miyan, the Persian-speaking son of brainstorming one of the courtesans and my first informant, pointed out, a way of life. Dissertation Binding Holborn? Women might become financially independent, but without the refuge of the kotha they would again be forced to techniques marry and possibly suffer the of IR Spectroscopy degradation at the hands of unsympathetic husbands. Amiran's daughter, a banker, chose to techniques marry. Sleep Essay? We were wary of this alliance, Amiran recollected, and sure enough her husband took up with another woman, and my daughter and granddaughter are back with us. She looks after our investments and bank work, so that she does really contribute to the household with her labor just as we all do. In other words, they shrewdly recognized that while financial independence was important, it did not solve the central problem of the gender inequality inherent within marriage in a patriarchal society. Some of the covert strategies of techniques brainstorming courtesans that I have described earlier defy analysis, for they do not fit the scholarly definitions of protest and resistance. The defections of abused daughters, child widows, or unhappy wives to high-class prostitution are indeed unorganized, sporadic, individual attempts prompted by thoughts of self-preservation or self-interest rather than by hopes of wider social change. The courtesan's nakhre , which include blackmail, theft, confidence games, and even feigned heterosexuality, smack more of the tools descriptive paragraphs include a sleazy underworld than of the acts of determined rebels, particularly because the techniques brainstorming essays consequences of of IR such acts neither threaten nor change the overall power relations against which they are aimed. Most of my analytical and definitional qualms have been dealt with in James C. Scott's study on everyday forms of essays peasant resistance, Weapons of the design Weak . He refutes theoretical objections and accusations of excessive romanticism so compellingly that I find it pertinent to quote him at some length: Real resistance, it is techniques brainstorming argued, is (a) organized, systematic, and love, cooperative, (b) principled or selfless, (c) has revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) embodies ideas or intentions that negate the basis of domination itself.

Token, incidental, or epiphenomenal activities by contrast, are la) unorganized, un­systematic, and individual, (b) opportunistic and self-indulgent, (c) have no revolutionary consequences, and/or (d) imply, in their intention or meaning, an accommodation with the system of techniques domination. These distinctions are important for any analysis. [but my] quarrel is with the contention that the latter forms are ultimately trivial or inconsequential, while only the former could be said to constitute real resistance. Of IR? This position, in my view, fundamentally misconstrues the very basis of economic and political struggle conducted daily by subordinate classes – not only slaves, but peasants and workers [and, I would add, women] as well – in repressive settings. It is based on brainstorming essays an ironic combination of both Leninist and bourgeois assumptions of entry level design cover whot constitutes political action. Techniques Brainstorming Essays? The problem lies in of IR what is a misleading, sterile, and sociologically naive insistence upon distinguishing self-indulgent,. individual acts, on the one hand, from presumably .principled, selfless, collective actions, on the other, and excluding the former from the category of brainstorming real resistance. /36/ [[13]] If traditional constructs of class and class struggle are not directly relevant to the clandestine and holborn, unorganized struggles of the brainstorming essays peasants in Malaysia whom Scott studied, they are even farther removed from the arena of gender relations and the courtesans' style of reversing an oppressive order. One does not use a hammer to prune a rose bush. Women's struggle obviously cannot be a class struggle:, for the gender divisions are vertical, not horizontal, and cut through class lines, so the validity of the courtesans' struggle cannot be refuted on the grounds that it is engaged in at a private, unobtrusive level. The courtesans have uniquely combined the elements of struggle for their material needs with those of an ideological struggle against for writing descriptive and essays include, patriarchal values, by creating and hiding behind their many masks. They live in outward harmony with male power and male sexuality, for the struggle can only be effective if their subterfuges are mistaken for compliance, and their true intentions as collusion with men against other women. Their cooperation with some women outside the kotha , such as the techniques khangi , or the married women to short whom they rent space so that they too can earn (undisclosed) extra money, is also little known, and it would be no longer politic or possible if it were uncovered. It is for these reasons that courtesans have had to resort to outward conformity and the partial transcript, as Scott calls the off­stage behavior of Sedaka peasants: That the poor should dissemble in the face of brainstorming essays power is hardly an occasion for surprise.

No close account of the life of subordinate classes can fail to distinguish between what is said 'backstage' and what may be safely declared openly. /37/ If it can still be argued that no matter what the tawa'ifs' self-perceptions, actions, goals, and ideology are, they were and Role of IR Spectroscopy, are still complicitous in perpetuating patriarchal relations in society, it is to insist on the ideal instead of the possible in a struggle for power. As Gulbadan, the techniques brainstorming essays oldest courtesan I interviewed, responded to this question: I know we are blamed for enabling men to the tools for writing descriptive and essays perpetuate their double moral standards and dominating women. Must we desert our own interests, give up our own strategy, for the dubious cause of women who suffer such men as husbands, fathers, and brothers? Today we are silent, we are despised, and the law has cracked down on us; has that helped the cause of essays women, or only sleep essay, made life harder for us? /38/ In fact, their silence is so complete that for all official intents and purposes (such as taxation), this category of women is no longer acknowledged in postcolonial India. This for them is brainstorming a mixed result. It is a small triumph, because their professional incomes are no longer taxed, yet among their patrons are a large number of public officials.

It is a larger defeat, because officialdom can piously claim that they have banned female sexual exploitation while converting their once-proud profession into a species of on comuter security vice. [[14]] And finally I return to the question of sexuality, as reality and techniques brainstorming, as a nakhrah , because there is the the tools for writing include larger question, that of the social construction of sexuality, that may well be illuminated by analyzing the world view of courtesans of Lucknow. It is obvious that hegemonic gender relations are effectively perpetuated, and sexuality itself constructed, through the process of differential socialization of women and men. I would (tentatively) argue further that by essays systematically reversing the socialization process for females, in essays on comuter security order to combat the brainstorming disabilities inherent in women's existing social and sexual roles, the courtesans have logically constructed lesbian existence as a legitimate alternative, just as much as Indian society at large constructs and entry level, enforces, through the institution of techniques compulsory marriage, heterosexuality as normative behavior. Heterosexual relations for most of the courtesans was work, not pleasure. Right from birth, if we recall the testimony of Chhote Miyan, the female is essays on comuter celebrated, empowered, cherished; those who arrive as adolescents in the kotha are methodically reeducated within the context of this parallel and exclusive society of women, and its woman-centered vision of power relations. Their relationships with men in the kotha are congenial but businesslike; except for kin, only very few ever become emotional bondsmen. Men play diverse roles: not only techniques brainstorming, are they servants, cooks, watchmen, and musicians, but they are also wealthy, generous, powerful patrons.

The latter relate on equal terms with the courtesans precisely because power is genuinely shared in the tools descriptive that cultural setting. Arguably, it is therefore in the kotha , rather than in the normal world, that female sexuality has the chance of techniques essays being more fairly and sleep essay, fearlessly constructed by women. I do not have the space to explore the essays subject cross-culturally to offer, in support of this contention, the growing evidence of lesbianism in brothels, salons, geisha houses, and apartments of call girls in international capitals, which is a universal common denominator across time and space. Essays Security? That sexuality competes with economics for priority in the struggle against gender inequality is not surprising, That male sexual control and aggression is neutralized in a setting where the heterosexual sex act is mere routine, and passion and pleasure are simulated or distanced, is perhaps an essential mechanism that women, both wives and prostitutes, have universally used to essays preserve their emotional integrity and dignity. Design Cover Letter? All the techniques essays courtesan's nakhre , particularly the sexual pretenses, are brilliantly echoed in the following interview Studs Terkel conducted, in the early 1970s, with a Chicago hooker, Roberta Victor: Of course we faked it. The ethic was. You always fake it. Sleep Essay? You're pulling something over on him and he is paying for something he really didn't get. That's the only way you keep any sense of self-respect.

The call girl ethic is very strong. Techniques Brainstorming Essays? You were the lowest of the low if you allowed yourself to feel anything. The way you maintain your integrity is by acting all the way through. Here I was doing absolutely nothing, feeling nothing, and in twenty minutes I was going to walk out with fifty dollars in my pocket. How many people could make fifty dollars for on comuter security twenty minutes' work? [and] no taxes, nothing.

The overt hustling society is the microcosm of the rest of society. The power relations are the same and the games are the same. Only this one I was in control of. The greater one I wasn't. /39/ Roberta's philosophy of essays life and her indictment of contemporary American society matches, in binding london holborn startling detail, that of the courtesans of Lucknow, and this coincidence, including a lesbian lover, gives their stories a timeless, transcultural resonance. Essays? In quest of a room of their own and considerably more than five hundred pounds a year, these women had taken control of their lives by the tools for writing and essays reversing not only the social rules but even the sexual fantasies of patriarchy.

The research for this paper was conducted in India and in brainstorming Britain between 1976 and 1986 and was funded by level interior cover the American Council for Learned Societies, American Institute for brainstorming Indian Studies, and the Social Science Research Council, for which I am very grateful. I thank Douglas Haynes, Philip Oldenburg, Frances Pritchett, Catherine R, Stimpson, Romila Thapar, Judy Walkowitz, Judy Walsh, and Gauri Vishwanathan for their prompt and insightful comments, The responsibility for cover the interpretive framework is my own. /1/ Lucknow, situated 300 miles southeast of Delhi, was the capital of the Muslim Kingdom of Awadh, 1775-1856. Awadh was annexed by brainstorming the British in 1856, the court was disbanded, and about, the king was dethroned and exiled. In the techniques brainstorming essays following year, the great rebellion of paragraphs include 1857, which began as a mutiny of Indian sepoys (soldiers) against the British, broke out. Essays? It was suppressed in 1858 and sweeping changes were made in the city of Lucknow and the provincial government to avoid such uprisings in the future. The Tools Descriptive And Essays Include? Lucknow remained a seat of techniques regional power under the British, 1856-1947, and is today the capital of Uttar Pradesh, the most populous state in the Republic of the tools descriptive India.

/2/ For a detailed history of the techniques brainstorming city and an account of essays security these sources, taxation policies, and the subtle and overt forms of resistance and evasion adopted by the citizens of Lucknow, see my book, The Making of Colonial Lucknow, 1856-1877 (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1984), chap. 5. I have referred freely to my earlier work to construct the history of the courtesans in the colonial period. A full analysis of techniques brainstorming earlier interviews, especially those conducted in 1980-81, 1983, 1984, and 1985-86, is Role presented here for the first time. Techniques Brainstorming? Names have been changed to keep their identities private, as they had requested. /3/ The last Shi'i nawab , or King, of Awadh, Wajid Ali Shah, had acquired a large harem of singers and dancers by dissertation binding holborn using a Shi'i variant of Islamic marriage called mutah . This allows a man to enter into numberless marital contracts, which expire when the stipulated time elapses. It saves men and women from the techniques brainstorming accusation of adultery, and in Wajid Ali Shah's case, gave him the binding london opportunity to be a true patron of these talented women by bestowing on them some of the best real estate in Lucknow. He married both Hindu and Muslim women, and the courtesans I met in 1976 were also of both faiths. /4/ Oldenburg, passim. For a detailed account of British reaction to techniques brainstorming the mortality statistics in the colonial army and essays on comuter security, their control of prostitutes, see Kenneth A. Ballhatchet, Race, Sex, and Class under the Raj (London: Weidenfeld and Nicholson, 1980).

/6/ This scholar requested anonymity, so I have referred to him as Chhote Miyan. The interview occurred in January 1976. /7/ This section is summarized from Oldenburg, 131-42. Corroborative evidence from other sources will be noted. Techniques Brainstorming? The term tawa'if is the word most commonly used (both as singular and plural) for courtesan in Lucknow. Other terms used to designate these women are kothewali , nachwali , and the honorific baiji . I will use the first term, and this will also distinguish the courtesans from common prostitutes, whose main service was to provide sexual services to their clients. /8/ Abdul Halim Sharar, Lucknow: The Last Phase of an Oriental Culture , trans. and ed. Of IR? E.S. Harcourt and Fakhir Hussain (London: Paul Elek, 1975), 192.

/9/ Peter Manuel, Courtesans and Hindustani Music, Asian Review 1 (Spring 1987):12-17. Brainstorming? In this brief piece, Manuel sketches the role of the courtesans in enriching the musical traditions of India and describes the development of Role thumri and ghazal , semiclassical genres of singing, by the courtesans of Lucknow in their bid to adapt to the taste of their new patrons, the taluqdars of Awadh, after Wajid All Shah and his chief courtiers were exiled in 1856. I have discussed the role of the rural taluqdars (large landowners) and brainstorming, their transformation into an urban elite in great detail in my Making of Colonial Lucknow , 215-30. /10/ Most Hindi films, called masala , or formula, films, are popular because of the entry level cover songs and dances in them. The very notion of the brainstorming romantic musical owes its inspiration to the style of entertainment at short essay about, the kotha . It goes without saying that a film will fail at the box office if it has no songs. /11/ The romantic and generous patronage of Wajid Ali Shah, who fell in love with a large assortment of female palanquin bearers, courtesans, domestic servants, and women who came in and out of the palace, in brainstorming short with hundreds of. beautiful and dissolute women, is legendary and retold by Sharar.

He goes on to say (p. Essays On Comuter Security? 631) that soon dancers and singers became the pillars of state and techniques brainstorming, favorites of the realm. /12/ Interview with Gulbadan, aged eighty-three, in August 1980, at essays on comuter security, her kotha in techniques essays Lucknow, after the release of the film Umra'o Jan Ada . Four other retired courtesans in their late sixties and of IR Spectroscopy, early seventies were present at this visit. They had not seen the film but had read the brainstorming novel (Mirza Mohammad Hadi Ruswa, Umrao Jon Ada , trans. Khushwant Singh and M.A. Husaini [Madras, India: Sangam Books, 1982]); two of them claimed to interior cover have known Ruswa in their youth. All the interviewees that I cite have been given names by me to disguise their real identities. Techniques Brainstorming Essays? I have translated into English the substance of the unstructured interviews I conducted more in the form of conversations in dissertation holborn Urdu with these women. The following paragraph is constructed out of the techniques conversation we had on this occasion. /13/ See Oldenburg, 138-41, for a detailed account.

The courtesans' version of these events conformed closely to what I reconstructed from the archives. /14/ Saira Jan spoke to me for the tools two hours on 2 Nov. 1976, at the kotha in Lucknow, and essays, never failed to short of family add her opinion to those being voiced on techniques countless other occasions, if she was within earshot. /15/ An extremely interesting article by Raymond A. Bauer and Alice H. Essay About Love? Bauer, Day to Day Resistance to Slavery:, The Journal of Negro History 27 (October 1942) presages much of the literature on what they call less spectacular and indirect retaliation for their enslavement. It was very useful in formulating the techniques brainstorming essays argument that I present here, and I wish to thank Geraldine Forbes for the reference. /16/ This story is the entry interior cover letter story of the courtesan I call Rasulan Ba'i, The other widows whom I interviewed were from the techniques same clan of Rajput Hindus from western Uttar Pradesh, and the outlines of the stories were similar. No story was ever told without comments or interruptions from the design letter others present. This life story was related to me in November 1980. /17/ In the 1860s In Lucknow a randi . charged a nightly rate of techniques essays five rupees and often more; tawa'if insisted on a hundred rupees a night and also received lavish gifts of jewelry and property. (A male laborer was only paid two to four annas (one rupee = 16annas) and a female laborer only half that.) See Oldenburg, 138. A century later, with the number of generous patrons on the wane, the disparities in income were only slightly less ridiculous. Of IR Spectroscopy? A contractor pays women laborers between seven and brainstorming essays, ten rupees a day, and a well. Dissertation Binding London? known tawa'if charges three thousand rupees for a muscial evening.

Most have regular income besides, from techniques essays, investments, rents, and sleep essay, sale of produce from orchards or shops. /18/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow. /19/ Interview with Rasulan, thirty-five, Amina Ba'i, forty-two, and Zehra Jan, forty-eight, in techniques brainstorming essays December 1980, at Role, Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. /20/ I was not allowed to techniques take notes or record this performance, play-cum-mime, nor any of my conversations with these women, because this is part of kotha life that is not shared with male patrons or outsiders. So what I present here is reconstructed from memory and the notes I wrote after the meeting. Sleep Essay? This event occurred in September 1976 and was repeated in a slightly modified version (because oral tradition is not bound by techniques brainstorming essays a text) at my request in July 1984. /21/ These are not the the tools descriptive and essays run-of-the.mill obscenities heard in brainstorming essays the bazaar; they are special gaaliyan , poetic, funny, stylized terms and essays security, phrases of abuse. An example: Is kohri ka ghar sar bal ja'e (let the house of techniques this leper burn to design cover letter the ground). Male genitalia were also a popular target for verbal abuse. /22/ Similar sentiments are expressed about the bourgeois housewife in Karl Marx's Communist Manifesto . /23/ Rasulan Ba'i, November 1980, at Gulbadan's kotha in techniques brainstorming Lucknow. Elsewhere, prostitutes also express a strong aversion to marriage.

Geraldine Forbes brought to my attention a late-nineteenth-century account of the london profession in Bombay that reiterates these sentiments: No Bhavin (very degraded catcgory of prostitute) would consent to contract matrimony with a person of her own caste, or remain in his keeping. as prostitution in their view, is more honorable; it enriches and makes them sole mistresses of their liberty and property, and essays, their protectors are ever ready to binding holborn be at their command: See.K. Essays? Raghunathji Bombay Dancing Girls, Indian Antiquary 13 (June 1884):165-78. A great many of the Bombay prostitutes had left their husbands willingly for short of family a better life. /24/ Ruswa has Umra'o Jan flatly deny the essays existence of these obscene routines performed privately among the sleep essay courtesans, but informs her that there are eyewitnesses' reports to the contrary. She finally concedes that such things do go on, but refuses to explicate any further (Ruswa, 321). Less risqué versions of such songs form the repertoire of techniques village women, and they are sung at weddings or as women go about Role Spectroscopy, doing their daily chores. /25/ Mary Douglas, in an interesting analysis of joking rites, in her essay entitled Jokes (see her Implicit Meanings: Essays in Anthropology [London: Routledge Kegan Paul, 1975], 90-114), writes: The message of a standard rite is that the ordained patterns of social life are inescapable. The message of the joke is that they are escapable. A joke is by nature an anti-rite. Recall that a joke connects and disorganizes. It attacks sense and hierarchy.

The joke rite then must express a comparable situation. Brainstorming Essays? If it devalues social structure, perhaps it celebrates something else instead. It could be saying something about the value of individuals as against the value of social relations in which they are organized (103-04). /26/ The most comprehensive treatment of the subject of pardah in India is to be found in Hannah Papanek and entry level interior cover, Gail Minault, eds., Separate Worlds: Studies of Purdah in South Asia (Delhi: Chanakya Publications, 1982). /27/ Interview with Saira Ba'i, July 1984, at Gulbadan's kotha in Lucknow. /28/ The Kamasutra of Vatsyayana (trans. Sir Richard F. Burton [New York: E.P. Dutton, 1962]) describes the sixty-four arts the courtesan was supposed to techniques brainstorming essays master as a skilled practitioner of her profession (69ff). Ruswa describes in great detail the musical and formal education of Umrao Jan Ada (119-23), and throughout the book comments on her mastery of Urdu poetry and the styles of the leading poets, her ability to write poems and converse with wit and wisdom. /29/ Only after I was accepted as a friend and confidant among the women were they willing to apprise me of their many stylized nakhre , or feigning games. The acting ability of some of these women is astonishing, and it is no accident that some, like Nargis, moved on to becoming famous film stars of the Bombay screen.

/30/ Interview with Gulbadan, November 1980, at her kotha in Lucknow. /32/ I am grateful to Catherine R. Stimpson for informing me that the word lesbian did not come into the English language until the late nineteenth century and that history has constructed its meaning. I was unable to binding london holborn find another Hindi or Urdu equivalent. Platt's Urdu, Classical Hindi, and English Dictionary does not give a root or even an brainstorming English definition of these terms. It only defines them with customary bashfulness in Latin: capat , s.f. London? [feminine] = capti (used in comp.): capat baz , s.f. Femina libidini sapphicae indulgens: – capat bazi , Congressus libidinosus duorum mulierum. The Kama-sutra refers to this practice being rampant among courtesans but docs not give it a nnme (198). No term is in common usage, and an organization of Indian lesbians in the United States tellingly calls itself Anamika, i.e., nameless. /33/ This is discussed in C. M. Naim, The Theme of Homosexual (Pederastic) Love in Pre-Modern Urdu Poetry, in Studies in the Urdu Gazal and techniques essays, Prose Fiction , ed. Muhammad Umar Memon, South Asian Studies Series, no. 5, (Madison: University of Wisconsin Press, 1979), 120-42.

Shaikh Qalandar Bakhsh Jur'at, an Urdu poel from I.ucknow (1749-18091, wrote a poem, Chapti Namah , in which he describes the sexual intimacies shared by two married women lovers, who elude their husbands every afternoon nnd speak wistfully of the frequent gatherings with other married women who are of the same persuasion. I am grateful to C. Sleep Essay? M. Naim for the reference. /34/ I have to confess that I wanted a precise head count of the brainstorming lesbians, because I wanted to bolster these facts with figures, but the Role women refused to oblige, for it militates against their interest to have me as a credible witness who might want to testify in writing one day. I roughly estimate that there were at least one in four who admitted to sexual relations with other women, some from beyond the kotha . Does this 25 percent estimate reflect the life and values of the kotha only, or can it be extrapolated to the women in Indian society at large? This will remain a question until women agree to talk about their sexuality, not as a matter or duty bounded by normative riues, but as a matter of experience and preference. Although the thirty women I have spoken to over the past decade is a somewhat self-selected sample from that society, this finding has interesting implications about female sexuality in general, because that is the truly hidden text, which defies investigation even by women scholars of techniques brainstorming essays South Asia. Level Design Cover? Certainly women in the normal world use their sexuality, by denying it, by techniques making it available, or by disguising it entirely, to gain varying measures of autonomy in a world dominated by men.

/35/ Romila Thapar, Ancient Indian Social History (New Delhi: Orient Longman, 1978), 73-86. The essay is dissertation entitled Renunciation: The Making of a Counter-culture? (63-104). /36/ James C. Techniques? Scott, Weapons of the Weak (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1985), 292-93, 295. The theoretical implications of sleep essay his analysis of everyday forms of peasant resistance are contained in the two final chapters of this exceptionally lucid and compelling work. /38/ Interview with Gulbadan in July 1984, at her kotha in Lucknow. /39/ Studs Terkel, Working (New York: Ballantine Books, 1974), 94-103. This electronic version of the techniques article is presented here through the Spectroscopy generous permission of the author. The original print version was published in Feminist Studies 16, 2 (Summer 1990). This present version contains minor adjustments of punctuation for clarity, and minor improvements in transliteration, made by techniques brainstorming essays FWP.

The numbers in double square brackets, for convenience in classroom discussion, have been added by FWP. All editorial comments in short of family double square brackets are by FWP, May 2008. -- Umrao Jan index page -- fwp's main page --